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Michigan Pioneer and Historical 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1894, by the 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 



The committee of historians take pleasure in presenting to the public 
this, the twenty-second volume of Pioneer and Historical Collections, 
feeling confident that it will be found equal to any which have 
preceded it in the value and interest of the historical matter here 

Let it be borne in mind that these volumes are not designed as 
complete histories of the whole or scarcely - any one portion of the 
State. They are simply intended to serve as storehouses of history 
from which future historians can select appropriate materials for the 
construction of such finished historic edifices as may hereafter be 

Our aim then is to "gather up the fragments that nothing be lost,' 7 
and preserve them in our published Collections; and by disseminating 
them, to place them in the reach of all. 

It is not always easy to foresee precisely what character of facts 
will hereafter be most wanted and consequently most sought for in our 
volumes. Probably all classes of information relating to our State will 
have their interest and value and to a far greater extent than we are 
apt to imagine. Therefore it is that our present volume will be found 
to contain quite a variety of subjects. 

This volume contains the proceedings of the Annual Meeting of 
1893 and the papers read at that meeting, together with other histor- 
ical papers. 

A valuable contribution to the history of Detroit will be found ini 


the article upon By-Gones of Detroit showing the changes there 
during the past fifty years. 

The committee tender the thanks of the Society to all who have so 
generously assisted in preserving and presenting the valuable papers 

published in this volume. 



Committee of Historians. 

Secretary of the Committee. 



Preface iii 

Contents _ v 

List of officers elected Jane 7, 1893 vii 

Errata - 720 

Minntes of Annaal Meeting, 1893 1 

Report of Recording Secretary 19 

Report of Corresponding Secretary 22 

Report of Treasurer 24 

Report of the Committee of Historians 25 

Report of the Memorial Committee: 

Allegan county Don C. Henderson _ 36 

Barry county Daniel Striker 89 

Bay county Wm. McCormick 42 

Branch county Harvey Haynes 43 

Calhoun county John F. Hinman 45 

Cass county George T. Shaffer : 65 

Clinton county Ralph Watson 71 

Eaton county W. B. Williams 77 

Genesee county Josiah W. Begole . 79 

Hillsdale county Wm. Drake 89 

Ingham county C. B. Stebbins 92 

Ionia county Albert F. Morehouse 97 

Jackson county Josiah B. Frost 102 

Kalamazoo county Henry Bishop 118 

Kent county Wm. N. Cook 120 

Lenawee county S. C. Stacy 129 

Monroe county 1 . _ 138 

Muekegon county Henry H. Holt 138 

Oceana county E. T. Mugford 143 

Ottawa county A. S. Kedzie 143 

Saginaw county C. W. Grant 146 

Shiawassee county Alonzo H. Owens 162 

St. Clair county Mrs. Helen W. Farrand 166 

St. Joseph county Hiram Draper... 175 

Tuscola county Wm. A. Heartt 186 

Wayne county J. Wilkie Moore 187 

President's Address Alpheus Felch 198 

Memoir of Dr. T. C. Abbot O. Clute 206 

Memoir of Francis R. Stebbins Mormon Geddes 214 

Memoirof Anson DePeuy Van Buren Stephen D. Bingham 217 

Memoir of Charles M. Croswell-Judj/e T. M. Cooley... 222 



Memoirs of distinguished members of the Bay county Bar Judge A. C. Maxwell _ 226 

James Birney - 227 

Theophilus C. Grier.. 230 

Hon. Sidney T. Holmes 232 

fieminiscenses of Oceana county Hon. Enoch T. Mugford 23& 

Keminiscenses of Oceana county -Mrs. Nancy B. White 240 

Early French Missions on the Saginaw .FVed Carlisle 244 

Sketch of John Tanner, known as the "White Indian "Judge Joseph H. Steere . 246 

Poem-When I was a Boy with a Head like Tow-E7. B. Webster 255 

Settlement and Natural History of Manchester and Vicinity L. D. Watkins 262, 

Fifty-two years of itinerant life in the Michigan Conference of the M. E. Church Rev. R. C. 

Crawford _ - 266 

Progress in Transportation and Mails in the last fifty Years C. T. Mitchell 281 

Comparative Sketches of E. B. Ward, James F. Joy, Lewis Cass and Wm. Woodbridge Fred 

Carlisle - - 283 

Railroad History of Michigan James F.Joy - 292 

Bygones of Detroit Hon. Geo. C. Bates - 305 

Settlement of Oakland county John M. Norton 404 

History of Oakland county Hon. Thomas J. Drake 408 

Biographical Sketch of John Roberts Levi Bishop 427 

Some of the Benefits that accrued to Detroit from the devastating Fire of 1805 C. M. Burton 431 

Battle and Massacre at Frenchtown, Mich., January, 1818 Rev. Thomas P. Dudley 436 

Early Saginaw Con stables- Jude Albert Miller 44* 

Pioneer Beminiscenses Mrs. Azuhah L. Jewett _ 447 

A Pioneer's Reminiscenses Contributed by Judge Albert Miller _ 450 

The Pioneer Schools of the State Judge A Ibert Miller 454 

Sixty-two Years Ago An old map of the late Captain Marsac unearthed Contributed by Judge 

Albert Miller 457 

Recollections of a Pioneer of Early Michigan Judge Albert Miller 461 

Response to Dr. Wight's Anniversary Sermon Judge Albert Miller. 464 

Laying of the Corner Stone of the New First Presbyterian Church, Bay City Contributed by Judge 

Albert Miller 466 

The Medical Profession in Michigan Dr. O. C. Comstock 471 

Fifty Years of Growth in Michigan Hon. Byron M. Cutcheon.... 479 

Pioneer History of the Settlement of Eaton county By early Settlers 502 

Personal Reminiscenses Rev. W. B. Williams 526 

Early History of the Township of Davison Goodenough Townsend 542 

Some Lenawee county History Judge Norman Gfeddes -- 556 

Some Lenawee county History A. L. Millard 560 

History of the Hastings M. E. Church Hon. Daniel Striker 565 

Fiftieth Anniversary of the First Congregational Church, Portland, Mich _ 624 

Sketch of Barnch G. Cooley A. F. Morehouse 625 

Historical Sermon Rev. L. P. Spelman 62 

A Biographical Sketch of Levi Hamilton Goodrich Enos Goodrich 651 

Story of the drowning of Dr. Douglass Honghton and sketch of Peter McFarland, the last survivor 

of the expedition , 662: 



ELECTED JUNE 8, 1893. 


Ex-Gov. Alpheus Felch _ Ann Arbor 


George H. Greene Lansing 


Merritt L, Coleman Lansing 


Allegan Don C. Henderson _ Allegan 

Barry Daniel Striker _ Hastings 

Bay _ Andrew C. Maxwell -Bay City 

Berrien Thomas Mars Berrien Centre 

Branch Harvey Haynes ___ Coldwater 

Calhoun John P. Hinman _ __ Battle Creek 

Cass George T. Shaffer _ Redfield 

Clare Henry Woodruff _ Parwell 

Clinton Ralph Watson South Riley 

Crawford Dr. Oscar Palmer... Grayling 

Eaton. __W. B. Williams _ Charlotte 

Emmet.. Isaac D. Toll... _ .Petoskey 

Genesee Josiah W. Begole. _ Flint 

Grand Traverse Reuben Goodrich __ Traverse City 

Gratiot Wm. S. Turck ; Alma 

Hillsdale Wm. Drake. _ Amboy 

Houghton ...Thomas B. Dunstan _ ..Hancock 

Ingham C. B. Stebbins _ Lansing 

Ionia. A. F. Morehouse... __ Portland 

losco __.H. C. King ..Oscoda 

Jackson Josiah B. Frost _ Jackson 

Kalamazoo Henry Bishop Kalamazoo 

Kent.. Wm. N. Cook Grand Rapids 


Lapeer.._ ..John Wright ..Lapeer 

Lenawee S. C. Stacy _ __Tecumseh 

Livingston Albert Tooley.. Howell 

Macomb __ Chauncey G. Cady__ Mt. Clemens 

Manistee T. J. Ramsdell Manistee 

Marquette- ._ _ __Peter White Marquette 

Menominee __James A. Crozier.__ Menominee 

Monroe Gouveneur Morris Monroe 

Montcalm J. P. Shoemaker _ _ __Amsden 

Muekegon Henry H. Holt._ _ _ ___Muskegon 

Oakland Mark Walters.. _____ ^__Pontiac 

Oceana E. T. Mugford Hart 

Otsego ___ ..Charles F. Davis _ ___ _.Elmira 

Ottawa John V. B. Goodrich Grand Haven 

Saginaw Chas W. Grant ____. Saginaw, E. S. 

Shiawassee Alonzo H. Owens Venice 

St. Clair _ Mrs. Helen W. Farrand Port Huron 

St. Joseph Hiram Draper Findley 

Tuscola Wm. A. Heartt __ _ _Caro 

Van Buren Kirk W. Noyes Paw Paw 

Washtenaw Wm. H. Lay : Ypsilanti 

Wayne J. Wilkie Moore Detroit 


Judge Albert Miller _ __.Bay City 

Hon. O. M. Barnes __ __ , _ ..Lansing 

Daniel Striker _ ___ Hastings 


Col. M. Shoemaker Jackson 

Hon. John H. Forster __ _ ___Williamston 

Ex-Lt. Gov. H. H. Holt __ _ ..Muskegon 

L. D. Watkins _ _ ..Manchester 

J. Wilkie Moore ..Detroit 



The nineteenth annual meeting of the Michigan Pioneer and 
Historical Society, convened in the senate chamber of the capitol at 
Lansing, on Wednesday, June 7, at 2 o'clock, p. m. 

The president, ex-Governor Alpheus Felch, called the meeting to 
order and the session was opened with prayer by Rev. Wm. H. Haze 
and singing of America by the audience. 

The following officers were present: 

President ex-Governor Alpheus Felch, of Ann Arbor. 

Recording and Corresponding Secretary Geo. H. Greene, of Lansing. 

Treasurer Merritt L. Coleman, of Lansing. 

Executive Committee Judge Albert Miller, Bay City, and Rev. R. 
C. Crawford, Grand Rapids. 

Committee of Historians Col. M. Shoemaker, Jackson, Hon. Henry 
H. Holt, Muskegon, and Fred Carlisle, Detroit. 

Vice Presidents Hon. Daniel Striker, Barry; Ralph Watson, Clinton; 
Rev. Wolcott B. Williams, Eaton; C. B. Stebbins, Ingham; Albert F. 
Morehouse, Ionia; Hon. Henry H. Holt, Muskegou; Hon. Enoch T. 
Mugford, Oceana; Alonzo H. Owens, Shiawassee; and J. Wilkie Moore, 

There were also delegates from county societies as follows: 

Allecjan, Dr. Osman E. Goodrich; Kent, Thomas D. Gilbert and 


Noys L. A very; Lenawee, Alfred L. Millard and Norman Geddes, 
Wayne, Francis I. Clark, J. Wilkie Moore, David Parsons, Stephen B. 
McCracken and Fred Carlisle. 

The reading of the minutes of the annual meeting of 1892 was, ,pn 
motion of Col. M. Shoemaker, dispensed with. 

The reports of the recording secretary, the treasurer and the corres- 
ponding secretary were then read and on motion each was accepted 
and adopted. 

A quartette, "While the Years are Boiling On," was then sung by 
the Plymouth church quartet. 

Col. Michael Shoemaker, chairman of the committee of historians, 
submitted his report for the committee, which was also accepted and 

Geo. H. Greene, chairman of the memorial committee, called the roll 
of counties for a memorial report when the following counties responded 
through their vice presidents either in person or by letter, viz.: 
Allegan, by Don C. Henderson; Barry, Daniel Striker; Branch, Harvey 
Haynes; Calhoun, John F. Hinman; Cass, Geo. T. Shaffer; Clinton, 
Ralph Watson; Eaton, Rev. Wolcott B. Williams; Genesee, Josiah W. 
Begole; Hillsdale, William Drake; Ingham, C. B. Stebbins; Ionia, 
Albert F. Morehouse; Jackson, Josiah B. Frost; Kalamazoo, Henry 
Bishop; Kent, William N. Cook; Lenawee, S. C. Stacy; Livingston, 
Albert Tooley; Muskegon, Henry H. Holt; Oceana, Enoch T. Mugford; 
Ottawa, Rev. A. S. Kedzie; Saginaw, Chas. W. Grant; Shiawassee, 
Alonzo H. Owens; St. Clair, Mrs. Helen W. Farrand; St. Joseph, 
Hiram Draper; Wayne, J. Wilkie Moore. 

C. T. Mitchell of Hillsdale read a paper on " The Progress in 
Transportation and Mails in the last Fifty Years." 

A solo, "The Last Rose of Summer," was then sung by Miss 

President O. Clute, of the Agricultural College, then read a well 
prepared memoir of President Theophilus C. Abbott. 

A paper entitled, "A Picture of Memory Settlement of Oakland 
County," was then read by John M. Norton of Rochester, after which 
the chair appointed a committee of three, consisting of Col. M. Shoe- 
maker, M. D. Osband, and Albert F. Morehouse to nominate officers 
for 1893-4. 

Five minute speeches were then called for and responded to as 

Stephen D. Bingham, Lansing I want to say a few words in regard 
to the best man the society ever had, A. D. P. Yan Buren. I can say in 


behalf of all the old members of this society, that they never had a man 
who has done more for the Pioneer Society than Mr. Van Buren. His 
intense interest in this society, and the place he filled, could be filled 
by no other man who ever belonged to us. I trust that there is some 
member of this society who will write a sketch of this man, who has 
placed on record the sketches of so many men of the original pioneers 
of Michigan. I can say, as we can say of many others, that his place 
in the society can never again be filled. 

Judge Albert Miller, Bay City I got married in Detroit the 6th of 
February, 1838, and the verse which I quote serves to give a description 
of the railroads at that time. 

"The rails were of wood, but the coaches were fine, 
For there were two seats in each on which to recline. 
The horses then hied us with speed and much strength 
Over that railroad which was twelve miles in length. 
At the end of the railroad then we there found 
A stage coach in waiting for Pontiac bound. 
But I must confess that at that early day, 
A stage coach was nothing but an open sleigh. 
But in a day's journey we succeeded so well, 
That before night-fall we reached Judge Bagley's hotel." 

Judge Andrew Howell, of Detroit, was then called for and responded 
as follows: I came here to listen and not to make any remarks in 
regard to pioneer matters. I can say only a few words in regard to 
Lenawee county where my life has been spent. There in those early 
days our people settled in a thickly wooded country and heavy forests. 
They came there young men and young women from New York and 
New England, and filled up the county of Lenawee. They were young 
people, not rich, or not the poorest, but in those days when it took 
three weeks to journey from central New York to Monroe, and three 
or four days from Monroe back into the wooded portions of Lenawee 
county, it took a pretty sturdy set of young men and young women to 
do it. They were all alike, there were no idlers among them; when 
they got there together they were a moral, industrious set of young 
men and women. Their children grew up like them, and they were as 
good a population of people as ever existed in this country or ever will 
exist. They were all alike then. They were all good and industrious, 
and so it has been with a large portion of Michigan, but especially 
with the southern part. 

L. D. Watkins, Manchester I recollect when the circuit court was 
organized there was a judge from the eastern part of the State sent 


out to organize the court in the county where .1 then lived. I 
happened to be on the grand jury, and he gave us a very voluminous- 
charge on various matters that would need our attention, and among 
the rest, gambling, which was very common in our new counties. One 
evening I went into the office of a friend of mine and found the judge 
and half a dozen lawyers, that had congregated from the adjoining 
counties, and two or three citizens seated around the table playing 
poker, [and my friend dragged me into the game. I did not know 
anything about it, and he told me to put up a little something, and 
we played until there was about five dollars in the pool; and the 
judge took all the good money I had in the world. I think if I would 
not have implicated myself I should have taught that judge a lesson .. 
Two choruses, one entitled " Fancies " and the other " Sleep, Baby, 
Sleep," were sung by the pupils from the central school, and the meet- 
ing adjourned until 7 o'clock in the evening. 


The society met pursuant to adjournment and was called to order by 
the president. Prayer was offered by Rev. C. H. Beale. 

A solo " I Heard the Voice of Jesus Say" was sung by L. A. Baker. 

The president delivered his annual address for which a vote of thanks 
was tendered him on motion of S. B. McCracken, followed by music 
" Softly now the Shadows Fall " sung by the high school ladies trio. 

A memoir of Francis E. Stebbins, by Hon. Norman Geddes of Adrian,, 
was then read by him. 

The high school male quartet sang " The Owl and the Pussy Cat" 
and responded to an encore with " Tinker's Song " from Kobin Hood. 

A paper entitled " Eeminiscences of Oceana County" was then read 
by Hon. Enoch T. Mugford of Hart. 

Five minute speeches were then called for and responded to a& 
follows : 

The secretary announced that he had just received a letter from Hon. 
S. W. Fowler of Manistee, which he would read as a five minute 
speech from him, as follows: 

Manistee, Mich., June 5, 1893. 
Geo. H. Greene, Esq., Secretary of Michigan Pioneer and Historical 

Society, Lansing: 

DEAR SIR Allow me to thank you for your kind invitation to attend 
the coming annual meeting of your society. I hoped to have been 


present but unforseen events may prevent. I am interested in the 
early history of the state of my adoption. I first landed in Michigan 
at Detroit fifty-two years since, a boy twelve years old without an 
acquaintance in the State. Detroit was a small French settlement with- 
out a paved street or a sidewalk that I saw. The mud up Jefferson 
avenue was something fearful and if there were any carriages I failed 
to find them. The aristocracy of the place made their evening calls, 
went to mill and to market in small French carts that, to me, looked 
funny as they went bobbing up and down the streets. The Michigan 
Central R. E. was being built west. I first arrived at Lansing in 1848 
in a stage coach from Jackson, and stopped at the Lansing House, 
then a wooden building located nearly opposite where the Hotel 
Downey is now located. 

The constitutional convention was then in session, and there were 
few if any buildings between the capitol and upper and lower Lansing. 
The trees had just been cut down and a wilderness of stumps met the 
gaze in every direction. 

The Battle Creek road had just been cut out but the logs prevented 
travel and there was not a house within ten miles in that direction and 
no possible way to go through except on foot, and as I was bound for 
Albion College I took to the woods afoot and alone, and after two 
days of the hardest and worst travel I ever had, I succeeded in reach- 
ing Albion. There was no house within ten miles of Albion in that 
direction, and the musquitoes were thicker, larger and) hungrier than 
the celebrated Jersey musquitoes, and I was evidently the first morsel 
they had had in a long time, they improved their opportunities; while 
I, half crazed with pain, became lost and wandered miles out of my 

I afterwards took my revenge, in part, by introducing a bill in the 
senate which became a law, improving the road from Lansing to Char- 
lotte, making it at the time one of the best roads in the State. When 
I located in Charlotte in 1853 and commenced practicing law, the fourth 
Michigan Report had just been published, now there are about ninety- 
four volumes. Detroit has become one of the. finest cities in the 
northwest, the wilderness around Lansing has been made to blossom 
like the rose, and Michigan has over 2,000,000 educated and thriving 
people. The pioneers of the State may well be proud of the progress 
made, and of the part they took in this advancement. 

I would like to send greeting to the members, and hope this will be 
a very pleasant and profitable meeting. 

Yours sincerely, 



Hon. Enoch T. Mugford, Hart When I settled in the place where* 
I now live, it was a wilderness from the city of Grand Bapids to that 
place. I came there as a poor man. Cut my way through the woods 
and got my little family there, and we have lived there ever since. 
And today I feel proud of meeting you here as old settlers of this 
State. And feel proud of the county which I represent, Oceana county. 

Albert F., Portland Reference has been made to the 
sickness which was prevalent in Oceana county. I well recollect how 
it was in Clinton and Ionia counties, near that portion of Ionia county 
where I reside. It was a common opinion that when a patient was 
pretty well run down he must not have anything to drink but hot 
drinks. That was the professional cure, and when the fever went off 
the patients usually went with it. There was a man there by the 
name of Jesse Monroe, who had a different view of the case. There 
was an Irish family, which I well knew, lived about three miles from 
Mr. Monroe, and the father of the family was addicted to drink, and 
word came that he was very sick. The doctor was treating him. 
Finally he was so near dying that he couldn't possibly live twenty-four 
hours, and the neighbors were worn out with watching, and Jesse 
Monroe thought he would try a new course of treatment, and volun- 
teered to sit up with the old gentleman. Taking with him a half pint 
flask of whisky, he told the family, who were pretty well exhausted, 
that they might retire to rest and when there came a change, as they 
all anticipated, he would call the family up. After they had gone he 
took a teaspoon and filled it with whisky and gave it to the old 
gentleman. He could hardly see it disappear between his lips, and in 
a minute or two he gave him another one, and then he saw some 
action. He tried the remedy again and again, when he began to 
revive and apparently dropped off to sleep. Finally Mr. Monroe heard 
a rustling in the bed, and he went to him and the old man said, "I 
want something to eat." He gave him another dose of whisky. The 
man got well, but it was chargeable to the whisky and not to the 

Stephen D. Bingham, Lansing I want to say a word about this 
picture of Lafayette. This portrait represents him at full length at his- 
own height, six feet and seven inches. The ordinary idea of the 
French is that they are a diminutive race. This portrait was painted 
by Horace Vernet. His father was a celebrated painter. Horace 
Vernet was born in 1789, and died in 1863. 

There has been many things said about this portrait, but I got my 
information from Hon. Townsend E. Gidley, who was senator and 


representative here, perhaps oftener than any other man has been. 
Mr. Gidley commenced his mercantile business in Ponghkeepsie, N. Y., 
at the age of seventeen. At the age of nineteen he was captain of the 
military company at Ponghkeepsie. At the age of twenty-three Mr. 
Gidley finding his health failing came out and settled in Jackson, and 
the first year put in three hundred acres of wheat. He gave me the 
history of this portrait. He was personally introduced to Lafayette. 
He says this portrait was painted by Vernet at the request of Judge 
Lyon, who attempted to get him to paint this portrait for himself, but 
on his promise to give it to Michigan he painted it at the cost of $700. 
This picture is the most valuable perhaps of anything that the State 
of Michigan has today, and without doubt would bring twenty-five or 
thirty, and perhaps fifty thousand dollars. 

Hon. Alpheus Felch, Ann Arbor I take it that there is a written 
history of this painting somewhere in the proceedings of the legislature. 
I do not know whether it is so or not, but there must of necessity be 
some acknowledgment. The legislature could not receive as a gift one so 
valuable as this and make no acknowledgment to the giver. You all 
know that in the house of representatives there is a likeness of Stevens 
T. Mason. I had occasion to see how that came there, and I found 
that it was painted at the request and at the expense of some gentle- 
man in Detroit. It was presented to the legislature and the legislature 
accepted it and ordered it to be hung up in the house of representatives. 
In looking over the records I was astonished to find that I was myself 
on the committee which received it, and made a report upon it. I 
mention this as showing that it is hardly possible that the legislature 
should have received a painting of that description without making 
some acknowledgment of the record. It would be worth while for 
some of us to look at the records to see what history could be found. 

A duet, "Greeting," was sung by Misses Maud La Rose and Grace 
Lemon, and they responded to an encore. 

The meeting then adjourned until Thursday morning at 9 o'clock. 


The meeting was called to order by the president. 
Prayer by Rev. Louis Grosenbaugh. 

A solo entitled "Turn Backward, O Time, in your Flight," was sung 
by Miss Neenah Jones. 


The committee on nominations made the following report, which 
was adopted: 

The committee appointed to recommend names for officers of the 
society for the ensuing year, would respectfully report the following: 

President. Hon. Alpheus Felch, Ann Arbor. 

Recording and Correspondiny Secretary. Geo. H. Greene, Lansing. 

Treasurer. Merritt L. Coleman, Lansing. 

Executive Committee. Albert Miller, chairman, Bay City; Orlando 
M. Barnes, Lansing; Daniel Striker, Hastings. 

Committee of Historians. Michael Shoemaker, chairman, Jackson; 
John H. Forster, Williamston; Henry H. Holt, Muskegon; L. D. 
Watkins, Manchester; J. Wilkie Moore, Detroit. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Lansing, Mich., June 8, 1893. 




The secretary then called the roll of counties and Vice Presidents 
were chosen as follows: 

Allegan Don. C. Henderson, Allegan. 

Barry Daniel Striker, Hastings. 

Bay Andrew C. Maxwell, Bay City. 

Berrien Thomas Mars, Berrien Center. 

Branch Harvey Haynes, Coldwater. 

Calhoun John F. Hinman, Battle Creek. 

Cass-Geo. T. Shaffer, Eedfield. 

Clare- Henry Woodruff, Farwell. 

Clinton Ealph Watson, South Eiley. 

Crawford Dr. Oscar Palmer, Grayling. 

Eaton Eev. Wolcott B. Williams, Charlotte. 

Emmet Isaac D. Toll, Petoskey. 

Genesee Josiah W. Begole, Flint. 

Grand Traverse Reuben Goodrich, Traverse City. 

GratiotWm. S. Turck, Alma. 

Hillsdale William [Drake, Amboy. 

Houghton Thomas B. Dunstan, Hancock. 

Ingham Cortland B. Stebbins, Lansing. 

Ionia Albert F. Morehouse, Portland. 

losco H. C. King, Oscoda. 


Jackson Josiah B. Frost, Jackson. 

Kalamazoo Henry Bishop, Kalamazoo. 

Kent William N. Cook, Grand Rapids. 

Lapeer John Wright, Lapeer. 

Lenawee S. C. Stacy, Tecumseh. 

Livingston Albert Tooley, Howell. 

Macomb Chauncey G. Cady, Mt. Clemens. 

Manistee T. J. Ramsdell, Manistee. 

Marquette Peter White, Marquette. 

Menominee James A. Crozier, Menominee. 

Monroe Gouveneur Morris, Monroe. 

Montcalm Joseph P. Shoemaker, Amsden. 

Muskegon Henry H. Holt, Muskegon. 

Oakland Mark Walters, Pontiac. 

Oceana Enoch T. Mugford, Hart. 

Otsego Charles F. Davis, Elmira. 

Ottawa John V. B. Goodrich, Grand Haven. 

Saginaio Chas. W. Grant, Saginaw, E. S. 

Shiawassee Alonzo H. Owens, Venice. 

St. Ciair~M.Ts. Helen W. Farrand, Port Huron. 

St. Joseph Hiram Draper, Findley. 

Tuscola William A. Heartt, Caro. 

Van Buren Kirk W. Noyes, Paw Paw. 

Washienaw William H. Lay, Ypsilanti. 

'Wayne J. Wilkie Moore, Detroit. 

Judge Albert Miller offered the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That Col. Michael Shoemaker, Hon. Henry H. Holt, and 
Geo. H. Greene, Esq., be, and they are hereby appointed, delegates to 
represent the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, in the depart- 
ment of literature at the* World's Congress Auxiliary, to be held at the 
World's Columbian Exhibition of 1893, in Chicago, the week commenc- 
ing July 10, and report the result of their observations at the annual 
meeting of the society in 1894. 

David Parsons, of Detroit, offered the following resolution for S. B. 
McCracken, which after some discussion was lost: 

Resolved, That a committee of three persons, members of the society, 
the chairman of which shall be an attorney at law, be appointed by 
the chair, to whom shall be referred any and all matters relating to 
the legal status of the society, with power to take such steps as may 
be requisite to cure any imperfections, should such be found to exist. 


A solo entitled " Lovely Spring," was then sung by Mrs. J. D. 

Rev. E. C. Crawford, of Grand Eapids, read a very able paper on 
his " Fifty- two Years in the Itinerancy of the Michigan Conference of 
the M. E. Church," in which he related many interesting reminiscences. 

L. D. Watkins, of Manchester, read a paper entitled " Settlement 
and Natural History of Manchester and Vicinity," showing considerable 
observation and research. 

A very interesting article entitled " Sketch of John Tanner, known as 
the White Indian," by Judge Joseph H. Steere, of Sault Ste. Marie, was 
then read by'S. B. McCracken. After the reading of this paper the 
Hon. Thomas D. Gilbert, of Grand Rapids, made the following remarks: 

A daughter of the Rev. Bingham, who was a missionary in the 
vicinity of Fort Monroe from 1828 to 1855, told me yesterday, knowing 
that this paper was to be read, some incidents in connection with what 
was known at Fort Monroe as the Tanner year in 1846. Tanner and 
the fear of him dominated that town during that year until he 
disappeared. All the traits of character spoken of in that paper this 
lady confirmed. Speaking of his peculiarities she said he was for 
many years the interpreter at her father's mission, interpreting his 
sermons to the Indians, and the reason of his antipathy to some of the 
citizens there was this: He abused this white wife of his so terribly 
that she was forced to leave him, and a number of the citizens there, 
among them the Schoolcrafts, and the Rev. Bingham, and some 
others, contributed the necessary money to enable her to slip away and 
leave him. He swore vengence against everyone who aided her or 
sought to relieve her from his oppression. Henry R. Schoolcraft was 
the one whom he meant to kill, but for some reason he could not get 
a chance at him, and he supposed that he took his next kin, James 
Schoolcraft, against whom he had the same antipathy. It was well 
understood after this murder of James Schqplcraft that there were 
those who would be served in the same way, and the officer's post 
there kept a guard around the mission house, where the Rev. Bingham 
lived, for two months, thinking that he might return and finish his 
deadly work, but he never was seen afterward, as was clearly shown in 
that paper. 

A solo was then sung by Arthur Carmer entitled, "Then You'll 
Remember Me," and the meeting adjourned until 2 o'clock p. m. 



The society met pursuant to adjournment and was called to order by 
the president. 

Prayer, by Rev. W. F. Dickerman. 

Music A solo, by Mr. John Daniels. 

Fred Carlisle, of Detroit, read a paper entitled " Comparative 
Sketches of E. B. Ward, James F. Joy, Lewis Cass, and C. C. 

A violin solp entitled, " Airs from Orpheus," was then rendered by 
Mrs. Ella W. Shank. 

A very interesting paper on "Railroad History," by James F. Joy, 
was then read by Geo. H. Greene. 

The high school chorus of Lansing then sang a piece entitled, 
" Softly the Shadows Flitting O'er Us." 

Five minute speeches were then called for and responded to as 
follows : 

Hon. Henry H. Holt Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: I wish 
to say a word further in regard to this picture. We are here as 
historians as well as pioneers. It is a part of our duty to preserve the 
history of Michigan as well as the records of the pioneer settlers, and 
in this connection I wish to say something further in regard to this 
picture of Lafayette. 

The time is past when we can do anything in a pecuniary manner, 
to recompense the officers and soldiers of the revolution, for the many 
hardships they endured in their struggle for independence. 

This is particularly true as regards those of foreign countries who 
assisted us, of whom Lafayette is an especial example. 

In fact, people generally do not fully realize the great obligations we 
are under to him for his services in the revolution. There are many, 
indeed, who are scarcely aware what he did for us, and how important 
his efforts became. We do not remember that at one time the troops 
were in such a condition, that, in order to keep them from perishing 
from lack of food and clothing it became necessary for Lafayette to 
borrpw money from his own resources, to furnish these necessaries. 

Historians frequently say, that had it not been for these efforts of 
Lafayette, it would have been doubtful if Washington could have suc- 
ceeded in the revolution. 

As representatives of this society, it seems to be our duty to keep 
these matters of history before the people and do all we can to pre- 
serve their recollection. 


A few years since, while making a tour of Paris, I determined to 
visit the grave of Lafayette. After inquiring some time about its 
location, I started one morning to find it, and occupied nearly the 
whole day before I succeeded. When I did so, it was overrun with 
weeds and bushes and with nothing to mark it but a small tombstone. 
The grave of a private citizen in Paris would receive more attention 
than that of Gen. Lafayette. 

I need not say that I was mortified to learn that Americans, visiting 
Paris, know so little regarding one who rendered us such valuable 

I have been pleased to learn within the last few days that a number 
of our citizens in Paris, procured some flowers and placed them on his 
.grave on Decoration day. I hope that this will be the custom hereafter. 

Americans should do something more. A suitable monument ' ought 
to be erected at his grave, even if it is in an out of the way place, in 

We have heard what Mr. Bingham says in regard to this picture of 
Lafayette, and I have no doubt it is true, and more than that, I am 
.glad to be able to say so. It is only lately that people began to learn 
that we have such a picture, in fact, the best picture of Lafayette in 
the United States. 

Although we have this, to show how little it is appreciated, I will 
say that I have several times inquired of different senators as to what 
picture it is pretending not to know I have usually found but few 
who knew whose picture it is. I was in the legislature for the first 
time in 1867 when the picture was in the library in the old capitol in 
a terrible condition, without any frame, covered with dust, and thrown 
upon the top of book shelves. 

I was also here in 1869, '71, '73 and '75, when it was in the same 
place, and few knew there was such a picture in the library. It was 
taken out, on the building of the new capitol, framed and repaired and 
placed in its present position in the senate chamber, where I next saw 
it at the session of 1879. 

We are unable to say who brought it from Paris, but Mr. Bingham 
told us yesterday that Mr. Gidley told him that it was procured by 
Lucius Lyon and brought to this country, we do not know how or 
exactly when, but think it was put in the library but never hung until 
this building was erected. 

We certainly are under obligations to take care of it, and let people 
know that we have it. It might as well be hung in a cupboard if 
people do not know where it is and what it is. 


It certainly should be understood and appreciated. The guards 
should call attention to it so that those visiting the capitol can see it 
if they wish. 

We should be proud of it, and I hope you will go home remember- 
ing that the people of Michigan are the owners of this treasure, as in 
doing this we are showing respect to the memory of one to whom we 
are so much indebted. 

Hon. Norman Geddes Mr. Chairman, I wish to make a motion that 
this whole matter of investigation of the history of this picture, its 
origin, and how the State came into possession of it, be referred to a 
committee of which ex-Governor Holt be the chairman, with the 
request that he prepare a paper to be read before this society next 

The above resolution was adopted, and ex-Governor Holt, Stephen D. 
Bingham, and Fred Carlisle were appointed as members of such 

Francis I. Clark, Flat Bock I am greatly pleased to hear these 
gentlemen speak on this subject and of this individual. The portrait 
I have nothing to say about, but it is the man. It is not altogether 
what Lafayette did in this country for America, but you must be 
aware that he married a lovely woman for his wife in France, and he 
sacrificed her affections, and her love for the time being; and not only 
that, he left France against the orders of his king, and went to a 
seaport and boarded a vessel where he thought there would be no- 
chance of being pursued and brought back. This was certainly a great 
undertaking to forsake a lovely wife and disobey the orders of his- 
king, and come to America to lay down his life for a nation that he 
knew nothing about any more than that we were struggling for liberty. 
In the first instance of his landing he landed I think in South Caro- 
lina he hastened to the army where General Washington lay below 
Philadelphia. And there was the British army drawn up on the 
Brandywine for a great battle, and General Washington brought all of 
his forces and did the best that he could to keep the British army from, 
taking possession of Philadelphia. And there they fought a great 
battle, and this young hero was wounded. General Washington, you 
know, received him as a son, and he always paid the greatest attention 
to him, and gave him high command, and he fought nobly and 
faithfully for a country he had no other interests in than out of a 
patriotic motive to help America gain her independence and become a 
free nation. I wish I had the. power of a Daniel Webster, I would 
like to portray to you the grand sentiment of such a ,young hero. 


Mr. C. B. Stebbins, Lansing There was once a revolution in France. 
The king was deposed by the general voice of the people. The 
provincial government was partially established, and the call was 
"What shall we do?" Some were for proclaiming a republic. Others 
said, "No." And they agreed among themselves that it should be 
Louis Philippe. The next question was will the people sanction this 
election? And while that state of things existed, and they were 
debating that question in regard to the will of the people, Lafayette 
came out where they were congregated and advised them to go in for 
Louis Philippe, and I think that we may largely say that Lafayette 
elected Louis Philippe king of France. Well, what about this picture? 
I have known of that picture ever since 1857. I knew of its being in 
the library laid away as the Governor has told us. Louis Philippe 
naturally would be a friend of Lafayette's, and I have heard it said a 
great many times, by those who got their information from somebody 
else, that it was presented to this State by Louis Philippe. 

Hon. Alpheus Felch I was so much interested in the article which 
has been read here, that I can hardly refrain from saying some word 
about the railroad system of Michigan. Most of us remember that it 
is almost half a century since we first embarked upon the railroad 
system, and we all know ifchat nothing very great, nothing that we have 
ever attempted to do has done more to promote the interest of the 
State of Michigan than the railroad system, and yet I can remember 
very well when there was some portion of it that was subject to great 
censure. We loaned $5,000,000, and it was a great loan. It was a 
poor State, and it was thought an extravagant idea that we should 
loan that amount of money. As I happened to be in the first legisla- 
ture which adopted that system, my recollection of it is clear. 1 
remember very well of hearing the first whistle of the locomotive that 
ever was heard in Michigan; it was at the depot in Detroit, the place 
where the city hall now stands. The machinery had come on from 
New York and arrived there one day, and by the next day the 
engineers were at work getting it into position and running order. We 
had one or two cars also. About three or four o'clock in the afternoon 
I remember of hearing the sound of that whistle. It was not the 
sound we get from the locomotive of the present time; it was about 
half way between a grunt and a groan. Whatever it was it made a 
great impression upon the people who heard it. I took a walk that 
evening and passed a good many people, and among them a good many 
boys, and every boy had that upon his lips, and he made exactly the 
same sound that -that locomotive made. Let me say a word about the 


passage of this bill as connected with the system itself. We got three 
railroads. Some of us thought that as much as we had loaned a large 
sum of money, we were too poor to make three roads. So while the 
committee on railroads reported one single road from Detroit through 
to St. Joseph, we, who were members from the south and north, thought 
that if we undertook to pay $5,000,000, we at the north and south 
ought to have some interest in this railroad business. The consequence 
was that when they were about to pass the bill I sent up an amend- 
ment which provided for three railroads across the isthmus instead of 
one. It gave them great alarm. The chairman of the committee at 
once thought, and so did the Detroit people, that we of the north and 
south had combined to defeat the railroad which was to lead to Detroit. 
Well, Judge Ely was so much alarmed about it that he immediately 
moved for an adjournment. We explained to him why we had proposed 
to have three roads. He thought we wanted to defeat the thing, but 
we did not. It was for the purpose of saving the road and not to 
defeat it that we sent up the amendment, and the consequence was 
that we ail joined and voted for the three roads and the $5,000,000 
loan, and it turned out very well. We got the road completed to 
Ypsilanti, and the Ypsilanti folks invited us to come there and 
celebrate the day of the arrival of the first cars, and we had a very 
good time on the way and very good entertainment when we got there, 
and we came back in very good spirits. But when we got around in 
the neighborhood of Dearborn our locomotive seemed to become very 
weak, and by and by we couldn't go at all, and the consequence was 
that the locomotive gave out entirely and we were left to take care of 
ourselves. We walked about ten miles and got into Detroit about four 
o'clock in the morning. 

I had some further connection with these railroads. I have always 
thought that a man's memory, recollection of things that are past, were 
the best gems he ever had when he got to be an old man, and I think 
so now. In 1846 when the sale of the railroads took place, it was my 
duty (I was then in the executive office) to make some recommendation 
upon public affairs. I took the liberty of recommending to the legis- 
lature the sale of the railroads. We finally perfected the sale of the 
roads. The capitalists from New York and from Boston were there, 
and several things were presented by people who were opposed to it. 
I think you will find it in looking back to the journal. Somebody 
proposed that the railroad should never run a car on Sunday. Some 
one proposed that the railroad company should never be guilty of any 
breach of the ten commandments, and some one proposed that all the 

]6 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

railroad folks should go to church twice a day on every Sunday. Those 
things all went through, and we all cast our vote for them, but of 
course they all failed in the end. It became my duty to deliver over 
the railroad to the new company organized. We signed the deed in 
Detroit and then went over the road to deliver it to them. As we 
went along, I must confess, I was never more frightened in my life. I 
asked the engineer why in the world he went so rapidly. He said, " I 
am employed by the State, and tomorrow the State wont own the road, 
and I want to show the new capitalists how well I can run the cars." 
Railroads were made entirely within the ^ lives of some of us here. 
When I came to this country the longest railroad I had ever seen was 
the one from Albany to Schnectady and I think that was the nearest 
road to Michigan at that time. Now all over the world, wherever there 
is any civilization, railroads have become the great power which moves 
civilization forward, and builds up the communities, nations and states, 
and interests of all kinds are built up by railroads. 

Mr. Stephen Bingham I have written a few words in regard to the 
life of Mr. Van Buren, which I would like to present to the society. 

A. D. P. Van Buren, for many years a member of the historical 
committee of the State Pioneer Society, entered the other world June 
27, 1892, at Galesburgh, Michigan. Born at Kinderhook, N. Y., April 
21, 1822, and of Dutch descent. He came to Battle Creek at the age 
of fourteen in 1836, and 'has been a resident of Michigan since that 
time, except for a year or two as a young man, when he was a teacher 
in Mississippi. As a member of the State Pioneer Society his work has 
been invaluable, and such as no other man could have done. His 
biographical sketches, his papers upon the " Campaign of 1840," and 
the " Old Log Schoolhouse," and many others, all instructive and 
entertaining. The State Pioneer Society desires to place on record its 
high estimation of his valuable services as a member and especially 
able contributor to its public records. As a gentleman and scholar he 
won the esteem of all with whom he was connected, and has done 
very much to perpetuate the memory of the early Michigan pioneers. 
His place can never be filled. 

The above contribution by Mr. Bingham was accepted by the society. 

Dr. W. H. Haze It is a little interesting to me, perhaps it would 
be to you, how I got my shirt dried years ago in 1838. I left the 
county of Oakland down here where my father lived, came out through 
this country, crossed the Grand river down here five or six miles, and 
took off into Eaton county. That day and night were the first I ever 
spent in Eaton county, and it did make an impression upon my mind. 


It rained fearfully. I was alone. I had on my back a little knapsack 
that was made by my mother out of an old bag that the rats had eaten 
pretty thoroughly up. In it I had a few little things, and I traveled 
through that rain following marked trees all day long. Just as the 
sun was setting and the night was coming on I came' to a house. It 
didn't rain, nor pour; the hoops seemed to have bursted off of the 
tank and the bottom had fallen out, and I was wet through and through. 
I had a wallet and in it I had seven dollars in small bills, and when 
I came to get out my wallet at night the bank notes were thoroughly 
cemented together. There were two women in the house which I came 
to, and they gave me something to eat and helped me to pick my bills 
apart, and said " If you can climb up the loft you will find a bed, and 
if you will do that and hand your clothes down to us we will dry 
them." And I handed them down and they dried them for me all up 
nice and then passed them up to me, and that is the way I got my 
shirt dried. 

L. D. Watkiiis I think there is a lady here who from her looks, 
knows all about the spinning wheel. 

Mrs. Marion Turner My father came to Michigan in 1836. I was 
quite a young girl then. When we moved into west Michigan we 
forded every river and stream, and several times in our lumber wagon 
we would just be afloat. And so 1 know a little of the early days in 
Michigan. My mother brought her large spinning wheel and small 
wheel with her. She knew how to spin both with a small and large 
wheel. There were five daughters and one son, and we moved into 
Clinton county in the fall of 1886. My father was ninety-three when 
he died, he was Jesse Monroe. I could relate a great many incidents 
but I prefer to hear from others. 

The pupils from the Larch street school then sang a piece entitled 
" The Happy Spider " and the meeting adjourned until 7 o'clock in the 


The meeting was called to order by the president pursuant to adjourn- 
ment and prayer was offered by Rev. R. C. Crawford. 

A solo " The Sword of Bunker Hill " was sung by Ernest Sellers. 

A poem, entitled " When I was a Boy with a Head Like Tow " by U. 
B. Webster of Benton Harbor, was then read by Dennis E. Alward. 


A solo, entitled " Scotch Songs," was sung by Miss Irma Haight. 

A paper on the " Early Missions on the Saginaw " by Fred Carlisle 
of Detroit, was then read by Geo. H. Greene. 

A solo, entitled " Loves Old Sweet Song," was then sung by Mr. L, 
A. Baker. 

Five minute speeches were then called for and responded to as follows: 

Francis I. Clark, Flat Kock Mr. President: I presume that Wayne 
county affords as many instances of history as any other county in the 
State. Wayne county has had a great many battles fought on her soil. 
You all well remember that after the battle on the plains of Abraham, 
fought by Generals Wolf and Montcalm, and the armies were about 
equal, that Montcalm did not want to fight the battle with the English 
but General Wolf brought his army up on the plains of Abraham, and 
in the morning Montcalm saw the British army in front of him, and 
there was no other way but for him to march out his forces and fight 
it out. All this territory went into the hands of the British and they 
came to Detroit and took command. Every Frenchman who inhabited 
the region of St. Clair down the Detroit Eiver and around Lake Erie 
never was known to be molested or troubled by an Indian. They all 
seemed to work together, and to have one interest, and the French 
people were always spared to go out and till the soil. 

Ralph Watson of South Biley I remember that when General Cass 
was in Detroit that he and several others made a bargain with a young 
.man by the name of Fox that they would give him a suit of clothes, a 
good Indian pony and twenty-five dollars if he would carry the mail 
through from Detroit to Grand Kapids, and return again to Detroit in 
nine days. Fox was a young man, quite an able fellow, and he under- 
took the job. He related the circumstances to me. He said that when 
he got to where Lansing is, of course it was all wilderness, he got onto 
those hills in the vicinity of the Grand river somewhere, and looked 
over the trees to the west as the sun was setting, and it looked wild 
in the extreme. He followed the Indian trail. When he got about 
half way between Lansing and Delta he heard a pack of wolves coming 
and he thought perhaps they might eat his pony up. So he took his 
mail bag and got up into a tree, and by that time the wolves had got 
even with him, and he found that they were on the other side of the 
river. After many difficulties he finally reached Grand Rapids, left the 
mail there and started back, and when he got to Detroit at twelve 
o'clock at night Cass told him he had done so well he would give him 
ten dollars. That is what Mr. Fox received for carrying the mail 
through to Grand Kapids. 


Auld Lang Syne was then sung by the audience, after which Rev. 
Wm. H. Haze pronounced the benediction and the meeting adjourned 
sine die. 


Lansing, June 7, 1893. 

To the Officers and Members of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical 

Your recording secretary begs leave to submit the following report: 

The eighteenth annual meeting of this society was held in the senate 

chamber of the capitol June 1 and 2, 1892, at which time some of the 

most valuable historical papers ever read before the society were read. 


The total number of names now enrolled on our membership book 
is eight hundred and seven. Of this number two hundred and seventy- 
eight have been reported as deceased, leaving a membership of five 
hundred and twenty-nine. 

Since our last report there have been forty-one names added to the 
list, viz., John B. Clement, Blissfield; J. C. Blanchard, Ionia; Chas. 
W. Barber, Howell; D. L. Burgess, Portland; Edwin B. Winans, 
Hamburgh; Ralph Watson, Riley; Bethuel C. Farrand, Port Huron; 
Myron Abbott, White Oak; Frederick G. Bailey, Vernon; Charles W. 
Church and Sarah M. Church, Lansing; Fred Carlisle, Detroit; M. H. 
Bailey, Dimondale; Gertrude E. Morehouse, Portland; John M. Cald- 
well and Helen N. Caldwell, Battle Creek; John R. Price, Lansing; 
Melville McGee, Jackson; Geo. H. Hazelton, Elwood, N. J.; Gabriel 
Bissonette, Monroe; Charles A. Bissonette, Grand Rapids; William W. 
Peck, Frederick W. Willcox, J. Davidson Burns, Albert A. Holcomb, 
Richard A. Sykes, N. Chase, Edwin J. Phelps, Edward Woodbury, 
Wm. H. Buell, Romine H. Buckhout, A. J. Shakespeare, Dallas 
Boudeman, S. H. Wattles, J. B. Allen, and James Monroe, all of 
Kalamazoo (the result of the efforts of our vice president for that 


county, Henry Bishop); Geo. E. Steele, Grand Traverse; Wm. P. Ains- 
ley, Williamston; Frank Hodgeman, Climax; Charles 8. Williams, 
Owosso; Charles V. DeLand, Jackson. 


The following list of donations have been made within the past year: 


Fifth annual report of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station for 1892. 

Bulletin No. 25 of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station for December, 1892. 

Bethlehem and Ohio History, leaflet. 
E. W. BLATCHFOBD, Chicago, 111.: 

Proceedings of the Trustees of the Newberry Library for the year ending January 5, 1892. 

The Newberry Library, Chicago- Certificate of Incorporation and Incorporation Act. 
WM. H. BBEABLEY, Detroit: 

Genealogical Chart of the Brearley Family. 

Annual report of the Board of Managers January 10, 1893, and the Society Proceedings. 

Putnam's General Orders, 1777. 

Invitation from the Wadsworth Atheneum to the opening of the new Libraries and Art Galleries. 

Tributes of the public prints setting forth the life and good works of Jacob S. Farrand. 
CHAS. W. GBANT, Saginaw, E. S.: 

A lot of old newspapers, pamphlets, etc. 
GEO. H. GREENE, Lansing: 

State Republican Novembers, 1892, containing sketches and portraits of republican candidates for 

county offices, Ingham county. 

The Topeka Daily Capital of August 21, 1892, containing an address by Judge F, G. Adams. 
WALTER S. LOGAN, New York City: 

The Siege of Cuautla, the Bunker Hill of Mexico, by Walter 8. Logan. 

Seventh biennial report of the society to the legislature of 1893. 
J. WILKIE MOORE, Detroit: 

Detroit Free Press November 2, 1892, containing an account of his fifty-nine years residence in 

An old bayonet and cannon ball from Fort Lernoult, afterward Fort Shelby, corner of Fort and 

Shelby Streets, Detroit, taken from eleven feet under ground. 

Transactions and Reports of the Society, Vol. IV. 

New England Historical and Genealogical Register for July and October, 1892, and January and 
April, 1893. 

Proceedings of the society at the annual meeting, January 4, 1898. 

List of members of the New England Historic Genealogical Society, January, 1893. 

Volumes 1 and 2, Collections, Deane Papers. 

The Fishery Question, by Charles Isham. 
OLD COLONY CLUB, Boston, Mass.: 

Fisheries Within the Territorial Limits of the States are not Subject to Congressional Control- 
by Hon. Charles E. Littlefield. 
Axos PEBBY, Providence, R. I.: 

An Official Tour Along the Eastern Coast of the Regency of Tunis, by Amos Perry, LL. D. 
Carthage and Tunis, by Amos Perry: LL. D. 



Two copies of the " Museums of the Future," by G, Brown Goode. 
ROBEBT T. SWAN, Commissioner, Boston, Mass.: 

Fourth and Fifth annual reports on the custody and condition of the Public Records. 

Two copies of the American Monthly Magazine for December, 1892. 

Original tax rolls for the town of Water town, Clinton county, for the years 1888, 1839, 1840, 1841 

and 1842. 

Tracts 73-84, Vol. III. 

Wyoming Memorial Medal in commemoration of the Battle and Massacre of Wyoming July 3, 1778. 

Five copies of Gov. John J. Bagley's Thanksgiving Proclamation for 1875, and one for 1878. 


The executive committee and committee of historians have held two 
meetings in joint session since the last annual meeting, as follows: 

One on April 25, 1893, just after the appropriation of 1893 had been 
granted, to decide on plans for future work and the judicious expendi- 
ture of this appropriation. 

It was decided to proceed at once with the publication of Volume 
XXI, Pioneer and Historical Collections, to contain the proceedings of 
the annual meeting of 1892, together with such historical papers as 
had been collected up to that date. 

The secretary was directed to have printed 1,500 copies of the 
constitution and by-laws in accordance with a resolution adopted at 
the last annual meeting. 

A committee consisting of Fred . Carlisle was appointed to draft a 
circular for distribution, relative to the duties of vice presidents, and 
the necessity of county and other societies becoming auxiliary to this 

The secretary was instructed to make the usual necessary prepara- 
tions for the annual meeting on the 7th and 8th of June, such as 
providing for a place of meeting, securing a stenographer, music, etc. 

The second meeting of the committees was held on June 5 and 7, 
1893, for the purpose of completing the arrangements for the annual 
meeting of June 7 and 8. The program as arranged by 'the secretary 
was submitted, approved, and ordered printed. 

Jennie B. Greene was appointed secretary of the committee of 
historians to continue until further action of the committees. 

Mrs. Mary C. Spencer, State Librarian, made a proposition to the 
committees to set apart space in the State Library for the books, 
papers, etc., belonging to the society, classify the same, arid publish 


them in an appendix to her catalogue, which was accepted and a 
resolution of thanks for her generous offer was adopted. 

The bills allowed and ordered paid will be found in the report of 

the treasurer and the balance of the work accomplished during the 

year will be found in the minutes of the annual meeting and the 

annual reports of the other officers of the society submitted at this date. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 


Recording Secretary. 


Lansing, June 7, 1893. 
To the Officers and Members of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical 

Society : 

I herewith beg leave to submit my fourteenth annual report of the 
correspondence of the society together with the file of letters and com- 
munications received within the past year. These letters are all filed 
for easy reference and all requiring an answer have been promptly 
replied to, and all donations entrusted to my address have been duly 

Notices of this meeting have been mailed to every member of the 
society together with a copy of the constitution, by-laws and list of 
members which has been recently printed in accordance with a resolu- 
tion adopted at our last annual meeting, also a circular issued by the 
committee of historians with a view of securing a greater cooperation 
with county and other local 'societies, with this society and thereby 
preserve many of the historical papers read before these societies which 
might otherwise fall into careless hands and be lost. This notice and 
circular were also mailed to all the leading newspapers of the state, 
many of which have given notice of this meeting in a prominent place 
in their columns. 

At the close of our last annual meeting, I sent a notice to each of 
the vice presidents informing them of their election and duties, and 



another about a month since requesting them to make a memorial 
report at this meeting, of worthy pioneers of their counties who have 
died within the year. 

The death roll of members of the society for the past year, so far as 
1 have been able to ascertain, is as follows: 









Ebenezer S. Eggleston 

Grand Rapids 

May 12, 1825 .... 

Aug. 8, 1892 




Betsey Fisk. 


Sept. 22, 1810 

July 7, 1892.. 




James I. David 


Aug. 2, 1814. .. 

Oct. 13, 1892. .. 




Jonathan Parsons 


Oct. 7, 1820 

Aug. 17, 1892 




Hiram Arnold. 


July 14, 1808 

July 28, 1892 




Dr. Henry L. Joy 


Jan. 25, 1822 

June 21, 1892 .. 




John Rutherford 


June 26, 1814 

Mar. 16, 1893 .. 




Benj. F. Partridge 

Bay City 

April 19, 1822.... 

Oct. 19, 1892 




Francis R. Stebbins 


Oct. 26, 1818.... 

Sept. 29, 1892.... 




Alftx^ndftr flhupnt.nn 


Feb. 3, 1818 

May 2, 1898 




A. D. P. Van Buren 


April 21, 1822.. 

June 27, 1892. 




Theophilus C. Abbot. 


April 29, 1826.. 

Nov. 7, 1892 




J. Huff Jones 


5 declined to > 

Dec. 16, 1892.... 




Geo. A. Smith 


( give this date $ 
March 8, 1825 

Jan. 29, 1898 




Stephen F. Brown 

Grand Rapids 

Dec. 81, 1819 

June 2, 1898. 




Charles Shepard 

Grand Rapids 

July 18, 1812 

Mar. 8, 1893 




John M . Cald well 

Battle Creek 

Sept. 18, 1829 . 

Mar. 8, 1893. .. 



Also the following whose deaths have not heretofore been reported: 









Orson H. Look 


April 12 1830 





Celestia E. May 

Nov. 20, 1800 

Dec. 2, 1889 




Henry B. Lathrop. . . 

Jackson .. 

July 6, 1808.. 

Aug. 20, 1890 ... 



All of which is respectfully submitted. 


Corresponding Secretary. 



Lansing, June 7, 1893. 
To the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society: 

I herewith submit my annual report as follows: Merritt L. Coleman 
treasurer, in account with the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, 
from June 1, 1892 to June 7, 1893. 


To balance in my hands, June 1, 1892 '$222 82 

" amount received on account of membership fees _ . 47 00 

" " " " " " sale of Vols. 1 and 2 225 

Total . - $272~07 


For binding... - 48 00 

Balance on hand June 7, 1893 . $224 07 


Amount on hand June 1, 1892 of the appropriation made by Act 33 
of 1891, was as follows: 

General fund... $1,00000 

Publishing fund 3,70000 

Total... $4,70000 


From the general fund: 

Postage, express and stationery $41 83 

Expenses of committee of historians 85 60 

" " executive committee _ 3145 

" annual meeting, 1892 , 57 59 

Copying records at Ottawa, Canada 168 86 

Copyright, Vols. 17, 18, 19, 20... 400 

Engraving maps and portraits _ 94 50 

Preparing printers' copy, reading proof and making indexes.... 516 67 


From the publishing fund: 

Printing and binding Vol. 17 $1,042 87 

14 18 _ 1,01861 

VolB. 19 and 20.. . 1,638 52 

3,700 00 

Total $4,700 00 



The appropriation made by Act 60 of 1893 can be drawn from the 
state treasury only on a warrant from the auditor general and a voucher 
approved by the president and secretary of the society, and is as follows : 

Amount appropriated for 1898 .. $2,500 00 

44 1894 _ -. -. 2,500 00 

Total .... :- $5,00000 


Copying records at Ottawa, Canada . $152 04 

Preparing copy for printers, reading proof, making indexes, etc 100 00 

Total .- 252 04 

Balance available in state treasury .. $4,747 96 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 




Lansing, Mich., June 7, 1893. 
To the Pioneer and Historical Society of the State of Michigan: 

The committee of historians would respectfully report that in the 
past year it has been quite successful in acquiring historical material 
relative to the settlement of counties in the northern part of the 
Lower Peninsula of Michigan, and of those of the Upper Peninsula, with 
many items of interest relative to the industrial pursuits of the 
pioneers in the different sections of the State, particularly those 
relating to agriculture, mining, the fisheries, and the lumber interests. 

The committee has also continued its investigations in the dominion 
archives at Ottawa, Canada, and has had copied twelve maps and 
4,605 folios of matter found there in official papers relative to the 
history of Michigan during the Indian, French, and British occupation 
of the territory west of the great lakes. 

The historical value of the papers which the committee has caused 
to be copied at Ottawa, Canada, through the courtesy of the dominion 
government and the active kindness of Douglas Brymner, Esq., Cana- 


dian Archivist, cannot be placed too highly, since they constitute an 
official authority, made by reports of officers in the different depart- 
ments to the French and British governments, on many points 
connected with the history of Michigan while under the government of 
France or Great Britain, and daring the revolutionary war and the 
war of 1812, with the negotiations with Great Britain relative to the 
surrender of territory withheld after the treaties of peace which 
belonged to the United States. This valuable information could not 
be obtained from any other source. 

The committee has also procured the publication of two volumes 
(19 and 20) of the Historical "Collections" of the society, which are 
now ready for delivery. Volume 21 is also in the process of publica- 
tion, but will not be finished until after the close of the present 


Volume 19 is a book of 700 pages and is composed of copies of 
papers relating to Michigan from those on file in the archives of the 
Dominion of Canada at Ottawa, among which may be found: 

Reports on American colonies from 1721 to 1762. 

A copy of an Indian deed to the Island of Mackinac, dated May 
12, 1781. 

Military dispatches from 1758 to 1762. 

The Bouquet papers (270 pages) being reports running from 1759 
to 1765, made by and to Col. Henry Bouquet, at that time command- 
ing British forces in Canada and the Northwest. 

The Haldimand papers (400 pages), being official reports of every 
name and nature, including military, civil, and Indian affairs relating 
to Michigan and the Northwest, from 1773 to 178 L, made by and to 
the British officials connected with the Canadian government. 

The committee would call attention to the following as of particular 
interest and value: 

"Copy of a Representation of the Lords' Commissioners for Trade 
and Plantations to the King, upon the State of His Majesty's Colonies 
and Plantations on the Continent of North America. Dated September 
8, 1721." Page 1. 

This report covers 13 pages and is very comprehensive, relating as 
it does to the entire country east of the Mississippi; and treating of 
the intercourse and relations of the French and English with each 
other, with the Indians, and with the colonies. 


The letter of "Thomas Gage, on the French in Lower Canada, 
dated March 20, 1762," will be found to be of interest. Page 14. As 
also the 

"List and account of the posts where trade with the Savages was 
carried on in the Upper Country. March 20, 1762." 

These posts were situated on both the north and south shores of 
Lake Superior, at Sault Ste. Marie, on Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, 
on the St. Joseph, Wabash, and Miamis rivers, and at Mackinaw and 


On page 29 of this volume, in the Bouquet papers, is a copy of a 
letter from Pierre Francois Vaudreuil, announcing the surrender of 
Montreal by the French to Gen. Amherst on the 8th of February, 1760. 

On pages 212 to 219 inclusive is the copy of a letter from James 
MacDonald to Col. Henry Bouquet, dated Detroit, July 12. 1763, giving 
a detailed account of Pondiac's attack on Detroit and its defense by 
Major Gladwin. 

Ensign John Cristie to Col. Henry Bouquet, l()th July, 1763. Attack 
upon and capture of Presque Isle by the Indians. Pages 209-10. 

Col. Henry Bouquet to Gen. Jeffrey Amherst, 5th August, 1763, and 
also 6th August. Battle at Edge Hill and Bushy Run, twenty-six 
miles from Fort Pitt; sixty killed or wounded. Pages 219-23. 

Gen. Thomas Gage succeeds Sir Jeffrey Amherst in command of 
British forces, 18th November, 1763. Pages 243-4. 

Distances from Fort Pitt to Wakatamicke and lower Shawanese 
towns, and names of fourteen Delaware and Shawanese towns. Page 260. 

Col. Henry Bouquet to Gen. Thomas Gage. Camp at the forks of 
the Muskingham, 15th Nov., 1764; Fort Pitt, Nov. 30, 1764. Relative 
to treaties with the Delawares, Shawanese, Mingoes, Mohikons, 
Wyandots, and Twighwees. Pages 279-95. 


In the Haldimand papers, 'pages 296 to 299, is a letter from Major 
Henry Basset to Gen. Frederick Haldimand, dated Detroit, 29th April, 
1773, giving a description of the station; also 21st May and 4th June, 
1773, to Gen. Thos. Gage. Relative to murders by Indians at Saginagh 
and St. Joseph. Pages 300-1. 

Capt. John Vattas to Gen. Haldimand, Michilimacinac, June 16, 
1773. Indian trade with the Spaniards on the Mississippi. Page 302. 

28 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

Speech in Indian council at Detroit, 18th August, 1773; Miamis 
and Hurons. Pages 308-10. 

Trade in the Lake Superior country in 1778. Pages 337 to 340. 

Transportation of goods to the Upper Country\in 1778. Muster roll of 
officers, carpenters, blacksmiths, employed in ship yard, Detroit, 1777-8. 

Page" 344. 

St. Joseph's, 15th Sept., 1778. Louis Chevallier to Major Depeyster, 
commandant at Michillimackinac. Relative to Kikapous, Sakis, and 
other Indian Tribes. Page 352. 

Observations necessary for Capt. Brehm to make on his route 
between Lachine and Detroit. The instructions for observations 
number forty-nine. Page 389. 

Gen. Haldimand's speech to the Indians resorting to Michillimakinac 
and its vicinity, 2d July, 1779. Pages 444-46. 

Petition of 36 merchants of Detroit to Gen. Haldimand, 5th January, 
1780. Pages 492-3. 

Charles Grant to Gen. Haldimand, 24th April, 1780, " Concerning 
the Trade carried on between the Merchantile people of this Province 
and the savages of the Upper Countries. Pages 508-12. 

Attack and capture of Fort Liberty and three other forts by the 
British and Indians, June 24, 1780. Eeport of Capt. Henry Bird^ 
from Ohio, opposite Licking Creek, July 1st, 1780. Pages 538-9 and 

Major Arent S. De Peyster to Col. Mason Bolton, Detroit, Aug. 4, 

Arrival of Capt. Bird with about 150 prisoners (Germans who speak 
English) of 350 taken in the forts near the Ohio yi June. Page 553. 

"Memorial of John Macomb, late of Hosack, in the County of 
Albany, province of New York, sheweth, that your memorialist in 
conjunction with his son-in-law, Lieut. Francis Pfister, deceased, 
engaged for His Majesty's Service upwards of five hundred effective 
men, that three hundred and eighteen did actually join General Bur- 
goyne's Army, at the head of which on the fatal 16th day of August, 
1777, at Bennington, Mr. Pfister was killed," etc., etc. Page 582. 

Capture of St. Joseph's (on the river of that name) in December, 
1780. Page 591. 

Indian speeches, Piankishaws, Ouiatanons, Miamis. Pages 593-7. 

Indian deed for the Island of Mackinac, by Ritchie Negon or Grand 
Sable, Pouanas, Koupe, and Magousseihigan, in behalf of ourselves 
and all others of our Nation the Chippewas, * * * do surrender 
and yield up into the hands of Lieut. Governor Sinclair for the Behalf 


and use of His Majesty, George the Third, of Great Britain * * * 
forever the Island of Michilimackinac, or as it is called by the 
Canadians La Grosse Isle (situate in that Strait which joins Lakes 
Huron and Michigan), etc., etc. Pages 633-4. 


The 20th volume contains 700 pages, of which 800 are copies of the 
Haldimand papers from 1782 to 1789, and there are 400 pages relating 
to Indian affairs in Michigan and the Northwest, from 1761 to 1800. 

In it will be found the following maps which are of interest a& 
showing the state of the country at that early day, with the r6ute of 
the march of the army of Gen. Anthony Wayne from Fort Washing- 
ton on the Ohio river, by the way Fort Hamilton, Fort St. Clair T 
Fort Jefferson and Fort Recovery, to the foot of the rapids on the 
Miami (Maumee) river, where the battle of August 20, 1794, was 

Map of the Miamis of the Lake (Maumee River). Page 368. 

Map of the Miamis Country, showing the line of Forts along Gen. 
Wayne's march. Page 369. 

Map of the Battle Field of August- 20, 1794. Page 370. 

Map of Entrance to Detroit river, showing Fort Maiden at 
Amherstburg, 1796.- Page 513. 


The Haldimand papers in volume 20 have on pages 18 to 24, "Return 
of Prisoners of War sent from Detroit May 16, 1782," all taken by 
Indians, with other information, pages 25 to 35, of a somewhat 
indefinite account of the massacre of- the forces under Col. Crawford 
in June 1782, by the Indians, with the death by torture of Col. 
Crawford and two captains who had been taken prisoners. 

Maj. Arent S. De Peyster to Alexander McKee, Detroit, August 
6, 1782: 

"That the Shawanese and Delawares push their relation to great 
lengths by putting all their Prisoners to Death, whereby if they are 
not prevented they will throw an odium upon their Friends the 
English as well as prevent their Father from receiving the necessary 
Intelligence of the Enemy's motions so essential to carry on the service 
for their mutual Interest." Pages 37-8. 

On pages 49, 50, 51, is a letter from Capt. Alexander McKee to 
Major Arent S. DePeyster, from Shawanese Country, August 28th y 


1782, giving an account of the battle of Blue Licks, Kentucky, in 
which he states, " On the 20th reached the Blue Licks, where we 
encamped, * * * expecting the Enemy would pursue, determined 
here to wait for 'em, keeping spies at the Lick, who on the morning 
of the 21st discovered them, and at half past seven o'clock we engaged 
them, and totally defeated them in a short time. We were not much 
superior to them in numbers, they being about 200 picked men from 
the Settlement of Kentucky, commanded by Colonels Todd, Trigg, 
Boone, and Todd, with the Majors Harlin and McGeary, most of 
whom fell in the action. From the best inquiry I could make on the 
spot there were upwards of 140 killed or taken, with near 100 rifles. 
* * * We had ten Indians killed with Mr. La Bute, of the Indian 
Department, who by sparing the life of one of the Enemy and endeavor- 
ing to take him Prisoner lost his own." * * * 

On pages 117 to 121 will be found a very interesting letter from 
Gen. Allan Maclean, stating that the Indians were very indignant at 
what they understand to be the terms of the treaty of peace between 
Englan4 and the states. *' The Indians from the surmises they have 
heard of the Boundaries, look upon our conduct to them as treacher- 
ous and cruel; they told me they never could believe that our King 
could pretend to cede to America what was not his own to give, or 
that the Americans would accept from him what he had no right to 
grant. * * * That the Indians were a free People subject to no 
power upon earth. That they were the faithful Allies of the King of 
England, but not his subjects. That he had no right whatever to grant 
away to the states of America their rights or properties, * * * and 
they would not submit to it. * ' * * That if the English had 
basely betrayed them by pretending to give up their Country to the 
Americans without their consent, or consulting them, it was an act 
of cruelty and injustice that Christians only were capable of doing, 
that the Indians were incapable of acting so; to friends or Allies, but 
that they did not believe we had sold and betrayed them." * * * 

" Mr. Ball * * is a poor old Moravian, * * * that his son and 
daughter had been put to death in the massacre of the Moravian 
Indians at Fort Pitt by Col. Davidson, and that all those left alive, of 
these very unfortunate People, are now settled about twenty miles 
beyond Detroit, and their clergymen have joined them, and that he, 
old Ball, and his companion also a moravian, wish to go and remain 
in peace with their Friends and Brethren. * * * Col. Butler 
assures me, about 200 of the Indians and Moravians deserted from 


about Bethlem after the massacre at Fort Pitt, and are settled at about 
20 or 30 miles beyond Detroit." * * * Page 127. 

"Inventory of Indian Councils held at Detroit. Camp at Wyattate- 
nong; St Dusky; Fort Pitt; Chicagou; Shawanese Village; Upper 
Shawanese; St Joseph's, from June 14, 1778 to July 1783." Thirty 
Councils in number, with an interesting "Purport of Proceedings," 
the same being a brief of the action of each Council. Pages 133-5. 

"Minutes of Transaction with Indians at Sandusky; from August 
26th to Sept 8, 1783" relative to the terms and conditions of the 
Treaty of Peace between Great Britian and the States in its bearing 
upon the various tribes of Indians and the Indian country. 

" At a Council held at Lower Sandusky the 6th September 1783. 
* * * Present Alex. McKee Esq. Depy. Agent; Capt. Chesne, 
Ottawa & Chippewa Intr; Capt. M. Elliot; Lieut. W. Johnson; Simon 
Girty, Interpreter; Capt. Joseph Brant with a Deputation from the Six 
Nations; T'Sindatton with a Deputation of the Lake Indians from 
Detroit." Pages 174-83. 

" Memorial of Geo McDougall relative to Hog Island " to be 
restored to the Heirs of the former proprietor. Page 189. 

"Indian Deed to Jacob Schieffelin" "of seven miles in front and 
seven miles in Depth * * * on the south side of Detroit, and 
directly opposite the Island commonly called Isle au Bois Blanc" &c 
&c. Pages 193-5. 

"List of Officers in the Indian Department at Detroit." Page 213. 

On pages 219 to 222 is a very interesting letter dated 19th April 
1784 relative to the "Ambiguous Sence of the late Treaty of Peace; 
respecting the Line of Boundary between this Province and the 
United States, from Lake Superior to the Westward; * * * there 
is no such Thing as a Long Lake, as expressed in the Treaty, the 
only communication from Lake Superior is by * * * the Grand 
Portage, which leads to a very small Eiver on the West side that 
derives its source from an adjacent Lake, and from thence to the 
extent of Lake La pluie about one Hundred Leagues * * * 

If ever this country see the fatal moment of giving up the Upper 
Posts, * * permit me to give you my opinion, which may be of 

some use, until a survey is made. * * * That is to have a Post so 
as to command the entrance into Lake Superior, either below the Falls 
of St Mary's or above them, with regard to the former I cannot point 
out any particular spot suitable for the purpose, but with respect to 
the latter I can speak with some certainty I mean the place called 
Point Aux Pins where Mr Baxter who was sent out from England 


some years ago in search for Copper Mines fixed his residence. It is 
situated on the East side about two Leagues above the Falls on a 
narrow channel that commands in the most effectual manner the 
entrance into Lake Superior, it has the advantage of a fine Bason 
formed by the Point where Vessels lay in deep water within a few 
yards of the shore equally secure in Winter as in Summer." 

On May 6, 1784, Gen. Haldimand writes to Capt. Eobertson relative 
to the selection of sites for Post on the Canadian side of the line, 
from which the following is an extract: 

"There is no situation where one will be more necessary than at the 
Entrance of Lake Superior I wish to have early Information and to 
take measures for that purpose so as to have a small Garrison and 
Settlement established there on the shortest notice. Point aux Pins r 
about two leagues above the Falls of St. Mary's, appears by the map, 
and from Information I have received to be the fittest place, to sit 
down upon, it was formerly occupied by a Mr. Baxter, a Partner and 
Agent of a Company engaged in the Copper Mines. * * * I wish to 
have your opinion of any other that may strike you as more favorable 
for the intended purpose. I am just informed * * * that a place 
called La Traverse, about fifteen leagues from Michilimackinac is a 
very proper situation for the post I wish to take." * Pages 


Gen. Haldimand's policy of delay in retaining possession of the 
Upper Posts, Nov 14, 1784. Page 269. 

List of Upper Posts prior to the war of the Revolution, page 272. 

Names of Traders to the Upper Country, pages 279-80. 

At the close of the Haldimand papers on pages 296-9 is a sketch of 
the life of Col. Arent Scuyler De Peyster, with a copy of verses by 
Robert Burns "On the occasion of Col. De Peyster's sending to make 
some kind inquiries about his health, Burns replied in rhyme." 

" He died as full of honors as of years, having held the king's 
commission upward of 77 years, and being probably at the time the 
oldest officer in the service." 

He was born in New York 27th June 1786, and died at Dumfries, 
Scotland, in Nov., 1832. 


Of the papers relating to "Indian Affairs," while all are worthy of 
recording we would call attention to the following: 

List, Location and Number of Indians; with the part of the North 
West in which Each Nation is located. 1789 Pages 305-7. 


The Tete de Boule Indians of Gens de Terre about 600 men. 

Lake Nipisiii Indians. 

Fond du Lac Huron Indians are the Missisageys; Chipways and 
Matchidash about 500 men. 

Detroit Indians Hurons, 150; Ottawas, 100; Poudew, 150. 

Miamis River Indians of the Twightwee Nation, 200; Onyaghtannas 
100; St. Vincent, 50. 

The Big Island Indians, the Chippway Nation, about 150; Ottawa 
Nation, about 300; Poudowadamy Nation, about 300; Sacks and Renards, 
about 200; Oyaway, about 400; Chippay, Sault St Marie, about 130; 
Chippway, Lake Superior, South side, about 150, Shagwamigon, about 
500; West End Lake Superior Indians, Chippway, about 50, a parcel 
of Robbers; Caministicouya Indians in the Was Nation, a sort of 
Chippway p, about 150; Lake Nipicon Indians, Was6 Nation, about 300; 
Mishipicoton Indians, North Side Lake Superior, Maskas, about 500; 
Lake La Plui Indians, Christino Nation, 80 leagues from Lake 
Superior, about 300. 

Col. Alexander McKee's speech to the following Nations of Indians 
at the foot of the Miamis Rapids, 1st July 1791: Mohawks, Hurons, 
Delawares, Ottawas, Pottawatamies, Miamis, Shawanese, Munseys, Min- 
goes, Connoys, Moheekins, Nantikokes, Moravians. Pages 310-11. 

Indians to Gen. Washington. Pages 314-15. 

Information Relative to the Army of Gen. Wayne. Point Aux 
Chene, Miamis River 26th Nov. 1793. Pages 323-4. 

Col. Alex. McKee to Joseph Chew. Same subject 1st Feby 1794 
Pages 325-6. 

Indian Speeches at Miamis Rapids May 7, 1794, at a Council, to 
the Wyandots, Ottawas, Mingoes & Munseys. Pages 347-50. 

Indian Speech, relative to the advance of Gen. Wayne's Army. At 
the foot of the Rapids of the Miamis. 25th May 1794, to the Wyan- 
dots, Ottawas, Chippewas, and Poutawatamies. Pages 354-5. 

Col. Alexander McKee to Joseph Chew 30 May 1794. Same subject. 
Pages 355-6. 

Col. McKee, 2d June 1794. Relative to the force of Gen. Wayne's 
Army. Indians collecting in force Pages 356-7. ' 

Battle near Fort Recovery 30 June 1794. Pages 364-8. 

u The Indians by attempting the Fort after Defeating Capt. Gibson's 
party met with a Repulse and some loss." 

Gen. Anthony Wayne's defeat of the Indians, on the Miamis River 
on the 20th of August, 1794. 


" Major John H. Buell congratulates the Federal Army upon their 
Brilliant success in the action of the 20th Inst. against the whole 
combined force of the hostile Savages, aided by the British Post 
and Garrison close in their rear, beyond which the fugitives 
fled, with disorder, precipitation, and dismay, leaving their packs, 
provisions and plunder in their encampment in the rear of that post. 

* * * their Villages and Cornfields being consumed in every direction, 
even under the influence of the guns of Fort Miamis, facts, which 
must produce a conviction in the minds of the Savages that the 
British have neither the power or Inclination to afford them that 
protection which they had been taught to expect," <fec &c. * * * 

- Pages 369-70. 

Capt. Alexander McKee to Joseph Chew. Camp Near Fort Miamis 
27th Augt. 1794. Account of Battle of Indians with Army of Gen. 
Wayne August 20th, 1794, at the foot of the Miamis Rapids. Pages 

Joseph Chew to Thomas Aston Coffin. 5 Jan'y 1795. Relative to 
purchase of lands by Indians. Sir William Johnson's methods. PagevS 

"Articles of Peace between Gen. Anthony Wayne, and the Indians" 
Shawanoes, Delawares and Miamis. Pages 393-4. 

" A Treaty of Peace between the United States of America and the 
Tribe of Indians called the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawoerioes, Ottawas, 
Chippewas, Putawatames, Miamis, Eel River, Weeas and Kickapoos." 
Signed by Gen. Anthony Wayne, and seventy Chiefs of the Tribes 
named. Pages 410-19. 

" Substance of a talk held at Amherstburg this day, June 30. 1797, 
between The Black Beard, Capt. Johnny, The Borrer, and the Buffaloe, 
four principal Chiefs and Warriors' of the Shawonoes, on the part of 
their Nation, and Captain William Mayne, Commandant at Amherst- 
burg." Pages 519-21. 

Island of St. Joseph, 19 th October, 1797. "At a Council held with 
the Chiefs and Young Men of both Villages, of Arbre Croche Captain 
Drummond speaks to them Ottawas Tribes. The Chiefs answer by 
Nibinassay." Page 560. 

Return of Indian settlers at the Chenail Ecarte and Harsen's Island 
48 men, 61 women and 58 children 167 persons Oct. 26, 1797. 
Page 564. 

Report of a Board of Survey, at the Island of St. Joseph, of sundry 
stores, 1st June, 1798. Pages 604-6. 


Number of Ottawa and Chippewa settlers at Chenail Ecarte, July, 
1798. Pages 617 and 641-2. 

"Information given by a Western Indian who returned from Detroit 
30th January, 1799, where he had, been sent for the purpose of getting 
intelligence of what the Indians to the Westward were doing." Pages 

Duke of Portland to Lieut. Gen. Hunter, Whitehall, 4th October, 
1799. Extract: " Whatever credit is to be given Brandt for his loyalty 
and attachment to this country (upon which I am not inclined to 
place any great reliance) it is unquestionably evident that he omits no 
opportunity of consolidating the Indian Interest with a view to form an 
Indian Confederacy, and to place himself at the head of it than which 
nothing can be more directly contrary to our interests, and to the 
Line of conduct which his Majesty's Governors in Canada have been 
directed to pursue in keeping those Interests and concerns as separate 
and disunited as possible." * * * Pages 663-7. 

The committee give these extracts to show the importance of the 
work of the society in a historical point of view of having, as is given 
in the "Collections," the official reports of the English officers and 
Indian agents, for comparison with the statements, official and other- 
wise, upon which the current history is founded, of that struggle for 
supremacy in the then Indian country west of the Alleghanies and the 
Great Lakes. 

The committee have yet unpublished a large quantity of manuscript, 
obtained from the same source, which it hopes to be able to print in 
the " Collections " in the near future and which is of like historical 

None of the matter copied at Ottawa for this society, and published 
in its " Collections," has ever been copied from the original manuscripts 
and published by any other society. 

The legislature of this State at its present session has made the 
usual appropriation for 1893 and 1894, to enable this society to 
continue its work, and the committee hope to be able to publish at 
least two volumes of the "Collections" (volumes 21 and 22), before 
the next annual meeting of this society. 

The committee would again urge upon all its members, and upon 
the officers and members of all county and local societies, the contri- 
bution to this society of the pioneer history of individuals, of town- 
ships, and of the counties of this State. 


All such material for history will be preserved by the society and 
published in its "Collections." 

MICHAEL SHOEMAKER, Chairman, Jackson, 
JOHN H. FOR^TER, Williamston , 
HENRY H. HOLT, Muskegon, 



JOEL BATCHELOR. Joel Batchelor died in Gun Plain, July 18, 1892, 
He was born in Orange, Mass., April 28, 1804, and came to Michigan 
in 1837, settling in Gun Plain and engaging in mercantile business 
until about 1848, when he married Miss Alzina L. Crittenden, Feb- 
ruary 14 of that year, who survives him. He then turned his attention 
to farming for a few years. About this period he was elected justice 
of the peace, and in 1845 or 1846, he had the first contract for 
carrying the mail from Kalamazoo to Grand Rapids, and carried the 
first mail through on horseback. In 1849 he went into the cabinet- 
making business in Otsego for a short time, but finally went back to 
Gun Plain in 1853 and again settled on a farm, where he remained 
until his death. Mr. Batchelor had four children Irving J., now 
living near Lowell, Mich.; Alia L., deceased; Frank M., now living in 
Portland, Oregon; and Edward C., now living on the old homestead. 
Mr. Batchelor had a kindly disposition and courteous manner. He 
was honored and respected by all who knew him. His age was 88 
years, 2 months, and 20 days. 

MBS. BETSEY FISK. Mrs Betsey Fisk died at Allegan, July 7, 1892. 
Betsey Davis was born at Hartford, Washington Co., N. Y.. September 
22, 1810. The family moved to \Villiamson, Wayne Co., N. Y., when she 
was a girl, where she married Joseph Fisk, January 12, 1832. They cam& 


to Michigan in 1834, stopping first at Marengo, Calhoun Co., coming 
to Allegan in March, 1835. She was the mother of the first white 
child born in Allegan (William Allegan Fisk), in October, 1835, but 
who died in infancy. She taught school several terms in New York, 
previous to her marriage. Allegan was always her home, and she 
resided here from the time of its first settlement, except nine years, from 
about 1853 to 1862. when the family lived in Chicago. They lived 
happily together over 52 years. She was an exemplary member of the 
Baptist church over 60 years. Aunt Betsey, as she was called by all 
the old settlers, won and retained the affection and esteem of all with 
whom she came in contact. She was aunt to everyone and was really 
the kind friend to everyone whom she met. Her kindly hospitality 
seemed to know no bounds, and she would not willingly listen to 
disparaging remarks about anyone, covering the faults of all with the 
broad mantle of Christian charity. Not only her children, but all who 
knew her, "rise up and call her blessed." Her age was 81 years, 9 
months, and 15 days. 

ALBY BOSSMAN. Our community was greatly shocked on May 6, 
1893, to learn of the death of our highly respected citizen, Alby 
Bossman, who departed this life at his residence in Allegan. In 
business he was a man of the strictest integrity; in politics a stalwart 
and uncompromising democrat of the school of Cass and Douglas, and 
in religion, a liberalist. Aurelius, Cayuga county, N. Y., was the place 
of his birth, June 14, 1812. George Bossman, father of the deceased, 
was a native of the state of New York, and his wife, Mary Wood 
Bossman, was of Connecticut origin. Mr. Bossman's father was a 
soldier of the revolution and by profession both a farmer and mechanic, 
removing to Ohio where his wife died in Madison county. His father 
returned to New York state and died at Morris, Otsego county. His 
son, Alby Bossman, the subject of this sketch, was but eight years old 
when he made his home with a sister at Springville, N. Y., where he 
remained but one year. After this he went to Auburn, N. Y., and was 
there apprenticed to a mechanic's trade where he showed much 
ingenuity, and worked in a furnace and machine shop for three years. 
He continued his trade as a journeyman until 1836, when he proceeded 
to Marshall, Mich., where he remained for about six months, during 
which time he ran* a foundry and cast the first plow made in Michigan. 
Mr. Bossman in the same year (1836), came to Allegan where he 
started the first furnace ever erected here and made the first sled in 
our county. Later Mr. Bossman added a machine shop to his works 


and for nearly thirty years successfully operated and carried on these 
iron works, accumulating a handsome property, giving employment in 
these years to a large number of first class mechanics. He built in 
1838 the boiler and engine for the first steamer built in Allegan and 
the first that ever run on the Kalamazoo river. This steamer was 
named after C. C. Trowbridge, of Detroit, who was a large stockholder 
in the Boston company that founded Allegan village. When he first 
came to Allegan lumbering was the principal occupation followed here 
and Mr. Kossman's business prospered with the village's growth. For 
many years Mr. Rossman's foundry was the only one in our county. 
In those early days Mr. Rossman was associated with the late Hyman 
Hoxie who subsequently went to Chicago and died there. Mr. Rossman 
retired from active business some years ago but continued to improve 
his property in our village and vicinity, erecting an elegant residence 
for himself and several stores. He was one of the company who built 
the beautiful Chaff ee block, one of the finest structures in this or any 
other village of our State. In 1869 he was burned out and suffered a 
severe loss of property. In the same year he removed to his farm 
which he had laid out into village lots, known as " Rossman's 
addition." Mr. Rossman filled with honor several responsible township 
and village offices such as justice of the peace, village trustee, marshal, 
and superintendent of the village water works. Mr. Rossman was first 
married in 1832 to Miss Angeline Dickinson, who died in 1848 leaving 
two children, William George Rossman, who was married to Miss 
Elizabeth Newcomb, of Ganges, and died January, 1889, leaving one 
daughter, JCate E., who has resided with her grandparents ever since 
her father's death. Miss Mary A. Rossman, the other child of the- 
deceased, was married to Capt. Frederick Hart, with whom she resided 
in Adrian till 1877, when he died. Mrs. Hart has lived at her^father's- 
mansion ever since. The deceased, Alby Rossman, had a second wife, 
Mrs. Electa Dickinson, who has one child (now Mrs. Henry C. Smith). 
Mrs. Rossman has three grandchildren. Dr. Charles H. Smith, of 
Chattanooga, Tenn., Mrs. G. H. Buchanan, of this village, and 
Glenn D. Smith, of Springfield, Ohio. 

We have thus given a somewhat extended notice of a man who was- 
a walking landmark of our county's history and progress, a pillar of 
integrity and probity in all the walks of life, one who had contributed 
liberally for many years past toward churches, school houses, and all 
other good purposes. This patriarch will be greatly missed by hia 
numerous friends and neighbors to whom he was always ready to 


extend a kindly greeting and cheering word. Mr. Rossman was in 
failing health for five or six months and seldom appeared in public. 
But his neighbors frequently called upon him and cheered him up. 
He sat in a chair on the porch of his residence and walked out in 
his yard two or three times on the day of his death. 

MRS. ELIZA WILCOX. Mrs. Eliza Wilcox died in Trowbridge, June 
5. 1892. Miss Eliza McMahon was born in Ireland, May 11, 1826, 
and came to America with her parents when quite young, settling in 
Livingston Co., N. Y., where she grew to womanhood. She married a 
Mr. Reynolds and moved to Ganges in 1855, where he died. Some- 
time in the 60's she married G. B. Wilcox in Monterey, and they 
finally settled on the farm in Trowbridge where she died. She was a 
kind and sympathetic friend and neighbor and her life was above 
reproach. Her age was 66 years and 24 days. 


MRS. JOHN TINKLER. Martha Tinkler, wife of John Tinkler, died at 
Hastings, June 4, 1892, aged 53 years. Reside at of Hastings in Barry 
Co. for 40 years. 

MRS. JAMES SWIN. Mrs. Olive Swin, widow of James Swin, died at 
Hastings, June 17, 1892, aged 82 years. Resided in Barry county 45 
years, and came from Ohio to Johnstown in 1847. 

MRS. IRA PENNOCK. Esther Pennock, widow of Ira Pennock, died at 
the town of Barry in Barry county, June 19, 1892, aged 62 years. 
Had resided in Barry county for 56 years. 

DAVID M. LAKE. David M. Lake, died at Hastings July 17, 1892 r 
aged 89 years. Former residence Ohio, resided here 30 years. 

MRS. THOMAS HENRY. Bridget Henry, wife of Thomas Henry, died 
at Rutland. Barry county, August 8, 1892, a native of Ireland, aged 
68 years. Resided in Barry county 38 years. 

JAMES N. HAWTHORNE. James N. Hawthorne died in Orangeville, 


Barry county, August 28, 1892, aged 76 years. Resided in Barry 
county 46 years; a native of the state of Maine. 

SEBASTIAN KAISER. Sebastian Kaiser died in Baltimore, this county, 
August 31, 1892, aged 72 years. Resided in this county 40 years. A 

MRS. MALVINA P. MCLELLAN. Malvina P. McLellan, widow, died 
at Allegan, September 8, 1892 (while visiting her daughter), a resident 
of Hastings, aged 67 years. One of the earliest pioneers; married here 
in 1844; resided here 52 years. Her maiden name was Alden. 

RICHARD JONES. Richard Jones, one of the early pioneers of Assyria, 
died at Battle Creek, where he had resided a short time, September, 
1892, aged 87 years. Resident since 1848; was a member of the legis- 
lature in 1867, an able farmer. His remains were buried at Assyria. 

HENRY I. BARNUM. Henry I. Barnum died at Nashville (being 
injured while attempting to board the train), October, 1892, aged 67 
years. Resident of this county for the past 47 years; from New York. 

FRANCES PECK. Frances Peck died at Carlton, October 13, 1892. 
Resident of Barry county for 46 years, and of the State 55 years; 
aged 84 years. 

MRS. DAVID L. HOES. Mrs. Miranda Hoes, wife of David L., died 
at Rutland, November 6, 1892. Resident 45 years. 

MRS. ALLEN JONES. Hannah M. Jones, wife of Allen Jones, died at 
Hastings, November 10, 1892. Native of Tiffin, Ohio; aged 56 years; 
resident here 46 years. 

MRS. CHARLOTTE GRAW. Mrs. Charlotte Graw, died at the home of 
her daughter, Mrs. Richard Murray, at Baltimore, December 1, 1892, 
aged 92 years; a native of New York. Had resided in Kent and Barry 
counties for the past 56 years. 

MRS. CAROLINE WARNER. Mrs. Caroline Warner, widow, died January 
3, 1893, aged 64 years. A resident of this State 56 years. 

MARY J. WILLIAMS. Mary J. Williams, formerly Sidmore, died Jan- 
uary 10, 1893, aged 67 years. Resident of this State and county 41 years. 

JOSEPH SHORES. Joseph Shores (known as uncle), died at Wood- 
land, January 20, 1893, aged 94 years. Been married 62 years; one 
of the oldest residents and early marriages. 


IRA VIRGIL. Ira Virgil, died at Hastings, January 28, 1893, aged 88 
years. Resident of the county for 40 years. 

CHARLES BUHLER. Charles Buhler, whose residence was at Irving 
in this county, died at Woodland (while on a visit at his daughter's), 
July 18, 1893, aged 81 years. Resident 40 years. 

MARY E. BABCOCK. Mary E. Babcock, died at Baltimore, July 22, 
1893, aged 79 years. Resident 41 years. 

IRA STOWELL. Ira Stowell, died at Woodland, February 26, 1893, 
aged 73 years. Resident 38 years. 

MRS. J. M. RUSSELL. Mrs. J. M. Russell, widow of Dr. Russell, 
died at Hastings, March 10, 1893, aged 79 years. Resident 38 years. 

MRS. WM. EATON. Hannah Eaton, widow of William Eaton, died 
at Baltimore, March 11, 1893, aged 92 years. Resident 40 years. 

DANIEL FIFIELD. Daniel Fifield, died at Hastings, March 21, 1893, 
aged 92 years. Resident 49 years. 

MRS. I. N. KEELER. Mrs. I. N. Keeler, of Middleville, died March 
26, 1893, aged 61 years. Resident 43 years. 

JAMES MCK.ELVEY. James McKelvey, of Nashville, died April 12, 
1893, aged 84 years. Resident 38 years. 

MRS. OWEN HUGHES. Mrs. Owen Hughes, of Prairieville, died April 
5, 1893, aged 63 years. Resident 42 years. 

DAVID L. HOES. David L. Hoes, of Rutland, died April 14, 1893, 
aged 73 years. Resident 45 years. 

WM. WILLISON. William Willison, of Barry, died April 28, 1893 r 
aged 74 years. Resident 56 years. 

MRS. FLAVIA VAN DEWALKER. Mrs. Flavia Van Dewalker, died April 
15, 1893, aged 69 years. Resident 57 years. . Adopted daughter of 
"Yankee Lewis." 

A. J. PALMERTON. A. J. Palmerton, of Woodland, died suddenly 
May 7, 1893, aged 66 years. Resident 45 years. 

ARNOLD SISSON. Arnold Sisson, of Hastings, died May 12, 1893, 
aged 69 years. Resident 39 years. 


EGBERT CABLTON. Kobert Carlton, of Hastings, died May 12, 1893, 
aged 74 years. Resident 50 years. 

MRS. CAROLINE NAGLER. Mrs. Caroline Nagler, of Irving, died May 
17, 1893, aged 67 years. Resident 34 years. 

Between 60 and 70 years of age, 11. 

Between 70 and 80 years of age, 9. 

Between 80 and 90 years of age, 6. 

Above 90 years of age, 5; the oldest was 94 4 being 92. 

The longest residence in county, 57 years. 


Mrs. Orrin Bump died May 8, 1893, in Bay City. 

GEORGE LORD. George Lord, the pioneer resident of Bay City r 
died April 30, 1893, at his home, 922 Harrison street. He had been 
ill for a long time and the end was hastened by his extreme age. 

George Lord was born in Madison county, New York, March 17, 
1815. He came to Bay City in 1854 and engaged in the lumbering 
business. A short time afterward, in company with J. P. Whittemore, 
he built the Keystone mill in what is now known as the first ward of 
West Bay City. After operating it for five years he sold it and 
entered the drug business at the corner of Center avenue and Water 
street. He continued there until the fire in 1865, when he was burned 
out. He immediately opened up another store, but sold out in a few 
days and entered the insurance business. He was also ticket agent of 
the Michigan Central, but most of his time from then on was devoted 
to his insurance affairs. Politically he was a democrat, and served the 
people in many different positions during his residence here. He was 
mayor of the city for one term and comptroller for five terms. He 
.was also supervisor, justice of the peace and alderman at different 
times, and owes many friends to the honest and straightforward course 
always pursued by him, both in business and politics. 

In 1840, Mr. Lord married Miss C. D. Fay in Hamilton. Three 


children were the result of the union, which proved to be a very 
happy one. They are Mrs. H. W. Jennison and Wm. H. Lord, of Bay 
City, and Fred H. Lord, of Chicago. 


WILLIAM ALGER. William "Alger died at his home in Mattison on 
March 20, 1893, of heart failure, at the age of 76 years. Mr. Alger 
was born in James, Seneca county, New York, July 4, 1816. He came 
to Branch county in 1836 and settled in Quincy. He was married to 
Miss Orpha Darwin in December, 1838, and moved into Butler, 
subsequently removing to Mattison which has since been his home. 
He was one of the hard working pioneers, carrying out the command 
of God to "subdue the earth and have dominion over it." Perhaps 
no one man has done more to clear up Branch county than the 
deceased. He leaves a wife and nine living children (his oldest son 
having died in the Union army) to mourn the loss of a kind husband 
and father. 

Mr. Alger was the eighth in descent from Thomas Alger, who settled 
in Mass., in 1638. 

EPHRAIM A. KNOWLTON. Ephraim A. Knowlton died at his home 
in Coldwater, March 14, 1893. at the age of 80. Mr. Knowlton was 
born in Cape Ann, Mass., December 25, 1813. While an infant his 
parents removed to Vermont and here it was that he was reared 
to manhood. In June, 1834, he was married to Miss Jane Alvord and 
together they immigrated to the west, first settling in Ohio in 1844. 
Ohio was a new country then and the vast territory west was then 
unexplored, but nothing daunted, Mr. Knowlton and family moved farther 
west and settled in our then insignificant little burg in 1856. He was 
a cabinetmaker by trade and established and successfully conducted 
what was a pioneer institution in the west the planing mill, sash and 
blind factory on west Chicago street, Coldwater, now owned by Ball 
Bros. In 1862 his first wife died. Four children were born to them 
of whom only one, Mrs. F. D. Marsh of Coldwater, is a survivor. 

In 1864 he retired from the manufacturing business and purchased 


a farm on Marshall street where he resided until 1884 when he removed 
to his present suburban home of sixty acres on east Chicago street. In 
1865 he was again married, Mahala Halstead Fisk being chosen as his 
second bride and she survives him. 

Coldwater was a small, unpretentious place when Mr. Knowlton first 
came there and he was identified with most of its early strug- 
gles for existence and growth. He has been an active and energetic 
worker, and it is only within the past two or three years that he has 
been obliged to give up the harder duties. The remains of this 
staunch Christian man were interred in Oak Grove cemetery where so 
many of our early pioneers now lie and yet are not forgotten. 

LORENZO A. ROSE. Lorenzo A. Rose died at his home in the village 
of Bronson, March 13, 1893, the immediate cause being a fall on the 
ice a few weeks before, though his health had not been robust for some 
time. Born October 25, 1822, in Cambria, Niagara county, N. Y., he 
came with his parents to Bronson in 1835, where he has since resided, 
identifying himself closely with the interests of Branch county, and 
especially with those of Bronson. While Mr. Rose was not an 
educated man so far as books were concerned, yet he was possessed of 
a great fund of general information, always observant and fond of 
reading, he combined the essential qualities that go to make up a good 
citizen to an unusual degree. He was a railroad contractor, helping 
to construct several important lines, among them a section of the 
Grand Rapids & Indiana from Walton to Traverse City; built a part 
of the M. C. & L. M. from Monteith to Gull Corners; built a line 
from Petoskey to Long and Crooked Lakes, and also a line from 
Petoskey to Mackiuac. Previous to this, in 1849, he entered the 
employ of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railroad, ballasting 
nearly all of the road between Bronson and Sturgis. In 1853 he 
contracted with the government to deliver quite a number of head of 
cattle purchased in Bronson to the Chippewa and Ottawa Indians at 
Little Traverse. This was quite a hazardous undertaking at that time, 
as the journey had to be made on foot, much of the way through pine 
forests and in a sparsely settled country, with many streams to ford, 
but it was safely accomplished in about six weeks. This was only one 
of the many instances in his pioneer life where he had undertaken and 
successfully accomplished hazardous and difficult undertakings. He 
was three times postmaster of Bronson, the first time under Van 
Buren, the second under Buchanan, and the third under Cleveland. 

His first wife was Miss Amanda Weatherby, of Jackson, who died 



in Bronson in 1860, and who bore him two children, one still living 
and a resident of Petoskey, the other dying when quite' young. His 
second wife was Miss Mattie Dovendorf, who survives him, together 
with four children, Lorenzo E. of Petoskey, Mrs. Byron Rich of Ovid, 
Grace and Eddy. He belonged to the Masonic fraternity, and always 
occupied an enviable position as an upright, honorable man. 

A. S. ROWELL. A. S. Rowell died at his home in Coldwater May 9, 
1893, at the advanced age of 81. In his death Coldwater loses a 
faithful citizen and an honest man. 

A. S. Rowell was born in Penfield, N. Y., September 25, 1812, and 
came west when a young man. Previous to residing in Coldwater he 
made his home in Hillsdale, where he was at one time sheriff. He 
afterward moved to White Pigeon and resided there a few years, after 
which he made Coldwater his home and has since resided there. 

He came to Coldwater forty years ago, and in 1847 was married to 
Miss Eleanor Pratt, who died in January, 1892. To them were born 
four children, only two of whom, Frank Rowell, of Buffalo, N. Y., and 
Mrs. Stuart, of Coldwater, survive. 





Date of death. 


James M Abell 

Battle Creek 

June 7, 1892 




Penn field 



Mrs Thomas Reardon 

Battle Creek 



Mrs. Maria Clute 


28 1 


John Welch 




Mrs C P White 


July 10 


Isaac C. Mott 

Battle Creek 



John N. Farmer - 



Hubert Sears *" 

it it 

27 ..I 


Daniel Berger 

it tt 



Mrs. Henrietta Drier 




Mrs. Cordelia Curtis... 

Battle Creek... 

August 3... 






Date of death. 



August 10 


A J Noyes 

Battle Creek 



Pearl Codling 



j 4 



Michael Taffee 


Sept. 20 


Le Roy 



Battle Creek 



John Pratt 




Mrs Sophy Almon 

Rice Creek 



JHeiiry Andrus .... 

Battle Creek 



.Henry Pierson - 




Smith Woolsey 




E N Edmunds 

Marshall . 

October 4 


Margaret Kedmond 




James Ferguson 

Battle Creek 



Mrs. Louisa Goodwin 




Mary J. Pringle 



Mrs Clarissa Roberts 

Le Roy 



James Toole 

Pennfield . 



Mrs. Clarissa Roberts 

Battle Creek 



Horatio Perry 


November 15 


John Howlett 

Battle Creek 



Mrs Henry Toss 


25. .. 


Alonzo Taylor 




Cornelius Bogardns 



Mrs. Nancy Nichols 

Battle Creek 



Miss Elizabeth Finlay 

January6, 1893.... 


Mrs. John Potter 




Mrs. Barbery Erhman 




Mrs- Susan Robinson 

Battle Creek 



Wm. Laker, Sr. 




Manlius Mann 

Marshall . . . 



David E. Fero 

February 2 


Mrs. Caroline Conkey 




Mrs. R. Sanley 

Battle Creek 



George Smith 




IraT. Butler 

Battle Creek 



Mrs. Lorenzo R. Peebles 



Nathan Rockwell 




Mrs. Philanda Tenuey 

Battle Creek . . 



Nathan Rogers 

Pine Creek 







Date of death. 


Mrs Rhoda Beardsley 


March 1 


Mrs. Joseph Cook 

Battle Creek 



Mrs Geo W Adams 




Trnman W. Williams 

Battle Creek 






Le Boy 



John Beers 




Miss Sarah W. Wheelock . . 

Battle Creek 



Mrs Ann J Kellogg 



Andrew Her rick 


April 1 


Wm Watsoa 




Benjamin H. Crandall 

Battle Creek 

5 .. 


Mrs. Margaret Sly 



Mrs Elvira A Pike 




John Spanlding 




Rd<wn Hammond 

Convis .__ 



Marvin Eggleston .. _ 

Battle Creek 



Mrs John Spooner, Sr. 




Dorastns Green, Jr. 




Mrs. Esther Van Winkle . 

Battle Creek 



Wm. H. Green 

t> it 



Mrs. Ann L Lapham 

4* 41 



Mrs. Dr. A, 8. Johnson 




Mrs. Sarah L. Sackett 

it U 



Mrs. Helen Perry 




Mrs. Susan A. Reynolds 

Battle Creek 

May 4 


Mrs. Mary L. Fnller 



Mrs. Mary I. Hinchman 

H 4t 



Mrs Mary C Thomason 




James Hameston 




Mrs. G. W. Dryer f 

Marengo . 



Mrs. Daniel Crawford .... 




Philemon Austin 




Jacob Mahien 




Joseph Mercer 




Charles Scoon ... 



Mary Swart 

Le Roy 



Mrs. Inman 

Battle Creek 

June 5 


WILLIAM D. ADAMS. William D. Adams died Friday, March 31, 
1893, at Marshall, Mich., aged 53 years. 

William DeForest Adams was born in Burlington, Calhoun county, 


Michigan, June 5, 1839. His parents, William and Mehetabel Adams, 
were among the first pioneers of Calhoun county, coming from the 
state of New York to the territory of Michigan in 1834. His father, 
who was a man of intelligence and large influence, located the land 
and platted the village of Burlington, where William D. spent his 
childhood and performed the sturdy duties of a farmer's son in pioneer 
life, attending the district school and experiencing the privations and 
hardships of those primitive times in Michigan. He was a student of 
Coldwater high school and at Albion college and acquired a good 
education but did not complete a full collegiate course of study. He 
followed the calling of teacher for a time. He was married to Sarah 
M. Setford, of Albion, Mich., January 18, 1862, who now survives him. 
He leaves two children, Miss Lena, of Marshall, and Frank D., a 
classical student at Michigan University, one daughter having died in 

Mr. Adams possessed a good mechanical talent and had a taste for 
machinery, but his love of study and intellectual pursuits led him to 
choose the law as the field for his life work. He commenced the 
study of his chosen profession in 1863, with Sidney Thomas, of 
Marshall, and completed his law reading as a student with Hughes 
and Wooley and was admitted to the bar on the 28th of November, 
1864. He immediately commenced his career as a lawyer in Marshall, 
where he continued in active practice until his death. 

Mr. Adams held the office of deputy commissioner of internal 
revenue and of United States commissioner under the federal govern- 
ment. He was four years justice* of the peace and two years city 
attorney of the city of Marshall and was also circuit court commis- 
sioner of Calhoun county for six years. In these official positions he 
discharged the duties with great fidelity and marked ability, thereby 
reflecting honor upon himself and giving universal satisfaction to the 
public whose interests he so carefully served. His professional 
associates, who are the most competent judges, speak very highly of 
his judicial* opinions and decisions, and credit him with judicial 
qualities of a high order. 

As an attorney and solicitor, Mr. Adams has been connected with 
numerous important cases in the State and federal courts, and has 
filled responsible positions in the trials and determinations of these 
causes. Among the number we recall the Perrin- Kellogg cases, the 
numerous cases growing out of the Perrin and Sibley estates and the 
Wait-Kellogg cases, which attracted much attention at the time and 
were contested to the end by the leading lawyers of the State. He 


had among his clients many prominent business men and concerns, 
which attest his standing and ability as a lawyer. 

Mr. Adams was endowed by nature with a fine physique and a 
vigorous mind. He was self-reliant in forming his opinions, and 
independent in drawing conclusions. In short, he thought and acted 
for himself, and was not accustomed to allow others to think for him. 
He was studious in his habits and had a taste for intellectual research. 
In politics he was a republican but not a blind partisan. Though 
retiring in disposition and having no taste for formal society, he was 
genial and warm hearted to his friends and was esteemed most by 
those who knew him best. He was sincere and honest as a man and 
as a citizen and will be greatly missed in Marshall. 

MRS. MARIA DYGERT ARNOLD. Mrs. Maria Dygert Arnold, the 
subject of this sketch, died at her home in Battle Creek, August 9, 
1892. She was born in Verona, Oneida county, N. Y., in the year 
1837, where she resided during her girlhood and until her marriage to 
Mr. A. 0. Arnold, January 1, 1856. In the year 1857 Mrs. Arnold 
came with her husband to Battle Creek, Mich., and has lived in this 
city 35 years. The deceased was well known and very highly esteemed 
in this community. She was a woman of excellent judgment and good 
sense and in no way calculated to stimulate anything like malice in 
the breast of anyone with whom she came in contact. On the contrary 
she was constituted to win respect and gratitude from all who knew 
her. She had "malice toward none but charity toward all." She will 
be especially remembered as the friend of the poor and unfortunate 
whose interests were very near to her heart, and whose cause she 
unselfishly espoused. Her bounty quietly and unostentatiously dis- 
pensed, often cheered the heart that was ready to faint. Surely, 
considering her surroundings, her record should stand as a beacon light 
for others to follow. 

NATHANIEL A. BARNEY. Nathaniel A. Barney, landlord of the 
Occidental Hotel, Muskegon, died October 31, 1892, of stomach 
troubles, aged 68 years. He was born at Silver Creek, N. Y., and with 
his parents moved in 1833 to Battle Creek. He came to Muskegon in 
1868 and went into the hotel business, which he has followed ever 
since. In his service of nearly a quarter of a century he has seen 
Muskegon grow from a hamlet to one- of the principal cities of the 
State, and step by step his business has grown with it. Last spring 
he commenced the erection of a four story stone structure, which is 


nearly completed, and makes the hotel the largest and finest on the 
shore. Mr. Barney was most favorably known by the traveling public 
which he had served so long. 

Mr. Barney's family was among the earliest settlers in Battle Creek. 
The old Barney hotel, two miles west of the city, is still standing, and 
goes by that name. The deceased will be remembered by all the older 

MRS. LOUISA H. BEVIER. Another of the early settlers of Le Roy, 
Calhoun county, Mich., has passed from earth to heaven. 

Mrs. Louisa H. Bevier died of old age, at the home of her nephew, 
Elon D. Bushnell, October 18, 1892. Twenty- three years ago the 15th 
of October, her husband, Win. Bevier, entered into rest. Her marriage 
dates back to 1846. She was a New Englander by birth and a native 
of Connecticut, where she was born on June 11, 1804, and where she 
lived about 36 years. Her family were of French Huguenot origin, and 
her early ancestors came from England to America more than 250 
years ago, being among the first settlers of Guilford and Saybrook, 
Conn. She was the daughter of Christian and Prudence Bushnell, and 
the last of several sons and daughters to depart this life. The family 
name included at least six ministers, of whom the late Dr. Horace 
Bushnell, of Hartford, Conn., was one. Her brothers, Eev. Asa W. 
and Deacon John H. Bushnell, and her sister, Mrs. Dudley N. 
Bushnell, have long been known to and familiar with the early settlers 
of Le Eoy and adjacent towns. Dudley N. and wife came in the 
autumn of 1837 and were followed by John H. arid wife the following 
autumn. Then in 1840 the remainder of the family came. Her brother 
Eev. Asa W. becoming the first regular pastor of the church then 
known as the first Presbyterian church of Le Eoy, but since 1846 has 
been the first Congregational church of Le Eoy. 

For more than half a century therefore she has been identified with 
this church and with the community. Her life has been that of a 
quiet, consistent Christian, a devoted daughter, sister, and wife, a true, 
trusty and much loved friend and neighbor. 

Her money has been given with a liberal hand for the support of 
the church she loved so much for the various benevolent causes and to 
bless her friends and neighbors. 

Since the death of her sister, Mrs. Dudley N. Bushnell, four years 
ago, she has made her home where she died, making frequent visits to 
her own house near by, where her things remained in position 


just as she used them, so many years. At the ripe age of 88, blind 
and helpless, she quietly and peacefully "fell asleep in Jesus." 

MBS. ANN THOMPSON BURLAND. Mrs. Ann Thompson Burland, one 
of the oldest pioneers, died at the home of her son, William, in 
Eckford, February 7, 1893. 

Deceased was born in Rickle, Yorkshire, England, November 28, 
1808. She sailed from England June, 1830, with her husband and 
three little girls. Eliza, now Mrs. Henry Williams, of Whitewater, 
Wis.; Betsey (deceased), wife of Jas. Watrous, of Marshall; Ann, wife 
of Augustus Turner, of Stanberry, Mo. 

After a long and tedious journey they reached Detroit, remaining 
there about a year, during which time a little son was born to them 
who died at that place. From Detroit they moved to the farm known 
as the Geo. Bentley farm in Marshall township, where their son, 
William, was born. They next came to Fredonia. where Mr. Burland 
located a large tract of land, he being the first man to break a furrow 
in that township. Here were born Alice (deceased), wife of Wm. 
McCue, of Plain view, Minn.; Merenda, wife of John Brown, of St. 
Louis, Mo. 

They endured the hardships incident to early pioneer life remaining 
at this home until the death of Mr. Burland. 

Mrs. Burland was baptized in the Episcopal church of England and 
was at the time of her death a member of Trinity church, Marshall. 

J. MARTIN CALDWELL. J. Martin Caldwell died in Florida, where 
he had gone for his health, March 8, 1893, aged 63 years. 

Deceased was born in Pennsylvania, September 18, 1829. He 
removed to Michigan with his parents, Mr. and Mrs. John Caldwell, 
in 1834, and located in Verona, which was then a rival of Battle 
Creek. Afterwards the family removed to Battle Creek. 

When about nineteen years of age, Mr. Caldwell commenced his 
business career as a clerk in the drug store of A. T. Havens, where 
the store of E. R. Smith is now located. Mr. Havens came from 
Palmyra, N. Y., and had bought out the drug stock of Beach & Taylor. 
In 1843 Mr. Havens started another drug store across the street in 
what was known as the old checkered building, where Preston's shoe 
store is now located. Ttye store was run in the name of Mr. Havens' 
brother-in-law, Franklin Smith, but Mr. Caldwell had charge of the 
business. When Mr. Caldwell left the store of Mr. Havens to take 
charge of the new place of business, Mr. Wm. Andrus- took his old 
position and commenced his career as a drug clerk. 

52 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

After running this business for several years Mr. Havens discon- 
tinued the new store. 

In 1851, when the gold fever had seized upon the people of the 
country and all the young men were going to the new Eldorado, Mr. 
Caldwell made the trip by water. He remained in the golden state 
several years, engaged in mining, and then returned to Battle Creek. 
Upon his return to Battle Creek he was married to Mrs. Helen Parker, 
daughter of the late John Nichols. 

He entered into the boot and shoe business in a building on the 
site of the store now occupied by James Geddes. The firm was 
Caldwell & Galloway. Charles Peters afterwards bought the interest 
of Mr. Galloway, and the firm became Caldwell & Peters. Subse- 
quently Peters sold out to Mr. Caldwell. 

When the old Battle Creek House was destroyed by fire the 
buildings on the opposite corner, one of which was occupied by 
Caldwell, were also burned. He lost his entire stock. He then moved 
into the store in the Andrus block now occupied by Jacobs. 

In April, 1876, he moved into the store now occupied by Harbeck 
& Livingston and continued in business until May, 1891, when he sold 
out to the above firm and retired from business on account of his 

From the above it will be seen that the deceased was not only an 
old pioneer but a prominent business man. He leaves a wife and one 
son, Ned Caldwell, two brothers, James T. and Josiah, of Battle Creek, 
and two sisters, Mrs. Al. Tichenor, of Battle Creek, and Mrs. W. B. 
Buck, of Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Deceased was a member of the Athelstan Club and the American 
Legion of Honor. 

MRS. BETSEY CROSSETT. Mrs. Betsey Crossett died February 10, 
1893, at the residence of her son, C. D. Crossett, Battle Creek, in the 
100th year of her age. Mrs. Crossett was born in Washington county, 
N. Y., on July 9, 1793, and had she have lived until July this year 
she would have been 100 years old. It is very seldom that such age 
is attained by people whose faculties are unimpaired and who 
apparently enjoy their life in the last stages as did Mrs. Crossett. 
While young she married Daniel Crossett, and together they lived a 
pleasant and devoted life. For over fifty years Mrs. Crossett has been 
a widow. She was the mother of four children, and at the time of 
her death was a member of her oldest son's family. Her other children 
are Mrs. Betsey Ann Lynn, of Fredonia, N. Y., Mrs. D. L. Green, of 


Chicago, and Benjamin Crossett, of Janesville, Wis. Deceased has been 
a resident of Battle Creek for over thirty years, and a member of the 
Baptist church for over eighty-three years. She was a great singer, 
and the old time hymns were on her lips most of the time while she 
was busying herself about her self imposed household duties. Her 
love of music was extraordinarily good, and her last years were passed 
in song. She had a remarkable voice for one of her age. In the 
summer, when the weather has been agreeable, she took her daily 
walk, and appeared to be greatly pleased and interested in all the 
improvements that came under her observation. She had a horror of 
war, having lived through the struggles of 1812 and 1861. Her declin- 
ing years were truly a second childhood, and she looked forward to the 
future with all the pleasant anticipation that characterizes youth. She 
was kind, affectionate, and hopeful, and all who had the pleasure of 
her acquaintance will reverence her memory with love and respect. 

HARVEY J. DUBOIS. In the death of Harvey J. Dubois, which 
occurred April 25, 1893, South Battle Creek loses its last old pioneer. 

He was born in Saratoga county, N. Y., on the 5th of January, 
1825. His parents, Peter and Sallie Dubois, together with their three 
children, Harvey J., James G., and Esther M., moved to Michigan in 
]836, and located on a farm in South Battle Creek, where five years 
later a second daughter, Anthenette, was born to them. Harvey was 
eleven years of age when he came to this place, and he has continued 
to reside here up to the time of his death. Fifty-seven years of life, 
full of lively interest known only to early days in Michigan, coming 
here among the first, he has noted the rapid development and its 
present high position among its sister states. All this goes to make 
up such a life. 

At the age of twenty-eight he was married to Cynthia J. Stickney, 
of his native state. The 7th of April was their 40th marriage 

To Mr. and Mrs. Dubois were born three children, Charlotte E., L. 
Louette, and Cayton H. 

Mr. Dubois was a successful farmer, careful and judicious in his 
calculations, keeping well the fertility of his farm, giving to his 
beautiful home a fruitful and prosperous appearance. 

In politics he was not partisan. He might be said to be inde- 
pendent; governed always by what he thought was right. All his 
transactions in life were honorable and upright, even in temper, not 


passionate or unkind, with none to point at a single instance where he 
did them an injustice. 

He was interested in the welfare of his brother farmer, and was 
zealous in bettering his condition as a class. He joined the Grange 
organization at the first, and continued an active member up to the 
last few years, retaining unabating interest, but unable to attend on 
account of his blindness. 

Of his family, his wife and daughter, Mrs. L. Louette Woods, her 
husband and four little grandchildren are all that remain. Of his 
father's family, James G. Dubois, of Battle Creek, and Mrs. Anthenette 
McCollum, who resides at Lawrence, are all that survive. 

MRS. WILLIAM Goss. Chloe A. Norton was born in Connecticut, 
September 27, 1819, soon afterward removing to New York state. In 
1836 she came with her parents to Marshall, Mich., and on February 
5, 1837, was married to Wm. Goss. The same year they located on a 
farm two miles north and east of Bellevue, and in 1839 purchased a 
large farm in Convis, where they have since resided. A large family 
of children came to bless their home, only one of whom, Mrs. I. D. 
Brackett, is now living. Mrs. Goss died February 15, 1893, aged 73 
years, 4 months, and 18 days, having lived with Mr. Goss 56 years and 
10 days. 

JAMES W. HATCH. James W. Hatch, a Calhoun county pioneer of 
of 1836 type, died at his home in Fredonia, August 16, 1892, aged 63 
years. Mr. Hatch was pretty generally known, having resided in the 
county ever since he first arrived, with the exception of three years 
which he spent in California during the gold fever. He was a veteran 
of the war, enlisting in the 9th Michigan infantry and was afterward 
transferred to the 18th Michigan. He was a prosperous farmer and a 
good man. His aged wife, nee Julia Austin of Clarendon, survives 
him, besides three sons, Jesse M. of Marshall, Geo. W. of Chadron, 
Neb., and Ernest of Fredonia; two daughters, Mrs. Z. Enos and Mrs. 
Stephen Smith, both of Fredonia, and two sisters, Mrs. E. Marble of 
Marshall and Mrs. Robert Starks of Fredonia. Another daughter, Mrs. 
Cobb, died in Dakota about a year ago. Mr. Hatch was a devoted 
member of the G. A. R. 

SAMUEL J. HENDERSON. Samuel J. Henderson died at his residence 
in Albion on Feb. 21, 1893, aged 74 years. This death, so sudden, so 
unexpected to nearly all our citizens, brought a shock to the community, 
and a feeling of deep sadness everywhere. No more familiar figure 
walked the streets of our city than Mr. Henderson. Bright, genial, 


companionable, to meet him was always a pleasant incident of a walk 
down the street. 

He was born at Royalton, N. Y., Aug. 25, 1819. At the age of twelve 
he followed the tide of emigration from the Empire state to the 
wilds of Michigan, and located at Jackson. At the age of twenty-five, 
a carpenter by trade, he came to Albion, and resided here continuously 
from that time until his death. 

Always a man who participated in public affairs, he has steadily 
held some office or other during his entire residence in this city. For 
more than thirty years he was either sheriff, under sheriff or deputy 
sheriff. He was elected to the office of sheriff in the fall of 1880, and 
served one term. He was elected supervisor of the township of 
Sheridan several times before Albion became a city, and after that was 
continuously supervisor of the second ward. An old resident says that 
Mr. Henderson was a member of the Calhoun county board of super- 
visors, with scarcely a skip, for twenty years. 

Mr. Henderson was married Nov. 30, 1850, to Miss Julia E., 
daughter of Dr. Packard. From this union three children were born. 
Two of them, Seward and Ellsworth, died at the ages of two and four 
respectively. The daughter, Dora, is the wife of J. Kussell Sackett,~of 
Saginaw. Mrs Henderson died June 30, 1874. May 25, 1883, he 
married Miss Anna Whapples who, with her little daughter Ethel, 
survives him. He also leaves a brother and sister in Oakland, Cal., 
and a sister in Jackson. 

MRS. ELIAS HEWITT. The death of Mrs. Elias Hewitt, which 
occurred at her home in Marshall on Monday, March 6, 1893, removes 
a citizen who has been closely identified with Marshall since an early 

Mrs. Hewitt was born in Cattaraugus county, N. Y., April 24, 1819, 
and was married June 10, 1841, at Berger, Genesee county, N. Y. 
Together with her husband she removed to Michigan in 1844, and 
settled in Leonidas, St. Joseph county. In November, 1846, she 
settled in Marshall and lived there up to the time of her death. 

She was strictly domestic in her tastes and habits and deeply 
attached to family and home. She enjoyed the love of all who knew 
her and will not soon be forgotten. Her whole life was of a Christian 
character and she tried to do good to all around her and especially to 
her family. She leaves to mourn her death, her husband, Elias 
Hewitt, Esquire, a daughter, Mrs. M. A. Blue, and a son, Chas. E. 
Hewitt, of Detroit. 


RUSSELL M. HOWARD. Russell Marshall Howard, one of the early 
settlers of East Eckford, and a highly esteemed citizen of that locality 
up 'to a few years ago, when he removed to Redfield, S. Dakota, died 
February 18, 1893, of diabetes. The Redfield Journal-Observer says: 

"An old and respected citizen, a kind and loving father has gone 1o 
his rest. Russell M. Howard was born in Schoharie county, N. Y., 
February 10, 1813, and was just 80 years and 8 days old at the time 
of his death. His boyhood days were spent in New York state and he 
removed with f his parents to Oneida county, the same state, and lived 
there for a number, of years. In 1849 he decided to start out into the 
world for himself and came west, locating in Michigan. He finally 
settled down in Calhoun county, that state. In 1850 he was married 
to -Emeline Morse, who died here in October, 1889. He came to 
Dakota in January, 1883, and located in Redfield. Shortly afterward 
he took up a homestead in Faulk county, which he finally transferred 
to his only surviving daughter, Mrs. W. H. Smith, of Faulk county. 

"Mr. Howard always took a great deal of interest in the political 
affairs of the nation. He was one of the original old line whigs, 
having been one of the first in the organization of the republican 
party in Michigan. 

" He had been in failing health ever since the death of .his faithful 
companion of many years, whose loss he keenly felt because of physi- 
cal infirmities. 

"As the junior member of Hatch & Howard, he has been in 
business here for some years, though not actively engaged about the 

" He leaves a daughter and son to mourn his loss, the former, Mrs. 
W. H. Smith, of Faulk county, and Chas. T. Howard our honored 

MRS. JANE I. HUBBARD. Jane Ives Hubbard, wife of Deacon C. B. 
Hubbard, died at her home in Battle Creek, May 2, 1893. Deceased 
was born January 16, 1812, and was in the eighty-second year of her 
age. She has been a resident of this community since 1842. She 
leaves four children: H. H. Hubbard and Mrs. Mary Sherman, of 
Battle Creek; Dan. J. Hubbard and Mrs. T. B. Simons, of Chicago. 

DAVID JEFFERY. David Jeffery died at his home in Marengo, Mich., 
September 15, 1892, aged 67 years, 10 months, and 22 days. He was 
born in Warwickshire, Eng., October 22, 1824, came to New York in 
1844 and to Marengo in 1845, where he has since resided. Mr. Jeffery 
was a man of sterling worth, honest purpose, and strong will, possess- 


ing all the essentials of a good citizen, neighbor and friend, and as 
such will be greatly missed. He leaves a wife, one son, Allen D., and 
two daughters, Misses Ada and Silian G., to mourn their loss. 

DK. HENRY L. JOY. Dr. Henry L. Joy died very suddenly at his 
home in Marshall, June 21, 1892. 

Dr. Joy was born amid the beautiful Swiss scenery of western New 
York at Ludlowville, on the shores of Cayuga lake, January 25, 1822. 
He came of sturdy New England stock, his remote ancestor, Thomas 
Joy, emigrating from Hingham, Norfolk Co., England, with Winthrop 
in 1630. 

His father, Arad Joy, was a leading citizen of western New York, a 
man of very marked traits of character, who gave to all his children 
the highest educational advantages to be obtained in this country and 
at foreign universities. 

Dr. Henry L. Joy was educated at the Ovid academy and at the 
celebrated school at Lenox, Mass., and took a four years literary 
course at Union college, receiving his decree of B. A. from that greatest 
of college presidents, Dr. Eliphalet Nott, in 1844. While at Union 
college he not only held a good rank in his studies but he was a prime 
social favorite, being elected to the highest office in the society of 
which he was a member. After the completion of his literary course 
he commenced the study of medicine at Bellevue Medical college, New 
York City, from which institution he went to the Jefferson Medical 
college of Philadelphia, at that time with a reputation by far the 
highest and a faculty the ablest in this country, where he took his 
degree of M. D., March 28, 1849. After practicing for a short time in 
what is now upper New York City, he came to Marshall in the fall of 
1849, where, with the exception of six months in the winter of 1859 
spent in study in the hospitals of New York City, he has continued 
since to practice with eminent success his profession. 

On April 16, 1851. at St. John's church, Buffalo, N. Y., by Rev. M. 
Schuyler, he was married to Caroline Schuyler, youngest daughter of 
Anthony Day Schuyler. 

Though unambitious for official place and of a most retiring disposi- 
tion, Dr. Joy always took an active interest in public affairs, being 
elected to the office of alderman and mayor of Marshall and was for 
many terms and at the time of his death, health officer of the city. 

He was also at different times president of the United States pension 
examining board, president of the Calhoun county Medical society and 
member of the State Medical society of Michigan, and the National 


58 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

Academy of Medicine. Though not a communicant, he was during all 
his life in Marshall an active supporter of Trinity church and for some 
years a vestryman. 

Dr. Joy was by nature gifted with a clear strong mind, and was 
always a great reader, student and thinker, not only in his own 
profession, but in all the fields of thought. He was broad, generous 
and ever charitable in his judgments of his fellow men, viewing with 
pain their weaknesses and loving to dwell upon the bright and good 
side of every man's nature. 

Dr. Joy had five sons, of which Dr. Douglas A. Joy died in his 
bright promising young manhood five years ago. He leaves his wife 
and four sons, Clarence, Louis, Charles, and Philip, all of whom are 
living at the old home. 

GEOKGE E. LAWTON. Died at his residence in the town of Pennfield, 
October 11, 1892, George E. Lawton, of general debility. Deceased 
was born in the town of Ledyard, Cayuga county, N. Y., October 19, 
1814, where he lived until the fall of 1836, when he came to Ann 
Arbor, this State; was soon after married to Miss Sally Benhani and 
settled on a farm near Ann Arbor; removed from there to Battle 
Creek in 1865. Soon after he purchased a farm in the town of 
Pennfield, where he resided until his removal by death to join the 
great majority. 

JOSIAH LEPPEE. In the death of Josiah Lepper, which occurred at 
his home on September 10, 1892, Marshall loses one of the men that 
has been identified with its history since the early days of 1832. In 
that year Mr. Lepper arrived here and a year or so later settled on 
the land which is now the fine farm of J. E. Bentley, just north of 
the city. In 1835 he went east and married Miss Charlotte Haskin, of 
New York state, and in 1836 returned here with his wife. In com- 
pany with Lansing Kingsbury Mr. Lepper bought of Sidney Ketchum 
a portion of the Rice Creek water power, including a half acre of land, 
between the present malt house site and the creek, for $750, and there 
they built the first furnace the county ever had, making a specialty of 
manufacturing castings for " breaking-up" plows. They hauled their 
coal all the way from Detroit. Mr. Lepper was in business in 1855 a 
few months with the late Geo. B. Murray and in 1858 with S. V. E. 
Lepper he engaged in the dry goods business, which was continued up 
to the time the firm sold out to H. M. & P. Hempsted some fifteen 
years ago. From an early day up to the fifties Mr. Lepper continuously 


operated a brick yard, and was the first man to engage in that line in 
the county. The brick for the Baptist church, the Marshall House and 
other pioneer structures came from his yard. He was a whig up to 
the organization of the republican party, of which he became a 
member, and it was a matter of considerable pride to him that he 
never missed voting at a general . election of any kind. Mr. Lepper 
was 83 years old. 

MRS. EPHRAIM MARBLE. Mrs. Ephraim Marble died February 9, 
1893, at her home in Marshall. 

Mrs. Marble was a daughter of Y. M. Hatch, a native of Con- 
necticut. Her grandfather, Timothy Hatch, was also a native of that 
New England state and was a soldier of the Revolution. He removed 
from Connecticut to Cayuga Co., N. Y., where he was a farmer until 
his demise. 

Y. M. Hatch carried on farming in New York until 1837, when he 
brought his family to Michigan and bought land in Clarence township, 
this county, thus becoming one of its earliest settlers. He built in the 
woods and clearing the land around him, improved a choice farm and 
became one of the most successful farmers of his community. His 
wife, who bore the maiden name of Hannah Swift, was a very energetic 
woman and had much to do with his success. 

Mrs. Marble was the eldest of five children and was born in the 
township of Wolcott, Cayuga county, N. Y., Dec. 2, 1825. She was 
twelve years old when the family came to Michigan and has been a 
witness of most of the growth of Calhoun county. She was given 
superior educational advantages, pursuing a good course of study in a 
select school at Marshall and later at Olivet institute. She was but 
sixteen years old when she began teaching and followed that profes- 
sion some eight years. December 6, 1849, she was united in marriage 
with Ephraim Marble who one year before had returned from serving 
his country in the Mexican war. Five children were born to them all 
of whom have grown to manhood and womanhood. 

Possessing true culture and refinement she understood the art of 
making her home beautiful and attractive. While her husband was 
fighting his country's battles during the late civil war, she was left 
alone with the care of four small children. In that trying situation 
she showed no small business ability in looking after the farm and 
financial interests, and bravely endured the constant anxiety for her 
husband. Her character and training united with a loving disposition 


made her a devoted wife, an affectionate mother, and a kind and 
sympathizing friend and neighbor. 

SAMUEL W. McCREA. Samuel W. McCrea died at his home in 
Battle Creek, March 14, 1893. Mr. McCrea was born April 18, 1819, 
at Ballston Springs, Saratoga county, N. Y. When 12 years old his 
father, who was a Presbyterian minister, moved with his family to 
Dover, Ohio, and afterward to Westfield, Medina county, Ohio, where his 
mother died. While the family were living in Ohio, Mr. McCrea was 
sent to Poughkeepsie, N. Y., where he received his schooling. 
. August 7, 1846, he was married to Miss Frances M. Porter, at Mt. 
Jackson, Pa. In April, 1847, he removed to Battle Creek and engaged 
in the manufacture of hats with a Mr. Winters. The next spring he 
bought out a stock of groceries of Charles Lyon and embarked in that 
business. Subsequently he bought out Wm. H. Coleman's interest in 
the dry goods firm of Coleman & Brinkerhoff, and conducted the dry 
goods in connection with the grocery business. 

In company with George Morton, Mr. McCrea built a block in 
Decatur, Illinois, and started a grocery store, putting it in charge of 
Fred Parker. Subsequently Mr. McCrea went to Decatur, when his 
building and stock were destroyed by fire. 

Mr. McCrea was for a time in St. Paul, Minn., and in Leavenworth, 
Kan. In 1859 he returned permanently to Battle Creek and bought 
Wm. Kaymond's interest in ,the grocery store of Eaymond & Sweet, 
located in a building on the site of L. Strauss' store. Subsequently 
he bought the interest of Lucius Sweet, and conducted the business 
alone. When the old Battle Creek House was burned the flames swept 
across the street and destroyed the building and stock of Mr. McCrea. 
After the fire he moved into the old Angell building where Trump is 
now located. From there he moved to South Jefferson street in the 
store adjacent to Caldwell & Baker's; thence into the store now 
occupied by Preston; thence into the store now occupied by Reynolds 
& Ashley. He continued in the grocery business for seventeen years 
in the last store. 

On May 16, 1891, he retired from business permanently selling his 
grocery to two of his clerks, Reynolds & Ashley. 

Deceased took interest in the welfare and prosperity of our city and 
in 1878-9 was alderman from the fourth ward, and during his term of 
office served the city well and faithfully. 

He was a man of good business ability, sterling integrity and 
honesty, a worthy citizen and a kind and affectionate husband and 


He leaves a wife and three children, John W. and Miss Ida McCrea, 
of Battle Creek, and Harry McCrea, of Denver, Col. 

H. G. MONROE. H. G. Monroe died April 8, 1893, at the home of 
his son in LeRoy, aged 83 years. 

Mr. Monroe came from New York to Detroit 56 years before; from 
Detroit he went to Prairieville on horseback, and settled at South 
Haven, being the first white settler at that place. 

MRS. ORLIN PUTNAM. Mrs. Orlin Putnam died at her home in 
Eckford, March , 1893, aged 78 years. 

She was born in Rome, Oneida county, N. Y., June 6, 1815, her 
maiden name being Brown. In 1837 she came with her parents to 
Michigan, locating in Clarendon, and in the year following was united 
in marriage to Mr. Putnam. 

Mr. and Mrs. Putnam resided in Clarendon until 1856, when they 
removed to the farm in Eckford where she lived to the time of her 

She was the^ mother of nine children, six sons and three daughters, 
all of whom, with her husband, survive her. The children are Charles, 
Frank, George, Henry, John, Edwin, Louana, now Mrs. Griggs, Fanny, 
now Mrs. Van Buren, Eliza, now Mrs. Pandy. 

MRS. FIDELIA REED. Mrs. Fidelia Reed, widow of the late Asa W. 
Reed, died at her home in Albion, on February 15, 1893, in her 
sixty-fifth year. Mrs. Reed came to reside in the township of Sheridan 
as early as 1836. She was married to Asa W. Reed nearly fifty years 
ago. They lived together in Sheridan until last August, when he died. 
She then moved into Albion. She leaves a sister, two brothers, seven 
sons and two daughters. One of the sons, Prof. M. O. Reed, is 
teaching at Deer Lodge, Mont. 

WM. T. SHAFER. Wm. T. Shafer, one of the pioneers of Battle 
Creek, died at his home, March 9, 1893, of heart trouble. He had 
been sick only three weeks and his death was entirely unexpected by 
his friends. He was born in the state of New York, September 19, 
1822, consequently was in the seventy-first year of his age. He worked 
for Nichols & Shepard when that firm was located in Marshall and 
removed with them to Battle Creek in 1848, and has since been a 
resident of that city. He assisted in the building of the Nichols & 
Shepard shops on West Canal street now occupied by V. C. Wattles 
and worked for that firm for many years. For a number of years past 
he has been engaged in doing city teaming. He leaves a wife, one 


daughter, Mrs. Ida A. Damoth, and one son, W. R. Shafer, both of 
Battle Creek. 

JULIUS A. SQUIEB. Julius A. Squier died at his home in Battle 
Creek, June 2, 1893. 

He was born in New York state and was 65 years of age. 

He was a private in Co. I, eleventh Michigan Infantry and was an 
active member of Farragut Post No. 32, G. A. R. 

For many years he was engaged in the ice business in Battle Creek, 
and was well known and highly esteemed. He leaves a wife and one 
son, Arthur. 

WALLACE W. STILLSON. Wallace W. Stillson died at his home in 
Battle Creek, March 6, 1893, aged 52 years. 

Deceased was born in Keating, Pa., April 28, 1841, and moved with 
his parents at an early age to Michigan. February 18, 1862, he was 
married to Miss Amelia Nichols, and soon afterward enlisted in Co. C, 
21st Michigan Infantry, and served three years honorably and merito- 
riously. He was in the employ of Nichols & Shepard fo. for twenty- 
five years, twenty years of which time he was foreman of the engine 
paint shop. He served in the old volunteer fire department of Battle 
Creek, being a member of Union hose company No. 1, and a member 
of the running team. He was a member of Farragut Post No. 32, G. 
A. R., Security Lodge No. 44, A. O. U. W., Battle Creek Lodge, 
Modern Woodmen of America, and the Vibrator Workingmen's Society. 

Deceased leaves a wife and three children, Fred C., Helen, and 
Wallie W. 

MRS. HENRIETTA C. THOMPSON. Mrs. Henrietta C. Thompson was 
born in Lyons county, N. Y., April 29, 1817 and entered into rest at 
the home of her daughter, Mrs. Odekirk, Homer, Sunday evening, 
January 22, 1893. 

Her maiden name was Thorp. In 1837 she was united in marriage 
to James Thompson and removed with him to Port Gibson, New York. 
Six children blessed their union, three of whom survive. In 1866 they 
came to Homer where she has since resided. She was converted in 
1836 and united with the Methodist Episcopal church, of which she 
continued a true and faithful member until transferred to the church 
triumphant. Fifty-seven years a Christian, her faith grew stronger and 
brighter through all life's added years. 

Her life work is done, but her influence still lives and the memory 


of her consecrated life is embalmed in the hearts of her loved ones 
and friends. 

KEV. IRA K. A. WIGHTMAN. Eev. Ira A. Wightman, for the past 
six years presiding elder of the Albion district of the Michigan 
Conference, died at his home in Albion, December 10, 1892. The 
immediate cause of his death was heart failure. 

Ira E. A. Wightman was born at Trenton, N. J., March 30, 1836. 
He was a well educated and self-made man, as shown by the fact that 
his school life was limited \o six terms. He was converted and joined 
the M. E. church at Frankfort, N. Y., in September, 1854. He came 
to Michigan in April, 1855, and was licensed as an exhortor the next 
year. He obtained a license as a local preacher at Holly, June 15, 
1856, and was ordained a deacon at Battle Creek by Bishop E. R. 
Ames October 6, 1861. He was ordained an elder at Hillsdale, 
September 9, 1863, by Bishop M. Simpson. He was married to 
Harriet A. Barnard, November 30, 1862. Three sons and one daughter 
resulted from this marriage, all of whom, with the mother, survive 
him. The deceased had made Albion his home for the past six years, 
coming from Niles, where he held a three years' appointment. 

EDWIN WILLIAMS. Edwin Williams, an old resident of Homer, died 
December 29, 1892, at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Albert Laker. 

Mr. Williams was born at Great Barrington, Mass., November 25, 
1814. When seven years of age he came with his parents to New 
York state, where he lived until he came to Michigan 43 years ago. 

Two sons and a daughter survive him, Erastus, who resides at 
Allegan; Willard, whose home is in Butler, and Mrs. Albert Laker, of 

A. J. VAN DUSEN. A. J. Van Dusen, a son of Jacob Van Dusen, 
was born at Canajoharie, Montgomery county, N. Y., July 12, 1813. 
Death came February 25, 1893, at the age of 79 years, 7 months and 
13 days. 

In the spring when but 19 years old, Mr. Van Dusen came to 
Michigan, settling then at Augusta, Kalamazoo county, where he 
remained until he moved to Marshall 55 years ago. When but twenty 
years old he was married to Miss Hannah Austin, of Galesburgh, Mich. 
To this union was born their only son, Jerry Van Dusen, whose death 
less than a year ago was a great shock to his father. The death of 
his first wife occurred thirteen years ago. 

He has owned, bought, and sold twenty-seven houses in the city of 

64 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

Marshall. He was united in marriage to his second wife, Miss Cicely 
C. Perkins, of Beloit, Wis., September 17, 1882, who now is the 
widow; also of those to mourn, there are three grandsons, with their 
mother, the widow of the late Jerry Van Dusen. Two brothers of the 
deceased are yet living, residing, so far as is known, in New York 
state. Joseph Van Dusen is in the old home in Charleston, N. Y., 
where his father resided until death. 

JOHN P. VANHORN. John P. VanHorn, engineer on the Michigan 
Central railroad, who died at his home in Marshall August 16, 1892, 
was born in Marshall, Calhoun county, Mich., August 18, 1842, and 
was the son of John A. and Mary Ann (Clemments) VanHorn; father 
a native of Germany and a pioneer of Calhoun county; mother a 
native of Vermont. Mr. VanHorn was raised on a farm, working 
summers and attending school winters. When 17 years of age he went 
to Niles where he worked driving dray, and in 1863 commenced on 
railroad as fireman; in 1867 was promoted to engineer, which position 
he filled up to the time of his death. Since he took charge of an 
engine he never injured a passenger or pinched a brakeman's fingers. 
He married Miss Sarah Davis, daughter of William Davis, of Niles, 
Mich. There were two children, Charles, born November 21, 1868, and 
John R., born July 19, 1872. Mrs. VanHorn's parents were also early 
settlers of Michigan. Mr. VanHorn was a member of Jackson lodge 
No. 17. 

MRS. CATHARINE W. VANTUYLE. The subject of this article, Mrs. C. 
W. VanTuyle, finished her earthly career at her late home near 
Crowville, La., September 27, 1892, in her forty-eighth year. She was 
born December 18, 1844, in Scipio, Hillsdale county, Mich., and at 
seven years of age came with her father's (Wm. Minor) family to 
Battle Creek township, in the neighborhood now known as " North 
Le Hoy," where she remained a citizen over forty years until in 
November, 1890, when they went south. Twenty-nine years ago she 
was married to James W. VanTuyle, who with four sons and two 
daughters remain to realize their loss. Her sons, James C., George C. 
and Wayne D., are in Battle Creek township and city. Mrs. Ruby 
Cole, Willie, and Irene VanTuyle are still in Louisiana. Her brother, 
E. H. Minor, of North Le Roy, now owns the old homestead where 
her childhood and school days were passed, and from which she went 
a bride, into a new home across the way. Her oldest child, Freddie, 
while in infancy, preceded her to the heavenly home. In early life 


she embraced Christianity, and was ever active in every good work. 
She was the founder of the North Le Roy Missionary society and a 
prominent member of the Farmers' Alliance and of the Methodist 



DR. LEVI ALDRICH. Dr. Levi Aldrich died at Edwardsburgh, 
December 16, 1892, aged 73 years. He several times represented Cass 
county in the State legislature and was a member of the constitutional 
convention of 1867. 

MRS. RACHEL BYRON. Mrs. Rachel Byron died in Detroit March 16, 
1893, at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Julia Gates, in the 86th year 
of her age. 

Mrs. Byron was the mother of our friend and townsman, John 
Tietsort (of whom a sketch is also found in this report). 

She was first married to Abram Tietsort, Jr., in 1826. By this 
marriage she had six children, five of whom are now living, viz., John, 
Julia, Perry, Ira, and Wesley; and, so far as is known, Julia was the 
second white female child born in Cass county. 

Mrs. Byron's second marriage, to the Rev. Joseph Byron, of the M. 
E. church, occurred in 1841. The offspring of this marriage was four 
children, viz., Melissa, Linnie, Elizabeth, and Joseph Edgar. 

Few, if any of the pioneers of this county now living, can recount 
so many stirring events in the history of southwestern Michigan as 
could Mrs. Byron in her life time. 

In 1831 she settled with her then husband, Abram Tietsort, Jr., on 
the east bank of Stone lake, but a few rods north of where the bowl 
factory now stands. Then the country was in possession of wild beasts 
and savages, who roamed at will through its forests, and over its 
plains, lakes, and rivers, claiming title direct from the Great Spirit. 
Then dense forests nearly surrounded Cassopolis and covered the site 
of this capitol of Cass county. Then the howl of the wolf, and the 
barking of the fox furnished music to the early settlers, as each day's 


sun went down; and the fleet, timid movements of herds of deer as 
they came to view the settlers' cabins, were suggestive of juicy venison 
steak to eat with hominy, when the hard day's work was done. Too 
much cannot be said in behalf of those sturdy pioneers, men and 
women, who first settled in southwestern Michigan. 

"Their rough log cabins! in fancy I see them still; 
And old memories rush up to tell me, I always will. 
Many privations; trials, harrassing doubts and fears 
Came o'er them: tried their metal almost to tears; 
Who then believed this nursery of stalwart men; 
Would soon develop into a State so grand? No one, then." 

As one of this class, Mrs. Byron performed her duties well and 
faithfully in those early days. Whether as wife, mother, or friend, 
she stood high in the esteem of all who became acquainted with her, 
or shared with her the hardships incident to pioneer life. All loved 
her for those high social qualities which go far to lighten the burdens 
of human existence; and now that she has gone from among us, we 
can do no less than reverently invoke God's blessings upon her, and 
those of her offspring she left behind. 

MRS. MINERVA B. DUNNING. Minerva Reynolds was born November 
13, 1803, in the township of Lansing, Tompkins county, N. Y. 
January 12, 1824, she was united in marriage with Allen Dunning, in 
the township of Scipio, Cayuga county, N. Y., who was the first white 
child born in that township. Immediately after their marriage they 
settled in Erie county, Pennsylvania, where Mr. Dunning had 
previously located land and erected a log house for the reception of 
his bride. There they passed the first twelve years of their married 
life, when attracted by the opportunities of the then far west they 
removed to Michigan, arriving at Edwardsburgh in July, 1836. This 
country was then enjoying what would now be called a " boom," and 
they paid $7 an acre to John Hudson for his location on section 11, 
which he had located and bought from the government in 1830. This 
is the same farm where her husband died on the 10th of December, 
1869, and where she lived until her death. She was the mother of 
twelve^ children, five daughters and seven sons, four daughters and five 
sons survive her, all of whom were present at the funeral except one 
daughter, who is in ill health. The deceased in her early years was a 
member of the Christian church, but her husband being a firm 
believer in the final restitution of all souls, she joined with him in 


opening their doors to that blessed doctrine. She died on the morning 
of the 3 1st of March, 1893, aged 89 years, 4 months, and 17 days. 

The home was one of unbounded hospitality, and in an early day 
was known far and wide as a place from which none were ever 
suffered to go away hungry, disconsolate or uncomforted. It was 
especially known as an asylum and recruiting station for traveling 
Universalist preachers, and many of the most eminent divines of that 
church have found hearty welcome beneath its roof, where they 
frequently held services, proclaiming the everlasting and universal 
redemption of all mankind, to those who were tired of the narrow 
dogmas of partial salvation of the other churches. In a history of 
Cass county, published in 1882, the author speaks of the deceased and 
their large family, as follows: 

"Mrs. Dunning laughingly recalls the time when numerous heads 
appeared at every available opening in the house to view the passing 
stranger; but on the same principle that many hands make light work, 
many happy hearts make a happy home, and this certainly was one; 
as much so in those early days, when deprived of the many now 
considered indispensable adjuncts of the house, as when in later years 
they became possessed of them. All who met Mrs. Dunning were 
charmed with her kindly manner and pleasantly beaming countenance, 
and it is no subject of wonder that their house was seldom without 
visitors, either friends or strangers." 

MRS. JULIA ANN HALL. Julia Ann Carr was born at Albion, N. 
Y., June 28, 1818. In 1835 she was married to Orville B. Glover, 
and with him came to Michigan and settled in Edwardsburgh in 1840, 
where she and her husband united with the Presbyterian church 
while the late Rev. Alfred Bryant was its pastor. She was the mother 
of five children, Harrison, who died about seventeen years ago, Lowell 
H., Jay, Tamerson, the wife of Geo. W. Merrill, and William. Her 
husband died in 1852, leaving her with these children, the oldest being 
but fifteen; but she cared for them and kept them together until they 
were old enough to care for themselves. In 1856 she was married to 
John Earle, who after two years left her again a widow. In the early 
part of 1861 she was married to Henry J. Hall, and went with him to 
his home in Buchanan, where she resided until her departure May 6, 
1893. Mr. Hall died in 1885, and since that time she had lived with 
her daughter. She leaves two sisters, Mrs. Jane Jerome of Laporte, 
and Mrs. Nancy B. Noyes of Edwardsburgh, and one brother, John P. 
Carr, of South Bend, five grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren. 

68 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

She was a plain woman and very domestic, caring more for home and 
family than all else. If she could make her children happy, her own 
happiness was complete. The children for whom she toiled during 
their infancy, having laid her to rest, unite in saying that her memory 
shall remain with them and that her precepts shall guide them. 

CHARLES H. KINGSBUEY. Charles H. Kingsbury died at his home in 
Cassopolis, April 25, 1893. 

The deceased was born in Massachusetts and was the oldest child of 
the well known pioneer, Asa Kingsbury, deceased. He was cashier 
of the first National bank from the time of its organization until a 
year ago, and had a large personal acquaintance. He was about 63 
years of age. He leaves a wife and five daughters, one daughter 
having preceded him to the spirit land, and a number of brothers and 

JAMES KIRKWOOD. James Kirkwood was born at Beith, Ayrshire, 
Scotland, April 12, 1811. He received a common school education and 
at the age of 17 started in life for himself as a common farm hand. On 
attaining his majority he left the land of his nativity and came to the 
United States. He lived in the town of Galway, Saratoga county, N. 
Y., two years and from there went to Summit county, Ohio, where he 
remained until his removal to Cass county, Michigan, in February, 
1836, when he purchased the farm in Wayne township on which he 
lived until the death of his wife eight years ago, since then he has 
resided with his daughter in the same township. He was married in 
1840 to Isabel Brown, also a native of Ayrshire. They reared seven 
children, only two of whom are now living, Hon. John Kirkwood, now 
a member of the legislature, and Mrs. Elmer Hall. He was reared a 
Presbyterian, and though his views were somewhat, broader, clung to 
that faith through life. He was ready to go when the Master called, 
and his last words were, "It is all right, the sooner the better." He 
was an uncompromising, faithful democrat and had been a subscriber 
to the National Democrat of Cassopolis since the day of its first issue. 
He was one of the best type of the sturdy, honest pioneers whose 
courage and industry have made Cass county what it now is. He died 
at the residence of his daughter, April 20, 1893, in the 82d year of 
his age. 

JOHN KIRKWOOD. John Kirkwood, who died at his residence in 
Wayne ' township, May 14, 1893, was born and reared on the farm 
where he died. He was a bachelor and in the fifty-second year of his 


age. In this same report will be found a sketch of his father, an 
honored pioneer of the county. 

John Kirkwood was a modest, unassuming man, well known in his 
immediate vicinity, and of late years his acquaintance had been 
somewhat extended on account of having been several times elected 
supervisor of his township, and last fall being the successful candidate 
on the democratic and people's tickets for representative in the State 
legislature. He was a man of good judgment, sincere in his attach- 
ments, and of unswerving honesty. 

A committee of six of his fellow members in the legislature acted as 
pall bearers. On the day of his funeral his chair and desk in 
representative hall, at Lansing, was appropriately draped, and a page 
from the Legislative Journal of April 19, showing that on that day he 
was granted an indefinite leave of absence on account of his own poor 
health and to attend the bedside of his dying father, was surrounded 
with black crape and flowers and placed on his desk. The House also 
took a recess from noon until 7 o'clock p. m., covering the hours of 
the funeral, as a mark of respect. 

MRS. GEORGE NEWTON. Mrs. George Newton died at her home 
April 21, 1893. Esther Green was born March 25, 1819, and was 
married to Hon. George Newton December 14, 1837. 

MRS. DAVID G. BENCH. Mary E. Tharp was born in Jefferson 
township, Cass county, Mich., October 14, 1843. She was married to 
David G. Rench, December 1, 1866, and died at her home in Cassopo- 
lis April 10, 1893, aged 45 years, 4 months, and 13 days. She was the 
mother of five children, three sons and two daughters. She was 
converted in 1889, and united with the Methodist church of Cassopolis 
and has been a faithful and devoted Christian. 

JACOB W. RUMSEY. Jacob W. Rumsey was born in Monroe county, 
N. Y., on the 1st day of May, 1826, and came to Michigan when but 
a boy, settling in St. Joseph county when it was but a wilderness. 
He afterward moved to Newberg, Cass county, where he resided until 
his death, May 10, 1893, aged 67 years, 1 month, and 10 days. He 
leaves an aged widow, who is an invalid, and three daughters to mourn 
his loss. He was a kind and loving husband and father, an honest 
and upright citizen, generous to all, and quick to respond to the wants 
of the many. No one asked him for assistance but was willingly 
accommodated if within his power. His loss will be felt by the whole 

70 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

MBS. EUSEBIA SMITH. Eusebia S. Earl was born in Jefferson 
county, state of New York, in the year 1846, and moved with her 
parents to Michigan in 1852. They settled in Bangor, Van Buren 
county, where they remained until 1867, when they removed to 
Cassopolis. She was married to Thomas J. Smith in October, 1869, 
who died several years since. She died at her home April 7, 1893. 
She was a Christian lady of much influence, being at her death 
president of the church Ladies' Aid society. 

JOHN TIETSORT. John Tietsort died at his home in Cassopolis April 
29, 1893. He was born in Miltonville, Butler county, Ohio, November 
22, 1826, and was the oldest son of Abram Tietsort. His father moved 
to Niles, Mich., in April, 1828, and from there to the location where 
Cassopolis now stands, in the spring of 1830, being the first settler on 
the site of this village, where John was raised and where he resided 
until his death, with the exception of two years spent in California, he 
being one of the forty-niners carried away by the excitement of the 
gold discoveries of that period. At the end of two years he returned, 
not having accumulated any fabulous fortune, but still somewhat better 
in purse than when he left. 

He was at the time of his death the veritable "oldest inhabitant," 
having lived in the first house that was erected here, and for a longer 
time than any other living person. From the time of his return from 
California until 1873 he was actively engaged in mercantile business, 
most of the time in partnership with Charles G. Banks, the firm name 
of Banks & Tietsort being a familiar one in this locality for many 
years. The brick store now occupied by Read & Yost was built by 
them, and at the time of Mr. Tietsort's death was still owned by them. 

Mr. Tietsort had been married three times. His first wife, with 
whom he was joined November 25, 1852, was Ellen Silver Sherman, 
daughter of Elias B. Sherman. She died August 26, 1862. He was 
married to Eleanor Robinson January 26, 1864. Her death occurred 
October 27, 1869, and upon July 17, 1871, Mr. Tietsort married Addie 
Silver Robinson. He had three daughters by his first wife, Blanche 
Goucher, now a resident of Clay Center, Kansas; Ellen Graham, now 
a resident of Chicago; and Miss Florence, who resided with her father, 
and one son, Ralph, by his second wife, now a resident of Grand 
Rapids. All of whom, with his wife, survive him. 

John Tietsort was a public spirited, generous man, an excellent 
neighbor, careful and exact in his business, with a reputation without 
reproach. He was an ardent lover of music and to the promotion of 



musical culture and study in the community, especially in church 
music, he devoted a large amount of time, not professionally or for 
reward. He said during his last sickness that he had sung at over 
300 funerals. There was no singing at his funeral, all of the singers 
in the vicinity who are usually called upon on such occasion declaring 
themselves unequal to the task. 



Date of 



Date of 



Jan. 7 

Martin Maier 


Feb. 10 

John Bradner 



George Carl ton . 



Silas Aldrich 



Simeon Ten Eyke... 



Lucy Hitchcock 



Wm. Wakoff 



Mary Ann Kelley 



Thomas Hugit 



Lavina Keller 



Isaac Holton 



Bridget Porter 



Agnes Slater 



Maggie Simpson 



William Bancroft 



Olaf Ash 



David Cutler i 


Mar. 11 

Moses Tabor 



Sarah Norris 



Mrs Hathaway 



Mabala Powers. .. 



John Patterson 



Thomas Healey 



Geo. Stouser 



Wm. Albertson 



Arabella Huston 



Huelson Compton 


April 1 

Samuel Manning 



Lather Cleveland 



William Gardner 



John Smith .. __ 



William Houch 



Robert Pincomb 



Sarah Swagart 


Feb. 2 

Edward Enest 



Matilda Seymour 



John Harrington. .. 


May 2 

James Allen 



Wm. Davis 



John Thomas 



JnliaA. Enest 



O. F. Williams 



Ann M. McCatcheon... 



Henrietta Demoss 



Richard Gay 


June 1 

Selah Van Sickle 



Horace Phelps.. 


July 1 

Thompson Stearns 




Date of 



Date of 



July 17 

Elizabeth Wymer 


Dec. 1 

Ellen Newsome 



Mrs. Mary Way 



John Bottom 



Charles Lyou 



Mahalah Norris 



Iji/j/.ie Tjandenbarger 



Catherine Bray 


Aug. 2 

Sarah Emmons . ... 



Margaret J. Tripp 



Ann Amelia Perdew 


Jan. 1 

Janette Bentley 



Porter Welter 



Daniel Hawkins 


Sept. 17 

Win. Marshall 



Mrs. Lester Teachout 



Lucy Wilcox 



Mrs. Rachael Hand 



Michael Miller 



E. Shoemaker 


Oct. 7 

Riley Rhines 



O. P. Gilson 



JaneA. Rail 



Frank Faxon. 



Caroline Fish 


Mar. 8t 

Mrs. Savinna Ingraham 


Nov. 12 

Catherine Helms 


April 19 

Wm. Downham 



Hugh Boyd 


May 2 

William Sntton 



Fannie Johnson 



Mary E. Sraft 


MRS. ADELIA BARTOW. Mrs. Adelia Bartow, widow of the late Hon. 
Moses Bartow, died in Portland, January 18, 1893, in the 72d year of 
her age. She was a pioneer in this county, having come here with 
her husband about 1846 and settled upon a farm in Westphalia 
township, where they resided until thirteen years ago. They then 
moved to Pewamo, residing there about a year and from thence went 
to Portland. Mr. Bartow died eight years ago. Mrs. Bartow was the 
mother of three children, only one of whom, Mrs. C. H. Triphagen, of 
Portland, survives her. 

QUARTUS E. BRIDGEMAN. Quartus E. Bridgeman died at his home 
in St. Johns, February 8, 1893. 

Mr. Bridgeman was born at Belfast, Allegany county, N. Y., January 
20, 1822. He came to St. Johns in 1863, and had resided here 
continuously since that time. For many years he conducted a gun- 
smith shop, and was an adept at that trade. Some twelve years ago 
he was compelled to give up his business on account of rheumatic 
troubles, and for the past ten years had been confined to his invalid 
chair. He had been married forty-six 'years, and his wife, who had 
faithfully cared for him during the entire period of his suffering, and 
he was an intense sufferer, is the sole relative surviving. 


MRS. LUCY FERDON. Mrs. Lucy Ferdon died in St. Johns, January 
16, 1893, aged 58 years. Her husband, the late Lorenzo Ferdon, died 
in Greenbush about five years ago, after which event Mrs. Ferdon 
made her home in St. Johns with her only child, W. C. Ferdon. She 
was a pioneer in Clinton county, coming into the wilderness with her 
father, J. D. Bradner, when 15 years of age. Deceased leaves three 
sisters, Mrs. Belle Tinkham of Elwell, Mich., Mrs. Francis Wykoff of 
Bingham, and Mrs. Caroline Chapman of DuPlain, also one brother, 
J. W. Bradner of St. Johns. 

GRANDMA HAUSE. Grandma Hause, who has been a resident of St. 
Johns for many years, died at the home of her daughter, Mary Barnes, 
of Olive, March 13, 1893, aged 94 years. 

NATHANIEL HUNTOON. Nathaniel Huntoon died at his residence in 
Olive, April 24, 1893. The deceased was an old pioneer 85 years old, 
coming from the state of New York to this State some thirty-nine 
years ago and settled on a farm near this village. He was born in 
Lemington, Vermont, July 11, 1810, and was married to Phebe 
Lusk, in Clarendon, New York, December 19, 1835. His wife and five 
children survive him, four sons and one daughter, Mrs. M. D. Brown, 
of St. Johns; Thurman and Alvin H. Huntoon, of Eagle; Alanson, of 
Lansing; the youngest son remaining on the farm with his father. 

ALEXANDER B. KITTLE. Alexander B. Kittle, one of the oldest 
residents of Watertown township, this county, died at the home of his 
son, George E. Kittle, near Delta, May 13, 1893, after an illness of 
but one week, aged 81 years. He leaves a wife, two sons, and four 

DAVIES PARKS. Davies Parks died March 28, 1893, aged 103 years, 
5 months, and 12 days. He was born October 16, 1789, in Columbia 
county, N. Y., during the first year of the administration of George 
Washington, the first president of the United States. 

New York state was also the native place of his parents. His father 
lived to the age of 110 years and his mother to the age of 106 years, 
while his grandmother reached the age of 114 years. 

Davies Parks was the eighth child in a family of five sons and four 
daughters, and as his parents were farmers during his early life, he 
formed habits of industry and laid the foundation of a strong and 
vigorous constitution. 

His advantages to obtain an education were very limited, but possess- 


ing a remarkable memory and being of a studious nature he acquired 
a good education. By occupation he was a farmer, yet he practiced 
law as he advanced in years. 

When nineteen years of age he was married in Albany county, N. Y., 
to Catherine Coon. 

He belonged to a company of militia in New York state, and in 
1814 was called into the service in the war, where he remained until 
the close of the war, being a drum-major. He remembered well the 
battle of Sackett's Harbor in which he took an active part. 

In 1833 he moved to Sandusky county, O., where he remained about 
two years, when he moved to the territory of Michigan and settled in 
the township of Novi, Oakland county. In 1853 he moved to Dallas 
township, Clinton county, Mich., where three years later his wife died 
leaving him with eleven children. 

In 1858 he was married to Mrs. Dennis Holmes, who survives him 
at the age of 87 years. 

Mr. and Mrs Davies Parks moved west, living in Iowa and Nebraska, 
but in 1873 they returned to Dallas township, Clinton county, since 
which time he has resided in the village of Fowler. 

Mr. Parks was the father of twelve children, ten of whom are living; 
forty-two grandchildren, of whom thirty-seven are living, one hundred 
and one great-grandchildren, of that number eighteen are living; and 
twenty-two great, great-grandchildren, of whom nineteen are living. 

Davies Parks was always very liberal both in his religious and in 
his general views. His mental faculties were almost unimpaired; his 
bodily health showed the effects of his age, yet in mild weather he 
was on the streets in his extreme age; he enjoyed the fruits of his 
honest and faithful toil. 

Intelligent, cheerful, and contented; only waiting till the angels open 
wide the mystic gate there to enjoy the fruits of an honest and faith- 
ful life. 

Davies Parks and Peter T. Jolly were very intimate friends, and 
during a conversation between each other there was an agreement 
decided upon to this effect that, if Peter Jolly died first then Mr. 
Parks was to preach the funeral sermon, and if Mr. Parks died first 
then Mr. Jolly was to preach the sermon. It is sufficient to say 
that Mr. Jolly officiated at the funeral of his esteemed friend Davies 

MBS, ELIZA PATTERSON. Mrs. Eliza Patterson, of Bengal township, 
died at her home April 21, 1893, aged 80 years. Mrs. Patterson was 


born in 1813, in Ireland, of English parents, and came to this country 
in 1841, settling in Rochester, N. Y., residing there fifteen years, and 
then came to this county and took up her residence in Bengal town- 
ship, where she has since resided. She had fourteen brothers and 
sisters, all of whom lived to maturity, and of them four brothers and 
two sisters still survive her, the oldest being 83. Her father and 
mother both lived to a good old age. She was the mother of seven 
children, four boys and three girls, all of whom save two boys, the 
oldest and youngest, are alive. Mrs. Patterson was a lady highly 
esteemed and had been a member of the Methodist church fifty years. 

MRS. SEAEL. Mrs. Searl, who was formerly known as Mrs. J. R. 
Tremblee, died at Bath, March 6, 1893, aged 82 years. She was born 
in Herkimer county, N. Y., in 1829, came to Michigan in 1838, and 
settled in Bath, near Pine Lake, on what is known as the Wesnar 
farm in 1846. Mr. Tremblee died in 1861, and she remarried in 1877. 
Her last husband survives her. She has made her home with her 
daughter, Mrs. Sage, for some time. She was a firm believer in health 
reform and in religion was an Advent. 

MBS. NANCY A. SIMMONS. Mrs. Nancy A. Simmons died at the 
residence of Thomas Krass, in North Lansing, March 14, 1893, aged 
67 years. She was mother of Dr. R. Simmons, of DeWitt. The 
subject of our sketch was born in Clarkston township, Monroe county, 
N. Y., in 1826. She came to Salem, Michigan, and at the age of 
nineteen was married to John Simmons, March 18, 1845. In 1851 
they came ta Olive and purchased fifty acres now owned by E. H. 
Bedell. In 1854 they moved to Branch county, Michigan. In 1865 
moved to Salem again, and in 1878 they came to Olive, purchased 
seventy acres of land, erected a comfortable home on the same and 
thought to settle down and spend their remaining days there in peace. 
But owing to the failing health of Mr. Simmons they moved to 
Colorado, where only temporary relief being secured they returned and 
in 1882 bought and settled in DeWitt. She was the mother of three 
children, only one of whom survives. 

MRS. PETER ULRICH. Mrs. Peter Ulrich died at her home in Dallas 
township, January 29, 1893. 

The deceased was born in Germany and came to this country with 
her parents when she was about ten years old. She was next to the 
youngest of six children, four girls and two boys, and had she lived 
until August would have arrived at the age of 58. She was married 


in Westphalia township, when at the age of twenty, to her present 
greatly bereaved husband, Peter Ulrich, to whom thirteen children 
have been born, seven girls ,and six boys, eleven of whom survive their 
mother, the other two having died in infancy. Nine of the children 
reside in Dallas township; one daughter in Scranton, Pa., and one son 
in Baltimore, Md. 

The deceased was an earnest and consistent Christian, honored, loved 
and respected by all who knew her. 

ROBERT YOUNG. Robert Young died at his home in DuPlain 
township, February 1, 1893, aged 55 years. 

Mr. Young came from Indiana to this county before the late civil 
war, and just as he was entering his manhood career. 

Entering the union army in Company I, of the 27th Michigan 
Infantry in December, 1863, he went to the front, and at the memora- 
ble battle of the wilderness, in May, 1864, earned an empty sleeve. 

On being discharged in October, 1864, he returned to the farm, and 
was known as the young man who could chop as much wood and do 
as much work with one arm as the ordinary man could do with two. 

Twenty years ago, after having served the citizens of Olive township 
as supervisor one or more terms, he was elected register of deeds of 
this county, and at the expiration of his term of office he originated 
and managed a bank at Mt. Pleasant, this State, from which the First 
National bank of that place has since been organized. 

Returning to St. Johns he was engaged with J. S. Osgood in the 
produce business, and with the firm of Osgood & Young, opened the 
era of conscientious prices for grain, which has resulted greatly to the 
advantage of our village and the surrounding country. 

Retiring from this firm, he has given the last years of his life to 
the construction of buildings and farming. 

In addition to several residences and other building, in company 
with Mr. Edward Brown, he erected three stores upon Clinton avenue, 
and has been greatly interested in farming, and was, at the time of 
his decease, carrying on about two hundred acres of land. 

He has held the positions of superintendent of the county poor, 
commissioner of the soldiers' relief fund, president and treasurer of 
the Farmers' Mutual Insurance company of Clinton and Gratiot 
counties, and other offices of trust. 

He did not ally himself with the membership of any society, but he 
was eminently a citizen possessing broad and equitable views, and 
embraced in his great heart every enterprise that looked to the 
improvement of his fellow men. 



[Furnished by Esek Pray, supplemented by W. B. Williams.! 

DANIEL B. BOWEN. Daniel B. Bowen, of the township of Kalamo, 
died July 2, 1892, aged 81 years. He claimed to have been the first 
settler in the township; settled on the farm where he died in the year 

MRS. PHEBE CLARK. Mrs. Phebe Clark, widow of John E. Clark, 
settled on their farm in Eaton Rapids township in the year 1837, and 
died July 10, 1892, aged 80 years. 

JOHN S. MONTGOMERY. Captain John Scoot Montgomery, of Hamlin, 
died July 27, 1892,, aged 55 years born in the township; son of 'the 
pioneer, Captain John Montgomery. 

MRS. CHAUNCEY FREEMAN. Mrs. Chauncey Freeman, whose maiden 
name was Ruth Ann Babcock, was born in Royal ton, Niagara Co., N. 
Y., April 27, 1818. She was united in marriage to Chauncey Freeman, 
Sept. 17, 1839, and died September 17, 1892, on their 53d anniversary. 
Settled on their farm in Eaton township in 1842. 

MRS. SALLY DE GRAFF. Mrs. Sally De Graff, of the city of Charlotte, 
was born March 3, 1806, in Ira, Cayuga county, N. Y. December 16, 
1832, she married Emanuel De Graff, and in 1842 moved to Calhoun 
and a few years later to Eaton county. She died October 25, 1892, 
aged 86 years, mourned by a large number of relatives and prominent 
citizens of the county. 

MRS. SAMANTHA BAKER. Mrs. Samantha Baker, of Charlotte, died 
October 19, 1892, aged 91 years. She was born .in Herkimer county, 
N. Y., and was an early pioneer of the county. 

DAVID KIMBALL. David Kimball of Sunfield, died November 26, 
1892, aged 88 years; a pioneer of 1853. 

JOSIAH BoYER.--Josiah Boyer, of Roxand, died December 19, 1892, 
a resident of the township for 53 years. 

JOHN A. RICH. John A. Rich, of Chester, died at the old home 
December 25, 1892, aged nearly 93 years. He settled in Chester in 


LORENZO FOSTER. Lorenzo Foster, of Carmel, died January 8, 1898, 
aged 71 years; a resident of the township for fifty years. 

JAMES M. PETERS. James M. Peters, of Brookfield, a prominent 
pioneer, died January 9, 1893, aged 62 years. 

MRS. LEANDER KENT. Mrs. Leander Kent, of Kalamo, died January 
20, 1893, aged 72 years. Mr. and Mrs. Kent were prominent pioneers 
of the township fifty years ago. 

DAVID SCOTT. David Scott, of Vermontville, died March 6, 1893, 
aged 85 years. Deceased was born November 9, 1807, at Alburgh, Vt., 
and moved his family to Eaton county in 1850. 

PETER WILLIAMS. Peter Williams of Brookfield died April 24, 1893, 
aged 79 years; an early pioneer of the township. 

EGBERT NIXON. Robert Nixon, of Oneida, died April 26, 1893, 
aged 76 years. A pioneer of 1836, and always has been a prominent 
citizen of the county. He was born in Otsego county, N. ., May 25, 

MRS. MARTIN BEEKMAN. Mrs. Mary V. Beekman, of Chester, died 
April 29, 1893, aged 89 years Mrs. Beekman was born in New Jersey, 
May 2, 1804; married to Mr. Martin Beekman in the spring of 1840, 
and came to their home where she has since resided. 

DR. JAMES HYDE. Dr. James Hyde, of the city of Eaton Rapids, 
died January 26, 1893, aged 60 years. He came to Eaton Rapids with 
his parents when nine years old, and was born in Willsonburg, N. H., 
April 8, 1833. 

MRS. HOMER G. BARBER. Lucy Dwight Barber, wife of Homer G. 
Barber, of Vermontville, died May 1, 1893. A resident of the county 
since her youth. 

MRS. JANE LAMB. Jane Ball, born August 4, 1808, in Ovid, N. Y. In 
1825 married Charles Johnson, who died a few years later, leaving a 
son who grew to manhood and died of consumption December 15, 1833. 
She married Richard Lamb, in Clyde, N. Y. They moved to Michigan 
in 1835 and settled in Linden, Genesee county, where he built the first 
log house in the village. By him she had one son and five daughters. 
On December 15, 1870, they moved to Charlotte, where her husband 
died April 29, 1886. She died in Charlotte May 25, 1893, leaving three 


daughters, Mrs. Stone, of Fen ton, Mrs. Klock, of Charlotte, and Mrs. 
Arthur, of Dowagiac. 

STEPHEN DAVIS. Stephen Davis was born in Pittstown, Rensselaer 
county, N. Y., April 3, 1799. When 15 years of age he moved to 
Pompey, Onondaga county, N. Y., June 4, 1823, he was married at Delphi 
in the same county to Maria Andrews. In 1836 they moved to Goguac 
Prairie, in Calhoun county, Mich., and in March, 1838, to Charlotte; 
later he bought some wild land in Benton and cleared up a farm 
there. Mrs. Davis died February 28, 1857, and for the last 28 years 
he has made his home with his son-in-law, Nathan Johnson, in 
Charlotte, where he died May 30, 1893, aged 94 years. 

STEPHEN TUTTLE. Stephen Tuttle was born near Dundas in Canada, 
November 26, 1807; he was left an orphan at five years of age; lived 
with a Mr. Fromon until 21 years of age; a year later he married 
Clarinda Parker, of Batavia, N. Y., where he soon removed; while 
there five daughters and four sons were born. In the fall of 1851 
they removed to Eaton county, Mich., and settled on a farm two miles 
northeast of Charlotte. Mrs. Tuttle died in 1868; his second wife was 
Mrs. Conkrite, of Danby, who lived only two years. He then married 
Mrs. Eliza Eay, who still survives him. He was a member of the M. 
E. church until 1845, when he left them and joined the First Day 
Advent church. There being no church of that order in Charlotte, 
he again united with the M. E. church, of which he was a member at 
the time of his death, June 3, 1893. Eight of his children are still 
living: Wm. M. Tuttle, Batavia, N. Y.; Mrs. John Pixley, of Grand 
Rapids; John W., of Battle Creek; A. Clark Z., of Dimondale; Mrs. 
Philo Collins, of Grand Rapids; Mrs. Julia Daniels, of California; and 
Roby Strong, of Kalamazoo; Stephen N. Tuttle. All the above but 
Julia Daniels and Wm. M. were present at the funeral. 


MBS. HARBISON G. CONGER. Deniza, wife of Harrison G. Conger, 
died May 23, 1893, at her home on section 2 in Burton, of heart 
disease, after an illness of a year and a half's duration. Deceased, 
who was widely known and highly respected, was born in Kentucky 


seventy-five years ago and was a daughter of Stephen J. and Betsey 
Seeley. She came to this county with her parents at the age of 
sixteen years, and fifty-three years ago was united in marriage to Mr. 
Conger. They took up their residence on a new farm in Davison and 
lived thereon for some years. Forty- three years ago they removed to 
Burton. Deceased was one of the pioneers of the county and was for 
many years a member of the M. E. church. Besides her husband she 
leaves three children and three brothers. The children are Mark D., 
of Burton; Mrs. L. G. Herrington, of Otisville; and Mrs/ Holden 
Phillips, of Kichfield. The brothers are M. D. Seeley, of Ludington ; 
Judson, of Burton; and Norris, of Otisville. About three years ago 
Mr. and Mrs. Conger celebrated their golden wedding. 

JOHN DARLING. John Darling died at his home in Gaines, March 3, 
1893, aged 89 years. 

He was born in Onondaga county, N. Y., and came to Michigan 
forty years ago, removing later on to Gaines. He leaves five children. 

MR. EGGLESTON. Mr. Eggleston died at his home in July, 1892. 

Mr. Eggleston was born September 14, 1810, in Champlain county, 
N. Y. His boyhood days were spent in labor on the farm, and 
he had the educational advantages of the common schools of that 
time. January 10, 1836, he married, in Orleans county, Malinda 
Beecher, who survives him. In 1837, they settled in the woods 
near the Half-way House in Flint, remaining there two years. He 
then bought a farm on section seventeen, not far from the farm 
on which he died. He and his family had to be ferried across the 
river by the Indians to go to the new home. When they located 
in their little cabin their nearest neighbors were in what is now 
Flint city, one or two families at Flushing, and one or two at 
Swartz Creek. There were literally no roads, but he had to go to 
mill at Birmingham in Oakland county a journey that required as 
much time as it would now to go to St. Paul and back. He and his 
faithful wife wrought out their destiny in the wilderness, and did their 
full share of pioneer work, and bore their full share of the hardships 
and privations of the time. They cleared up the forest, reared their 
children, gave them an education, instructed them in the principles of 
integrity and duty, so that when the sons grew up they became good 
citizens and the daughters good housekeepers. In time they changed 
the wilderness into a farm of broad acres, with a large and elegant house, 
ample barns, good orchards, and surrounded themselves with the 
comforts of life. When Mr. Eggleston died he had done his part of 


the world's work and was gathered to his fathers like well ripened 
fruit. Mr. Eggleston had no church affiliations, but was a liberal 
supporter of religious institutions, and his example and voice were on 
the side of justice and morality. 

Besides his wife the following children survive him: Lyman, Chaun- 
cey J., and Jasper; Mrs. J. H. Carey and Mrs. Robert Noble of Flint 
township, Mrs. Robert Knight of Maple Grove, Mrs. Wm. Goods of 
Flint, and Mrs. Charles Packard of Saginaw. The latter spent thirteen 
weeks in caring for her father, showing a filial devotion rarely excelled. 
Mr. Eggleston was buried in the Cronk cemetery beside his parents 
and two children who died in infancy. A good man has passed away 
but the memory of an upright and useful life survives him. 

DR. ISAAC N. ELDRIDGE. Dr. Isaac N. Eldridge died at his home 
in Flint, January 18, 1893, of heart failure. 

At the time of his death, Dr. Eldridge was the pioneer physician of 
Flint. He was born at Bergen, N. Y., August 5, 1818. When quite a 
young man he came to Michigan and settled at Ann Arbor, from which 
place he came to Flint about forty years ago and has since been a 
successful practicing physician here. Dr. Eldridge was a man of 
eminence in his profession. His success and skill as a practitioner 
won for him a wide reputation. To his efforts, probably more than 
any other one influence, was due the establishment of the School of 
Homeopathy as a branch of the Michigan State University, and for 
years he was connected with the school as a member of the board of 
examiners or in some other capacity. He was a man of character and 
education. He was a close student and although an old man, with a 
large practice to look after, kept thoroughly abreast of the times in all 
advancement made in his profession up to the present day. He was a 
manly man who had the courage of his convictions. It was his nature 
to be frank and honest, and in conversation he often expressed himself 
so frankly that it sometimes gave him the appearance of being incon- 
siderate of others' feelings; but such was never the case; few people 
possess a more sympathetic or sensative nature 'or delicacy of feeling 
than Dr. Eldridge did, and no man was ever more unwavering in his 
loyalty to a friend or a principle he believed in than was he. 

He never sought office, but has at different times been called to 
positions of public trust, and always filled the place with credit to 
himself and satisfaction to the public. 

He enjoyed the respect of the community, and the faith reposed in 


him by most of his patients was something remarkable. He was a 
member of the Court street Methodist church since 1851. 

Besides a widow he leaves four sons and two daughters, viz.: Dr. C. 
S. Eldridge of Chicago, John H., Monty, Fred A., and Mrs. F. H. 
Humphery of Flint, and Mrs. Woodbury of Detroit. 

The physicians of Flint held a meeting and passed resolutions of an 
appropriate character. 

DANIEL FROST. Daniel Frost of Flint township died February 13, 1893> 
of heart failure. He was about seventy years old, and was an old 
settler in this county. For a great many years he owned and lived 
upon a farm now owned by George Caldwell, on the Flushing road. 
From there he came to the city to live, but later bought and moved 
onto the "Wood" farm in Flint township where he died. He was a 
straightforward, upright man, who enjoyed the confidence and respect 
of all who knew him. He leaves a widow and five children, viz.; A. C. 
Frost of Flint, Arthur and Burt Frost of Flint township, Mrs. Eeed 
Howland of Mundy, and a daughter who lives at home. 

MRS. GEO. J. W. HILL. Mrs. Geo. J. W. Hill died at her home in 
the town of Flint May 28, 1893, of heart failure, aged sixty-five years. 
The deceased was born at Bath, New York, but had lived in Genesee 
county for nearly fifty years. She was well known and highly esteemed 
and respected in this community, where she and her husband resided 
eo long. She was a lady of literary taste and culture, and was one of 
the charter members of the late Ladies' Library Association of Flint, 
and its last treasurer. The children who survive her are Frank B. of 
Denver, Arthur G. of Escanaba, Flora of Ann Arbor, and Harry, Sarah, 
Helen and Alice who are at home. The present address of Fred, who 

is in the west, is not known. 


ADAM C. KLINE. Adam C. Kline died in Grand Blanc September 
18, 1892, after a long illness. 

Deceased was born May 31, 1812, in the Mohawk Valley, town of 
Amsterdam, Montgomery county, N. Y. He came to Flint, Michigan, 
late in 1835, engaged in blacksmithing in 1836 in company with the 
late Daniel S. Freeman. For many years he engaged in farming in 
Grand Blanc. Besides a widow he leaves seven sons and two daughters, 
Samuel and Mrs. Darwin Forsyth of Flint, Daniel F,, Kichard, John, 
Levi, and Miss Carrie, of Grand Blanc; Charles of Shiawassee county; 
and Andrew of Nebraska. Also three brothers and one sister, Mrs. 


Bradley, of Eldorado, Kansas; James, of Kingston, Minnesota; Joseph 
and George, of Flint. 

JOSEPH KLINE. Joseph Kline, a brother of Adam C. Kline, died at 
his home in Flint, on November 10, 1892, quite unexpectedly, having 
been upon the street only a few hours before dissolution took place. 
The deceased was born at Amsterdam, N. Y., August 20, 1823. He 
came to Michigan in 1836, and located at Grand Blanc, but soon 
afterwards came to Flint and settled. He had resided where he died 
for thirty-seven years. He was a man of quiet, unassuming character, 
and took little active part in public affairs, but was highly esteemed by 
all who knew him. He was an honorable, upright, Christian man. He 
joined the Court street M. E. church in 1847, and was a charter 
member of the Garland street M. E. church. 

His family consists of a wife, one son, Louis T., of Alpena, and one 
daughter, Mrs. D. M. Eddy, of Flint, all of whom survive him. 

JUDGE WARNER LAKE. Judge Warner Lake died at his home in 
Flint, June 13, 1892, aged 82 years. 

Judge Lake was born at Mt. Morris, N. Y., October 4, 1809. April 
4, 1833, he married Elizabeth Butler, at Mt. Morris, by whom he had 
three children, Martin and Mrs. Chauncey Wisner, of Saginaw, born in 
Mt. Morris, and Charles, now of Coldwater, born in Genesee, north of 
Flint, on the farm now owned by O. D. Wager. The family came to 
Michigan in 1837. He settled in the village of Flint and built the 
Exchange hotel opposite the present court house, the second hotel in 
Flint. A number of years he carried on this hotel and ran a line of 
.stages to Pontiac. Later, for a short time, he lived on a farm north of 
the city above named. In 1842 he removed to Hartland, Livingston 
county, and engaged in farming, returning to Flint in 1850. In 1852 
he was elected judge of probate, which office he held eight years. In 
1859 he was appointed trustee of the Kalamazoo asylum. 

Soon after the war broke out he was made provost marshal of this 
congressional district with headquarters here. Soon after the close of 
the war he was appointed deputy assessor of internal revenue, which 
office he held for a number of years. Since retiring from that office 
he has been prominent in the insurance business, being a member of 
the local board of underwriters. 

His wife died June 17, 1882. She was a woman of strong religious 
convictions, a member of the Baptist church, and a vigorous temper- 
ance worker. 

Judge Lake was a man of warm heart and generous impulses, a 


good citizen, loyal to the core, and in his prime was a man of much 
influence in the community. His death even at this advanced age will 
be sincerely mourned by scores of men who have known the genial 
kindness of his heart. 

Besides the three children named, he leaves one brother in Mt. 
Morris, N. Y., also several grandchildren. 

Judge Lake was not a member of any church, but was treasurer of 
the Baptist church in Flint many years, and he illustrated in his 
daily life the precepts of a correct Christian morality. 

MRS. HANNAH M. HOPKINS. Mrs. Hannah Miles Hopkins who was 
prostrated by a stroke of apoplexy Monday morning, passed peacefully 
away Saturday afternoon, June 18, 1892, at the residence of Frank E. 
Willett, where she had been making her home much of the time 
during the past few years. The deceased, whose maiden name was 
Miles, was born in Homer, Cortland county, N. Y., May 20, 1821. In 
June, 1839, she came to Flint, and on January 14, 1847, she was 
united in marriage to Henry Hopkins, who died in September, 1853. 
On April 18, 1864, she was married to Geo. S. Hopkins, and four 
years later she was again left a widow. Since that time she had. 
occupied positions of trust in different households, and in an humble 
way she showed herself to be a true Christian and by example taught 
many lessons of patience and self-denial. She was greatly esteemed 
by all who knew her and her death has caused sincere regret among a 
large circle of friends and acquaintances who had learned to respect 
and admire her for. her many sterling qualities of character. She 
leaves to mourn her loss one son, Nelson, of Flint, and one grand- 
daughter, Alice L. Hopkins, who is a member of the family of Wm, 
A. Miller. 

IRETUS PERRY. Iretus Perry died February 3, 1893, at his residence 
in Flint. Deceased was born in Grand Blanc in 1837, and was a son 
of the late George Perry. He was raised on a farm and on reaching 
manhood's estate was united in marriage to Miss Emma Adams, who 
with one child, Mrs. Elmer Halsey, survives him. After his marriage 
the deceased moved to Fenton and later to Byron, where he was 
engaged in the drug business for some time. He then moved back to 
Fenton and later to Flint township, subsequently removing to Union 
City and engaging in the hardware business. Six years ago he took 
up his residence in Flint. 

Mr. Perry was highly respected by all who knew him, and besides- 
his wife and child he leaves several brothers and sisters, among them 


Kay of Grand Blanc, Robert and Oliver of Fenton. One of the sisters, 
Mrs. Frary, lives in Fenton, and the other two in California. 

SEYMOUR PERRY. Seymour Perry died February 6, 1893, of heart 


Deceased was born in Monroe county, N. Y., March 13, 1818. In 

1820 he came to Michigan and settled with his parents in Grand 
Blanc township where he has lived continuously for 67 years. He 
leaves a wife and six children: Lee, Joshua K., Mrs. Henry Mason, 
Mrs. Geo. R. Mason, Ella, and Mrs. Frank Swift. Mr. Perry was one 
of the prominent farmers of his township and an ardent, life long 
republican. His work has been well done and his name, honored and 
revered, will live long in the memory of his fellows. 

E. W. RISING. E. W. Rising, founder of the village of Davison, 
died April 30, 1893, at his residence in that village from the effects of 
a stroke of paralysis received two weeks ago. His death has caused a 
gloom in Davison, in the upbuilding of which village he had been so 
greatly interested, and his death is a severe blow to the promising little 
town. Mr. Rising during his lifetime did more than any other person 
toward the upbuilding of Davison, erecting the Davison hotel, a brick 
block with four stores, Rising's hall and the New Era roller mills. At 
the time of his death he was engaged in the erection of two brick 
stores, the material for which was on hand, and the foundation had 
been completed for two other brick stores. 

E. W. Rising was born in Franklin county, N. Y., on October 8, 
1822, and was a son of Sylvester and Sally Rising. At the age of 
nine years he removed with the family to Niagara county in the same 
state, where he grew to manhood, and was united in marriage to Mary 
Ann Drake. In 1848 he came to Richfield, this county, with his wife 
and settled on a farm of 80 acres, which he added to and brought to 
such a state of perfection that for some years he was awarded the 
premium offered by the State agricultural society for the best farm in 
Michigan. He always took a great interest in the society and all 
things connected with agriculture, and was for -many years a member 
of the executive board of the State agricultural society and was chair- 
man of the Agricultural College board at the time the buildings were 
erected. Mr. Rising was also president of the Genesee county agri- 
cultural society for some years, and a short time before his death 
received an appointment as delegate to the agricultural congress at the 
World's Fair at Chicago the following October. He also served as 
postmaster at Davison under President Cleveland. 

86 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

In 1872 he sold his farm in Eichfield and moved to the present site 
of Davison and purchased a farm of 240 acres. With McQuigg & 
Hyatt he platted the village of Davison and a few years later 
purchased their interest. All his endeavors were concentrated toward 
the welfare and upbuilding of the village, which will prove an 
enduring monument to his industry and perseverance. The sites of 
the M. E. and Baptist churches at Davison were given by Mr. Rising 
to these church societies. He was a man highly respected by all who 
knew him, and his death is sincerely regretted. 

Besides his wife he is survived by his father, who is now in his 
ninety-third year, his brother Henry C. % of Davison, and three sisters 
all of Richfield. They are Mrs. Oscar Clemens, Mrs. John Moore, 
and Mrs. James Root. Mr. Rising was a member of Davison Lodge, 
236, F. & A. M., and the interment was made with Masonic ceremonies. 

DANIEL H. SEELEY. Daniel H. Seeley, perhaps the oldest living 
pioneer of Genesee county, died at his home in Genesee township, 
June 28, 1892, at the age of 87 years. He was born in Bridgeport, 
Conn., April 13, 1805, and came to Flint in 1836 when there were only 
ten families and seven buildings here. Indians, however, were plenti- 
ful, and it was no unusual sight to see as many as four hundred 
braves with their families pass the home of this old settler. He was 
married in Brockport, N. Y., September 2, 1827, to Miss Julia A. Taylor. 
As above stated he came to Flint, bringing his young wife with him in 
the spring of 1836, building the eighth house erected in the city. He 
also built a tailor shop and store, the latter being the second business 
place erected in the city. The first court here was held in his shop and 
the first meeting of the board of supervisors took place in the same place. 
In 1843 Mr. Seeley moved on his farm in Genesee township where he 
has since lived. He was obliged to cut a road to the log shanty he 
found on the place before lumber could be hauled to it. Constant 
protection was required against the inroads of wild animals, of which 
there were plenty. 

In more respects than one the late Daniel H. Seeley of Genesee, 
was a remarkable man. One of his chief characteristics was the love 
he bore his children and grandchildren. Although himself deprived 
of that advantage, he gave his children a college education, and has 
educated or was educating at the time of his death, each and every 
one of his grandchildren. Mr. Seeley possessed in a remarkable 
degree that virtue esteemed the greatest by the Great Teacher of 
Judea, and possessed in its true sense by so few the virtue of 


charity. No man was ever heard to utter one word of reproach 
against this honest old pioneer, and more remarkable still, no man ever 
heard him utter aught but good of his fellows. In his death the 
county has lost one of its most valued citizens, and his children one 
who was more to them than father. 

Mr. Seeley was a prominent member of the Congregational church, 
and was a man of excellent character and much influence in the 
community. He was a successful farmer and stockbreeder. His farm 
was a model of good cultivation, neatness, and good order, and his 
home was elegant and even luxurious. He illustrated in his deport- 
ment and way of living how entirely possible it is for a farmer to be 
a gentleman, if it is in him to be a gentleman. He was courteous 
and polite in his manners, correct in his speech, affable but dignified 
in his intercourse with men, neat in his dress and personal appear- 
ance a thing which is not necessarily beyond the attainment of any 
reasonably prosperous farmer. His aged wife survives him. Three 
sons and one daughter are also living. They are Hon. Marvia L. 
Seeley, who resides on the home farm, Dr. Frank T. Seeley of Iowa, 
and Theron V. Seeley of Mt. Morris village. The daughter is Mrs. 
F. A. Burroughs also of Mt. Morris. Another daughter was Mrs. A. 
R. Bray, now deceased, mother of Assistant Prosecuting Attorney 
Everett L. Bray. 

MR. ABEL SEELYE. Mr. Abel Seelye, of Davison, died at his home 
in that township on Nov. 7, 1892, aged 74 years. The deceased was 
one of the fast disappearing pioneers of the county and was among the 
first settlers of Davison township. He enjoyed the esteem and good 
will of a very large circle of acquaintances, and with his, ends a busy 
and useful life. 

DR. A. A. THOMPSON. Dr. A. A. Thompson, one of Flint's most 
respected citizens and foremost physicians died at his home August 23, 
1892. Dr. Thompson was born at Richmond, Vermont, sixty-three 
years ago. He was a graduate of Oberlin college and of the Michigan 
State University. He was a successful physician and business man, 
and was prominent in social circles as well. He was surgeon of the 
Twelfth Michigan Infantry during the war. He was professor of anat- 
omy in Olivet College, and represented the United States as her consul 
at Goderich, Canada, for some time, besides filling other places of 
public trust; he was a man of brains and high intellect. His manner 
was mild and pleasing; he was the soul of honor and was always an 
ideal gentleman under any circumstances. He stood high in his 

88 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

profession, and the news of his death was met everywhere with 
expression of sincere regret. 

GEORGE S. WOODHULL. George S. Woodhull, a wealthy pioneer of 
Fenton township residing near Long Lake and the owner of Wood- 
hull's landing at that place, died June 7, 1891, after a brief illness. 
Deceased was about 70 years of age and located in Fenton in 1843. 
He held various town offices in Fenton and for a number of years was 
president of the Genesee Union Pioneer Society. Deceased leaves 
four children, one son and three daughters, and ten grandchildren. 

IRA D. WRIGHT. Ira D. Wright died at his home on the Miller 
road, just outside the western city limits of Flint, May 7, 1893. He 
was one of the oldest pioneers of Genesee county and one of the 
founders of the city. The death of Mr. Wright marks the close of a 
long and eventful life. He was born in Washington township, Cheshire 
county, N. H., August 3, 1808. In 1814 he removed with his parents 
to Bethany, Genesee county, N. Y., where he was reared to manhood. 
In 1834 the subject of this sketch, together with Eobert. F. Stage and 
A. C. Stevens, came to Flint, then a small village, and purchased in 
Genesee county some three thousand acres of land, including a tract of 
two hundred acres which embraced what is now a portion of the city 
of Flint lying between Court street and the river, and east of Saginaw 
street. This land was then in a wild state. They at once set a force 
of men clearing this land and returned to New York. The next spring 
they returned and much of this land was then planted. 

In October, 1835, they opened the first general store in the county 
at Grand Blanc. The goods were moved to Flint, where a suitable 
building had been erected, in June, 1836. In the second story of this 
building the pioneers, without regard to sect or creed met for worship. 
The deceased in company with Mr. Stage, also had the honor of 
erecting the first building for school purposes in this city. This was 
a board shanty twelve by sixteen feet, erected in 1836 on the east side 
of Saginaw street. Miss Philanda Overton was employed as teacher, 
and education was furnished free to the hardy children of the pioneers 
of Flint. The deceased and his partner, Mr. Stage, also built the first 
dam and first saw mill in the city. After running this mill for seven 
years, Mr. Wright engaged in the business of landlooking. He held 
the office of deputy United States timber agent for three years and 
during that time entered 50,000 acres of pine lands for one firm. 

Mr. Wright settled on the farm where he has since lived and where 
he died, on section 9, Smith's reservation, Flint township, 1853. March 


22, 1842, he was married to Miss Marietta Ingersoll, daughter of one 
of the pioneers of Oakland county, who died October 27, 1891. Mr. 
Wright at the time of her death told his children he would not long 
survive her. He leaves two children, Etta and Melvin W. 

As highway commissioner Mr. Wright laid out the first road in Flint 
township and Genesee county. He has also held the office of deputy 
United States Marshal. In politics Mr. Wright was a democrat and 
cast his first vote for Andrew Jackson. There were only four families 
-of white people in this city when he came. He was a member of the 
State pioneer association. Mr. Wright has always been a generous 
contributor to churches, benevolences and educational institutions. His 
hospitality was proverbial. 

Detroit, May 9, 1893. 

FRIEND RANKIN A letter from a Flint friend today, advises me of the death 
of another old citizen a veritable pioneer Mr. Ira D. Wright. 

One of the first men pointed out to me after my arrival in Flint thirty-five 
years ago, was "Ira Wright;" and the name was not unfamiliar to me. I had 
heard of Ira Wright long before I saw him, or had heard of such a place as 

Like myself, but more than twenty years before me, he had come to Mich- 
igan from the same village in western New York; and it was from his former 
companion, Mr. John H. Stanley, in whose store I was for a time a youthful clerk, 
that I heard of the genial, fun-loving young fellow, who had determined to seek 
his fortune in the wilds of Michigan. This' early friend of Mr. Wright had 
many amusing tales to tell of youthful escapades, wherein the jolly Ira was 
foremost and funny, amongst the young bucks of the village. 

Mr. Wright enjoyed often to stop on the street, and ask concerning the men 
whom he left behind as young fellows, a half century before. 

The familiar figure of this amiable old gentleman will be missed on the streets 
he had trodden so long; while words of kindness and respectful regard will 
always accompany a mention of the name of Ira D. Wright. 



ARTHUR H. CRANE. Hon. Arthur H. Crane died June 4, 1892, of 
paralysis, aged 78 years. He was well known as a representative farmer 
in both Hillsdale and Lenawee, having served on the boards of super- 
visors of both counties. He was a member of the legislature from '69 

90 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

to '72, and was esteemed as a gentleman of sterling character and 
strong intellect. He was married three times, a wife and children 
surviving him. 

ISAAC ORCUTT. Died in Warren, Idaho county, Idaho, Saturday, 
February 4, 1893, Isaac Orcutt, a native of New York, aged 68 years. 
Mr. Orcutt was one of the pioneers of Florence and Warren basins, 
and a better man never trod the footstool. Until within the last eighteen 
months he was possessed of extraordinary strength and physical endur- 
ance, but he finally was prostrated with dyspepsia and the end was 
expected for some time. The entire population turned out next day to 
pay the last sad rites over the remains of one who was the embodi- 
ment of all the virtues which belong to the fast departing race of 
pioneer heroes. 'No death has occurred in Warren within our 
recollection which excited such feelings of genuine grief. Idaho Free 


We are indebted to N. W. Thompson of Ft. Wayne, Indiana, for 
the following interesting history in connection with the life of the 
deceased : 

" Isaac Orcutt was a pioneer to Hillsdale county. His father, Amba 
Orcutt, moved into Florida (now Jefferson) in September, 1836, and 
his daughter (now Mrs. Phebe Jones, residing at 5221 South Halsted 
street, Chicago), was born in October, 1836, being the first white child 
born in the town of Florida, which at that time comprised the present 
townships of Jefferson, Ransom and east one-half of Amboy. Ike was 
the oldest of nine children, the youngest born in 1850. One child 
died in infancy in 1848. Since that time there have been no deaths 
of the children until Ike's death broke the circle. 

" Ike went to California in 1852, in company with four of his uncles, 
Fred, George, Henry and Cornelius Duryee. He went to British 
Columbia in 1861, then to Florence, Idaho, in 1862 or '63, and since 
then has resided in the Salmon Kiver mountains. He told me in 1888 
that he had not seen a railroad train in 22 years, and had not lived 
in that time where you could get to him with a wagon only by mount- 
ain trails." 

GEORGE ANSON SMITH. Hon. Geo. A. Smith, of Somerset, died at 
his home in that village January 29, 1893. 

He was born in Danbury, Conn., March 8, 1825, and was nearly 68 
years of age. 

Deceased was an honored citizen of Somerset and Hillsdale county, 
where he resided from the age of 14 years, leaving an honorable record 


and respected family. Mr. Smith has long occupied a prominent place 
in public matters in the county and state. He was elected to the lower 
house of the legislature in 1863, and served two terms afterward as 
senator from the district composed of Hillsdale and Branch counties. 
He was also president of the county agricultural society, and served 
twenty years as postmaster in his own place. Public spirited and 
progressive, combining the qualities of the successful farmer and busi- 
ness man, he will be missed in his own home .and in public life. 

Mr. Smith leaves a wife, five sons, and three daughters: Fred S., 
farmer and stock dealer, farm adjoining homestead; Azariel, miller and 
banker, Addison, Mich.; Rev. Geo. Le Grande, Chicago; Stewart K., 
civil engineer, Seattle, Wash.; Frank R., at home in charge of home- 
stead; Mrs. A. T. Daniels, Topeka, Kan.; Mary A., and Catherine B., 
at home. 

HORACE TURNEE. Horace Turner died on September 6, 1892. He 
had lived in South Adams 43 years. Mr. Turner was born at Otisca, 
Madison county, New York, July 5, 1807; was married in 1829 to 
Deborah Terril, and moved to Michigan, living at Palmyra for a time. 
In 1849 he moved upon the farm four miles east of Hillsdale, then an 
almost unbroken wilderness. Here they endured all the hardships of a 
pioneer life. Six children were given them, four of whom are living, 
three daughters and one son, who with the aged companion, now 87 
years old, are left to mourn. For 63 years they walked the rugged 
path of life side by side, rejoicing in the sunshine and sorrowing in 
the shade. He was a faithful, consistent, hard working, untiring 
Christian and an honest man. His family, neighbors, and all who 
knew him best will unite in saying he has not knowingly taken one 
penny that belonged to others. In politics he was a staunch republican. 
Strictly a temperance man, he believed in the equality of man and 
that religious duties consisted in doing justice, toving mercy, and 
endeavoring to make his fellow beings happy. 

HON. ROBERT WOKDEN. The remains of Robert Worden were 
brought to Hudson and buried in the Goodrich cemetery, in Pittsford 
township, where he first settled fifty-nine years ago, and where he 
resided until a few years ago. He died at the home of his daughter, 
Mrs. Post, in Owosso, May 2, 1893. Mr. Worden was elected treasurer 
of Hillsdale county in 1843, which office he held two terms. In 1852 
he was elected to the legislature from the first representative district 
of this county. 

The following is from the Hudson Post of May 6, 1893: 


Mr. Worden was one of the pioneers of this vicinity, and but few of 
his comrades of early days remain on earth. He came to Michigan in 
1834 and purchased a tract of government land, the old farm which he 
sold to Dr. Billings a few years ago, and which is located one mile 
north and one mile west of Hudson. 

Robert Worden was honored in years gone by, having been elected 
to the legislature, and also to the office of county treasurer, and other 
positions of trust. In politics a radical democrat, he was always ready 
to advocate his belief, and in times of eampaign was counted on as an 
active and effective political worker. 

Mr. Wordon was very widely known and had many friends who 
remembered him as he was in days gone by. He was a true friend 
and bitter enemy. His memory will be kindly treasured, for he was 
one of the rugged pioneers whose life work was the clearing away of 
the forests and making productive a country which is the pride of the 
present generation. 




June 15. In Lansing, Henry S. Sleeper, aged 51 years. He was 
county clerk in Kalamazoo seven years, and deputy commissioner of 
the State land office twelve years. 

June 17. In Williamston, George Burchard, Sr.,'aged 70 years. 

July 5. In Lansing, A. M. Cheney, aged 55 years. He came to 
Michigan 38 years ago. 

July 16. Mrs. Kate E. Burr, one of the early settlers of Lansing, 
Aged 73 years. 

July 28. In Lansing, Mrs. Mary A. Nash, aged 75 years. She had 
resided in Lansing 38 years. 

July 28. In Lansing, Francis E. West, aged 76 years. He helped 
survey the town of Lansing. In the latter part of his life he was 
totally blind. 

August 10. In Meridian, Charles W. Smith, aged 62 years. He had 
resided in Michigan 45 years and in Meridian 39 years. 


August 19. Russell Blair, 33 years a resident of Lansing, died at 
Hastings, aged 87 years. He was buried at Lansing. 

September 10. Mrs. Thomas Shipp, a resident of Lansing since 1856, 
aged 64 years. 

September 15. Nathan Welden, aged 72 years. He was a resident 
of Lansing from its organization. 

September 18. In Lansing, George W. Bliss, aged 54 years. He 
was born in Washtenaw county and came to Lansing in 1874. 

October 9. Mrs. A. Houghton, of Lansing, aged 87 years. 

October 10. Thomas Meagber died while sitting at the breakfast 
table, aged 62 years. He was a Canadian by birth and had resided in 
Lansing 27 years. 

October 29. Fred Bauerly, aged 59 years. He was of German birth, 
and had resided in Lansing 35 years. 

October 31. L. A. Torrance, aged 72 years. He had lived many 
years on his farm just outside of the city of Lansing. 

November 7. Dr. Theophilus C. Abbot, LL. D., twenty-three years 
president of the Agricultural College, aged 76 years. His biography 
will appear at large on another page. 

November 14. Mrs. Sally A. Williams, aged 68 years. She resided 
in Lansing since 1844. 

November 15. Charles Westcott, aged 72 years. He came to Lan- 
sing in 1848, coming from Warren, Ohio. 

November 20. Mrs. Mary Loftus, aged 61 years. She was born in 
Ireland and had lived in Lansing 27 years. 

November 20. James Ennis, aged 80 years. He was born in New 
York, and settled in Eaton Rapids in 1868, coming to Lansing in 1886. 


January 18. Mrs. M. R. Scammon, aged 81 years. She was a 
resident of Lansing since 1855. 

January 27. Daniel Searles, an early pioneer of Mason, aged 80 
years. He resided fifty years on one farm. 

February 13. Miss Nancy S. Fuller, of Vevay, .aged 52 years. She 
came to Michigan in 1856, and spent a large part of her life in 

February 20. Uncle Harry Grovenburg, aged about 83 years. He 
was one of the first settlers of Delhi, where he resided 49 years. He 
was buried on the sixty-first anniversary of his marriage. 

March 9. Hiram Johnson, aged 88 years. He had resided near 
Okemos many years. 


March 19. Luke Hazen, of Lansing, aged 80 years. He came to 
Michigan in 1835, was representative from Hillsdale county in 1848, 
supervisor in the town of Allen three terms, town clerk of Litchfield 
three terms, treasurer eleven years, and county clerk four years. 

March 20. Mrs. Emily F. McKibbin, aged 75 years. She came to 
Vevay from Vermont in 1836 and had resided in or near Lansing since 

March 24. John A. Clippenger, aged -- years; one of the pioneer 
residents of Lansing. 

March 27. Mrs. Maria B. Pinckney, aged 65 years. She came to 
Lansing with her husband, Wm. H. Pinckney in 1850, 

March 31. Thomas E. McCurdy, aged 68 years. He had resided in 
the vicinity of Okemos over 30 years. 

March 31. Mrs. Mary P. Strong, aged 77 years. She came to 
Lansing in 1856 with her husband who was for many years foreman 
of the State Kepublican bindery. 

May 2. Bernard C. Kelly, a resident of Lansing for over 30 years, 
aged 56 years. 

May 4. Mrs. Rhoda Barnes, aged 56 years. She came to Lansing 
in 1848, was married to Mr. Barnes in 1855, and for 35 years had 
resided in Delhi. 

May 11. Mrs. S. M. Barrett, aged 83 years. She came from New 
York to Lansing in 1853, where she had since resided. 

May 17. Charles Foster, of Okemos, aged 68 years. He had resided 
in Lansing and vicinity 43 years. 

May 21. Jason D. Patridge, aged 86 years and seven months. He 
was born in Vermont and was an old resident in the vicinity of 

May 23. Mrs. Sarah A. Bidelman, aged 60 years. She had lived 
in or near Lansing many years. 

EDWIN BEEVES OSBAND. Edwin Beeves Osband was born in Nankin, 
Wayne county, Mich., on Sunday, March 20, 1836, and died at Lansing, 
Mich., December 8, 1892, aged 56 years, 8 months and 18 days. He 
was the youngest of six sons born to William and Martha (Beeves) 
Osband. His parents were natives of New York state and settled in 
Nankin in 1825. 

Edwin was reared upon his father's farm and educated in the district 
schools except a few months attendance at the then existing college at 
Leoni, and also at the opening of the Michigan Agricultural College 


in 1857, he entered it with the design of completing the course, but 
after a few months ill health compelled him to leave. 

He learned the carpenter and joiner's trade and worked at it till the 
summer of 1861, when he enlisted in Company H, 1st Michigan 
Engineers and Mechanics, and in the autumn went with his regiment 
to the front. He accompanied the advance of the army that steamed 
into Nashville in 1862 after the confederates evacuated it. Almost 
immediately after this he was taken sick and sent to the hospital at 
St. Louis, Mo. His sickness proving serious and protracted, he was 
permitted to return home to secure better care and medical aid. After 
a few months he again reported at Detroit for service. Here he was 
offered and accepted a detail, and served as hospital steward at Detroit 
till early in 1864, when he returned to his regiment in Tennessee. He 
was mustered out in front of Atlanta in the fall of 1864, just before 
Gen. Sherman started on his famous march to the sea. 

On February 3, 1864, before he rejoined his regiment he was married 
to Miss Louise F., daughter of Daniel and Marcia (Ferris) Straight, 
of Nankin. After leaving the army he acquired a half interest in the 
farm formerly owned by Rev. Marcus Swift, of Nankin, and in 
connection with farming he ran a country store in his residence a few 
months. In 1866 he removed to Lansing, bought a lot and built a 
residence on block 63, at the corner of Lapeer and Seymour streets, 
where he resided till 1881. He then removed to a farm he had bought 
one mile west of the city on Saginaw street, where he resided till the 
time of his death. In 1886 he accepted the management of the 
cooperative (Grangers') store at North Lansing, which position he held 
three years, during which time his son, D. Gregory Osband, cared for 
the farm. 

As a business man Mr. Osband was successful and left his family in 
comfortable circumstances. He was industrious, economical, intelligent, 
strictly temperate, and a man of integrity. He was honored and 
highly respected by his neighbors, among whom he had many friends. 
He was an official member of the Congregational church, with which 
he had been identified many years. 

His last sickness was painful but brief. He had been ailing several 
weeks, but kept about his business till the night of Tuesday, December 
6, when he became violently ill. The next day his physician 
pronounced his disease peritonitis of an aggravated form and advised 
liim that if he had any business to do he had but little time to do it 
in. He had kept his business in such form that it was soon arranged. 


The end came the next (Thursday) afternoon. He left a wife, a son r 
and two daughters to mourn his loss. 

HELEN M. OSBAND. Helen M., wife of M. D. Osband, died at her 
home in the city of Lansing, Mich., after a protracted and painful 
illness of twenty-one months' duration, on Wednesday, August 3, 1892, 
aged 56 years and 16 days. 

Mrs. Osband was the daughter of Dr. Thomas and Lucretia B. 
Hoskins, and was born at Lima, Washtenaw county, July 18, 1836. In 
the autumn of that year her parents removed to Marion, Livingston 
county. From thence in the summer of 1838 they returned to Wash- 
tenaw and settled at Scio, where she was reared and received her 
education in the common schools of that locality, except a term of six 
months in a school of higher grade in 1852, at Leoni, Jackson county. 

While in her teens she commenced teaching in the schools of the 
rural districts around her home. As a teacher she was eminently 
successful. She subsequently served a year as assistant in the House 
of Correction, as the Industrial School at Lansing was then called. 

On November 15, 1859, she was married to M. D. Osband, of 
Lansing, and thenceforward Lansing became her home till her death, 
except a few years' residence in Frederic, Crawford county, in 1882-8. 

In early youth she united with the M. E. church in Dexter, an 
adjacent village. Her religious nature was warm, broad and deep, and 
unfolded in all her subsequent years into a symmetrical Christian 
character. In Lansing she identified herself with Sunday school, 
missionary, and temperance work, and with the interests of general 
society, in all of which she became prominent and maintained her 
positions while her health permitted. Life with her was barren unless 
she could administer to the happiness of others. Her success in her 
schools and her Sunday school work was secured by her habit of 
making thorough preparation for her work before appearing before her 
classes. Sh.e also loved her classes and each member thereof. This 
gave her great influence over them. She was eminently social and 
always welcome in the social circle. She was gifted in speech, warm 
in heart, and bright in intellect, and was widely known and highly 
respected. As a wife and mother she was faithful, loving, and 
watchful. During her last illness her struggle for life was character- 
ized by patience, cheerfulness, and fortitude. When at the last she 
was told that her sufferings were nearly over she composedly remarked 
"It is all right." She left a husband, a mother, a son, and daughter 
to mourn her departure. She has gone to her reward and the world 
is better for her having lived in it. 



PETER H. ADAMY. Peter H. Adamy, who died July 7, 1892, was 
supposed to be the oldest person living in Sebewa. He was born in 
Minham township, Montgomery county, N. Y., May 16, 1805, of German 
parentage, and his grandfather was conspicuous in the revolutionary 
war. In 1810 he moved with his parents to Niagara county and spent 
fifteen years in clearing up and cultivating the heavy timbered land of 
that country. In 1827 he enlisted in the regular army for five years 
and saw service in the Black Hawk war under General Brooks, who 
had his headquarters at Green Bay. During a part of this time Mr. 
Adamy was assigned to a post at Chicago, which was then composed 
of a few Indian huts. Here he spent some time carrying the United 
States mail from Chicago to Niles, Michigan. The route was simply 
an Indian trail on which creeks had to be waded and rivers swum. 
Along this route he had many encounters with the redskins. 

In 1833 he left the army and went back to Niagara county and 
spent some time in keeping store in Buffalo. In 1835 he moved to 
Cleveland, Ohio, and on the 2d of September of the same year was 
married to Sophia Van Duzen, and lived in Cleveland until 1853, 
when he moved with his family to Monroe county, Michigan, where he 
lived two years, and then moved with his family to Allegan county, 
where he lived until 1862. In that year he moved to Ionia county, 
stopping in the township of Orleans for one summer, and then settling 
in the township of Sebewa, which was his home thereafter. In 1843 
he was converted to the christain faith under the preaching of the 
Rev. Sutton Hayden and became a member of the Church of Christ, 
and remained a devoted Christian the remainder of his life. He was a 
good soldier, a merchant, a farmer, and a devoted Christian, and one 
who contributed two sons to the federal army during the late unpleas- 
antness with the south. He leaves a wife, two daughters and four sons. 

FELLOW GATES. Fellow Gates died at his home in Orange, January 
15, 1893. 

The deceased was born in Vermont in 1802 and was married to Mary 
Williams in 1827. After his marriage he moved to New York, near 
Niagara Falls, and from there went to Buffalo, and thence to Camden, 
Ontario. In the year 1855, he moved and settled in the township of 
Orange, Ionia county, where he and his sons erected a log cabin. 


To Mr. and Mrs. Gates eight children were born, four sons, Elias, 
Nathan, Freeman, and George, and four daughters, Each el, Sarah, 
Elizabeth, and Caroline. 

Mrs. Gates died April 11, 1881. 

Mr. Gates was 91 years of age, and leaves four sons and three 
daughters, thirty-five grandchildren, twenty-four great-grandchildren, 
three great-great-grandchildren, besides a large number of friends to 
mourn his loss. He was a kind father and an affectionate husband, 
a true and good neighbor. 

ANNA M. HEYDLAUFF. Anna M. Heydlauff died at the home of her 
daughter, Mrs. S. Danner, in Ronald, Michigan, January 23, 1893, aged 
83 years. 

Her maiden name was Anna M. Wagnor. She was born at Haslech, 
Kingdom of Wurtenburg, Germany, January 12, 1811. She was married 
to C. F. Heydlauff September 13, 1831, and in 1837 removed to 
America. Leaving her fatherland and all that was dear to her, crossed 
the ocean, landed at New York, remained there a few days, and 
continued their journey from there to Detroit, Michigan. From thence 
they went to the town of Freedom, Washtenaw county, and settled 
there, then an unbroken wilderness. Here they resided for 12 years, toil 
and privation being their lot. In March, 1846, they removed to Ronald, 
Michigan, where she resided the remainder of her life. Ronald can 
truly say that she was a pioneer. She was the mother of nine children, 
five of whom survive her, as follows: John Heydlauff of Day county, 
South Dakota; Win. F. and L. H. Heydlauff of Ronald, Michigan; 
Mrs. R. Miller of Sheridan, Michigan; and Mrs. S. Danner of Ronald, 
Michigan. She was a good and devoted wife and a loving mother. 
She led a quiet life always looking to the welfare of others. Mother 
Heydlauff was a faithful Christian to the last. Her life was so true, so 
pure, so unselfish, so full of love toward God and man. She had the 
rare Christ-like attributes of love for the sinner. 

REV. SMITH P. GAMAGE. Rev. Smith P. Gamage was born at 
Crosgrove, Northampton county, England, December 28,, 1810. He was 
converted in early, life and united with the Congregational church and 
became a preacher at the age of 19 years. The principal points of his 
first sermon were in writing and were present at his funeral. He 
came to America in 1830 and soon afterward was ordained on Long 
Island, near Brooklyn, and was married to Miss Lydia E. King the 
same year. On the breaking out of the rebellion he enlisted as 


chaplain in the 75th Regiment, colored infantry, New York volunteers, 
&nd while in the service contracted diseases which terminated only 
with death. In 1877 he with his family came from Isabella county to 
Portland, where he continued to reside until his death. His health 
had prevented any settled pastorate though he occasionally preached in 
Sebewa and other places. He was fond of writing and had contem- 
plated publishing one or more volumes on theological subjects, the 
material for which he had on hand. For several years he was the 
chaplain to the local post of the G. A. R. and was always present on 
Decoration days, though for the last two years of his life he was 
confined to his house nearly all the time. He was buried as he 
desired by the attendance of the post at his funeral. He was of a 
very amiable disposition and was much liked by all who knew him. 

MRS. A. L. KELSEY. Mrs. A. L. Kelsey died at her home October 
2, 1892, aged 86 years. 

The subject of this sketch was the daughter of Ebenezer and 
Rebecca Pinckney Hoyt and was born in July, 1806, in Montgomery 
county, N. Y., and with her parents she removed to Rush, Monroe 
oounty, N. Y., where in 1825 she married the late Hon. Levi Kelsey, 
so well and favorably known to the older residents of Ionia county, 
and who died in 1867. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kelsey were the parents of seven children, all of 
whom became residents of Ionia county, only three of whom are now 
living, A. F. Kelsey, E. P. Kelsey, and Hannah, wife of Wm. B. 

Mrs. Kelsey came to Ionia township with her husband and family 
in 1857, where she continuously resided until her death, October 2, 1891. 

Although she had been quite infirm for many years, her robust 
constitution gradually yielding to repeated attacks of acute diseases 
and to more than four score years of labor, anxiety, and sorrow, yet 
her last sickness was of but few days' duration, and her passing away 
was peaceful and quiet, like the sleep which the Father gives his 
beloved. She was a member of the M. E. church for 60 years. 

She was one of those, the tidings of whose death brings memories of 
many words of cheer and acts of kindness, and with such memories 
come sorrow and regret that not oftener were spoken words of 
appreciation and of gratitude. 

STEPHEN J. LINDLEY. Stephen J. Lindley died at his home in 
Danby, December 5, 1892, aged 79 years. He had resided in Michigan 
since 1853. 

100 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

MKS. HENRIETTA PILKINTON. Mrs. Henrietta Pilkinton was born at 
West Bloomfield, New York, in 1820, and was the daughter of Mr. 
Harry Bradley, who with his family came to Northville, Wayne county, 
Michigan, in 1829. Here she made a profession of religion and united 
with the Congregational church. She was married to Stephen Pilkin- 
ton in 1838, and with their little family moved to Sebewa, Ionia 
county, in 1840. When the Congregational church of Portland was 
organized, February 4, 1843, she with her husband were constituent 
members, though living in a dense wilderness and at so great a 
distance as to prevent attendance at public services of the church, and 
so keenly was this privation felt that they removed to Portland in 
184-, where they continued to reside until Mrs. Pilkinton's death, 
December 17, 1892. The severe toil in clearing new land, and 
privations incident to an unsettled county, laid the foundation for 
disease, undermining the otherwise strong constitution and culminating 
in death at the age of 72 years. Mrs. Pilkinton was highly esteemed 
as a neighbor and Christian in the community where she was known. 

EDWARD EABY. Edward Eaby died at Ionia November 30, 1892, 
aged 75 years. He was a member of Company K, 14th Michigan 
Infantry, and an old resident in this locality, having worked with the 
first gangs in the construction of the Detroit and Milwaukee railroad. 

ALMON EOSECRANS. Almon Eosecrans died at his home in Ionia 
November 10, 1892. Mr. Eosecrans was born near Lockport, Niagara 
county, N. Y., May 3, 1817, making his age 75 years, 6 months, 1 
week. He was one of a family of seven children, six of whom were 
left without parents while very young, consequently were, of necessity, 
separated and cared for in different homes. 

The subject of our sketch was taken when eight or nine years old r 
to live with a Mr. Holmes, who soon after moved to Wayne county, 
Mich. Mr. Eosecrans remained with them until he arrived at maturity. 

Having a persevering nature and undaunted courage, supported by 
a "never say fail" will, he pushed his way into Ionia county, then a 
wilderness. In the year 1839 he purchased the farm he owned at the 
time of his death, and in the year 1840 was married to Caroline 
Brown, of Oakland county. Soon after their marriage they settled 
upon their land, with the determination to convert it into a home. 
With the genuine pluck which characterized many of the early 
pioneers and with the assistance of a devoted and prudent wife (we 
have often heard him say, " If ever a man had a helpmate, 1 had 
one"), he cleared and improved his farm, reared and educated his 


family, five sous and two daughters, who were with him as much as 
possible during his last illness, to care for him and comfort the 
surviving widow, who is past 70 years of age and keenly feels her 
loss, but mourns not as one without the hope of a happy reunion 
on the peaceful shores of heaven. 

Mr. Eosecrans was an honest hearted Christian and a strong defender 
of the United Brethren faith, to which church and cause he 
contributed liberally. 

The most sterling integrity and scrupulous honesty characterized his 
life, both in dealings and conversation. His manner of expression was 
plain and candid, and his character and the principles of his life were 
worthy to be impressed upon the mind of the rising generation. 

The minister very fittingly said at the obsequies: "As the aged and 
respected pioneers pass away, it behooves us to recognize the traits 
which made their lives successful." The last year of his life was 
especially happy, socially and spiritually. He has always been a 
republican in politics until two years ago when he voted the 
prohibition ticket. 

JAMES BRONSON SANFORD. The life which has so recently gone out 
from among us deserves more than a passing notice, which has, for 
nearly 50 years, mingled in the business of Ionia and been a familiar 
figure on the streets. James Bronson Sanford was born in Ellisburgh, 
Jefferson county, N. Y., August 8, 1822. When three years old his 
parents removed to Camden, Oneida county. He came to Ionia with 
his sister, Mrs. Emily Warner, in 1839, and was engaged in L. S. 
Warner's store for a number of years. As the Indians were daily 
customers he learned some parts of their language so as to trade with 
them. He went to Chicago in 1844 and during the following years 
was connected with some of the old wholesale and retail firms of Magie 
& Co., Clark & Haines, then went into business for himself at 396 
Lake street. He was married to Maria Yeomans, daughter of Erastus 
Yeomans, September 8, 1846, raised six sons and three daughters. 
The eldest son died three years since, the other children all survive 
him and were all present at the funeral. He returned to Ionia in 
1855 and took up farming. While in Chicago he united with St. 
James Episcopal church and was one of three male members, in the 
early history of the church here. His mother's family was identified 
with the early settlement of central New York, his mother being the 
second white child born at Fort Stanwix, near Rome in Oneida county. 
He died September 13, 1892, aged 70 years, one month and five days. 






Date of death. 





Samael Adams 

Oct 31 1892 

Grass Lake 



Asil D Avery 

Sept 24 1892 


New York 


PClisha S Balcom 

Oct. 27 1892 

Jackson . 

Rhode Island 


Nov 22 1892 




Mary Ann Beckwith 

July 12, 1892 


New York ... 


Oct 11 1892 




Helen Beyhan 

Feb. 8, 1898... 
Aug. 1, 1892 

Jackson . 

New York 

Resident of county 30 yrs. 


Sylvester Buck 

Oct. 8, 1892 

Jackson . 

New York 


Bishop Barns 

Dec. 2. 1892 


New York.... 


Susan Cady 

Nov. 24, 1892 


New Hamp... 


July 26, 1892 




Joseph Christopher 

July 24, 1892 


New York 


Margaret Cline 

Dec. 31, 1892 




Eliphaz Dagget 

Nov. 4, 1892 


New York 


Calvin Edwards 

Aug. 2 1892 




Mrs Charlotte Ellis 

Jan 16 1893 


Resident 30 years 


Wm. Erwin 

Nov. 12 1892 


New York 


Chas. Evans 

Aug. 24, 1892 


New York 


Eliza Finch 

Oct. 6, 1892 




Benjamin Francisco 

Aug. 28, 1892 


Vermont . . 


Shubal Fuller 

July 21 1892 


New York 


Mrs. Sarah Jane Garfield 

Feb. 15, 1893 


Resident of county 55 yrs. 


Sarah Geiger 

Nov. 19, 1892 




David Green 

Dec. 26, 1892 


New York 


Perry D Hawley 

Sept 10 1892 

Resident 40 years. 

John F. Hoover 

Dec. 11 1892 


New York 


George Hnntington 

Oct. 16, 1892 




Joseph Irwin 

Aug. 8, 1892 




Wm. B Joslin 

Oct 7 1892 


Noah Keeler 

July 10 1892 


New York 


Willard C. Lewis 

Oct. 10, 1892 




Ira Lowell 

Feb. 15, 1893 

Spring Arbor 

Old resident . 

Ann M. T>nras 

Aug 27 1892 



Bernard Markey 

Oct. 21, 1892.. 


Resident for 40 years 


Ira McGonegal 

Dec 13 1892 





Name. , 

Date of death. 






lyTinirida MoKflfl 

July 29, 1892 . 

Jackson . 

New York.... 


Elizabeth McQuillen 

Sept. 9, 1892 




Mary W. Merrimaii 

June 10, 1892 


New York . . 


Patton Morrison 

Aug. 31, 1892 


New York 


Mary J. Moshier 

Nov. 21, 1892 


Old resident 


Wm. C. Nicholas 

Sept. 18, 1892 


New York 


Wm Northrup 

Oct. 8, 1892 


New York 


Eliza M. Olds 

June 21, 1892 




Lorinda Pease 

Sept. 10, 1892 

Grass Lake 

New York 



Lncinda Pickett . . 

July 27, 1892 


New York 


Wm. Raven 

Sept. 16, 1892 




Mark L. Ray 

Oct. 8, 1892 




Hosea Reeve 

Aug. 18, 1892 


New York 


Harriet E. Robison 

Aug. 3, 1892 



Mrs. Anna Rogers 

June 26, 1892 


Resident since 1858. 


Catherine Scott 

Oct. 15, 1892.. 


New York.... 


Philip B. Shaw 

July 16, 1892 




Dorcas Sprague .. . 

Oct. 7, 1892 




Burton Spencer 

Dec. 12, 1892 . 

Jackson ... 

New York . 


Gillet Stephens 

July 19, 1892.. 

Hanovr . 

New York.... 


Zenas Stilson 

Dec. 1, 1892 


New York 


Wallace W. Sutton . . 

Feb. 17, 1893 

Leoni . 

Old resident 


Ebenezer Taylor 

July 5, 1892 

Grass Lake . 

New York 


Martin Tripp 

Dec. 11, 1892 


New York 


Charles C. Turner 

Aug. 8, 1892 


New York 

Resident 55 years 


Abraham Van Gordon 

Dec. 10, 1892 



Mrs. Susan F. Wallace 

Feb. 8, 1893... 

Spring Arbor 


Rath Wallack 

Oct. 24, 1892 


New York 


Perry Weatherby 

July 30, 1892 


Old resident 

Thomas Wheaton . . 

Aug. 18, 1892 . 

Grass Lake . 

New York 


Clarissa White 

Nov. 2, 1892... 




Martha White 

Aug. 31, 1892 


New York 


Reuben White . 

Dec. 15, 1892 


New York 


Rosina Wickwire. 

Dec. 4, 1892... 

Black man 


Thomas Woodliff 

Oct. 21, 1892 




Caroline Woods 

Aug. 9, 1892... 


New York.... 


Sarah Young 

Nov. 9, 1892... 


New Jersey 

Resident 40 years 


JOSEPH F. BAILEY. Joseph F, Bailey died at the family residence, 

533 North Blackstone street, Jackson, November 4, 1892, aged 61 years. 

Deceased was born in Fairfield, Vt., in 1831, and came to Jackson 

104 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

forty years ago. He had been a member of the First M. E. church 
thirty-nine years, and there are but three members living who united 
with the church so far back. 

He leaves a wife and three children, one son and two daughters. 

JAMES W. BENNETT. James W. Bennett died at Batavia, N. Y., 
November 10, 1892. Mr. Bennett was a native of New York, and for 
a time had a place in the custom house in New York city. He was a 
lawyer by profession and came to Jackson in 1854, where he has since 
resided. During his residence here he was quite interested in politics, 
being an ardent democrat. He was elected circuit commissioner, and 
was also elected justice of the peace in Jackson. At one time he held 
the place of city attorney. Squire Bennett had been in poor health 
for some time. He was well known in Jackson and his familiar figure 
will be missed. 

CHAUNCEY K. BRONSON. Chauncey K. Bronson died at his home in 
Minneapolis, Minn., February 10, 1893, aged 71 years. 

Mr. Bronson came to Jackson with his parents in the days when 
Michigan was a territory. He was born in Detroit and came from 
that city to Jackson when but a boy, and for over fifty years resided 
in this city continuously. All of those years Mr. Bronson was in the 
dry goods trade, and had a personal acquaintance with nearly every 
farmer in the county, as well as residents of the city. He was a man 
noted for his generosity, and recipients of his aid and fatherly advice 
will ever hold him in grateful remembrance. Some eleven years since 
he removed to Minneapolis, but after taking up his abode in that city 
frequently visited Jackson. 

The news of his death will be received with sorrow by his numerous 
friends in this city and county. 

Deceased leaves a widow and three children, a daughter at Glendive, 
Montana; a son at Whatcom, Washington; a son, Frank, manager of 
the Fidelity National bank, at Chicago; and a brother, George, at 
Tacoma, Washington. 

OLIVEB E. COLE. Oliver K. Cole died at his home, corner of Black- 
stone and Franklin streets, Jackson, August 26, 1892. 

Mr. Cole was 79 years of age and had been an invalid for the last 
15 years of his life, with bronchial consumption. 

Rome, Oneida county, N. Y., was the birthplace of the deceased. In 
1837 he left the state of New York for Michigan, being one month on 


the road. The journey was made on foot to Camden, Hillsdale county, 
where Mr. Cole settled. His nearest neighbors were one and a half 
miles distant from his cabin and the nearest market was Jonesville, 
twenty miles away. At that time Reading and Camden constituted 
one township, and there were but thirty-one voters in this entire 
township. Mr. Cole moved to Jackson a few years later, and for 
twenty-one years be was employed in the prison. For five years he 
was stationed at the outside gate, and for sixteen years he was 

Mr. Cole leaves a widow, Mrs. Sarah P. Cole, and a brother, Clark 
Cole, whose home is on Ingham street, Jackson. 

PETER E. DEMILL. Peter E. DeMill, of Detroit, formerly a resident 
of Jackson, and one of the first county officers of Jackson county, also 
a member of Jackson lodge No. 4, I. O. O. F. ever since it was 
instituted, being initiated in the lodge on the first night of its 
existence, August 17, 1844, and a continuous member ever since, died 
at his residence in Detroit October 31, 1892, aged 85 years. 

He represented Jackson lodge No. 4 in the grand lodge of Michigan 
in 1850, and was elected grand warden in 1852, being a member of the 
order forty-eight years. 

Past Grand Masters F. M. Foster and C. H. Haskins went to 
Detroit to represent Jackson lodge No. 4, of Jackson, at the funeral. 

PHILO M. EVERETT. The Marquette Mining Journal has the follow- 
ing obituary notice of Philo M. Everett, who will be well remembered 
by the older residents of the Central City: 

The oldest resident of Marquette, the pioneer of Marquette county 
and of the Lake Superior iron country, the man to whom the Indians 
showed the great " iron mountain " which became the Jackson mine, 
oldest of all the mines of the Lake Superior country, breathed his last 
on September 28, 1892, at the residence of his son-in-law, Hon. D. H. 

Philo Marshall Everett was born at Winchester, Conn., October 21, 
1807. While a young man he settled in New 'York state, where he 
was married to Miss Mehitable E. Johnson, of Utica, in 1833. In 
1840 he moved to Jackson and engaged in mercantile business, together 
with the forwarding and commission business. 

Mr. Everett first came to Lake Superior in June, 1845, in charge of 
an exploring party sent out by a little body of men there organized 

106 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

into the Jackson Mining company, afterwards the Jackson Iron 
company. With this party he discovered and located the famous 
Jackson mine, and after the summer here he returned home. In 1857 
he brought up for the Elys the first locomotive ever seen on the shore 
of Lake Superior. Afterward he engaged in the mercantile business 
here, and later in banking and insurance, accumulating considerable 
property, which was swept away in the terrible depression throughout 
this region following the panic of 1871. 

Mr. Everett took great interest in politics, having been an ardent 
republican from the first formation of the party "under the oaks." 

In the fall of 1883, shortly after the celebration of their golden wed- 
ding, Mrs. Everett died, and since then, .in feeble health, with sight 
and hearing greatly impaired, he has made his home with his daughter, 
Mrs. D. H. Ball. His other children are Mrs. B. P. Robins and C. 
M. Everett, of Jackson, Edward P. Everett, of Grand Rapids, and 
Catherine E. Everett, now living in Chicago. 

JAMES GILDART. James Gildart, an old pioneer of Waterloo town- 
ship, died March 8, 1893, in Brooks, Kan., aged 79 years. He came 
to Michigan in 1841 from Staffordshire, Eng., and is well remembered 
by many old residents of Waterloo. He was the father of Win. B. 
Gildart, the editor and founder of the Stockbridge Sun. 

MRS. WILLIAM GUNN. Mrs. William Gunn died April 16, 1893, at 
her home in Blackman, aged 67 years. 

Mrs. Gunn had resided in Michigan for forty-nine years, and for 
forty-six years had resided in Sandstone and Blackman townships. 
Mrs. Gunn was well known in this county and was warmly regarded 
for her many excellent qualities as a friend, wife, mother, and 
neighbor. Her death will be learned with sorrow by her many friends, 

JOHN HACKETT. John Hackett died October 13, 1892, at the 
residence of his daughter, Mrs. Bracey, on East Main street, Jackson. 

Mr. flackett had resided in Jackson county for many years, having 
lived on his farm in Leoni for 25 years. He was born in Ireland and 
came to Jackson at an early day, and continued to reside here up to 
the time of going on the farm. His age was 70 years. 

NATHANIEL B. HALL. Nathaniel B. Hall died June 7, 1892. 
Mr. Hail was born at Bennington, Vt, September 2, 1826, and was 
consequently nearly 66 years of age. He grew up in the Green 


Mountain state and engaged in business there. At the breaking out of 
the war he gave up his private business and for two years gave his 
entire time to the work of organizing military companies and sending 
them to the front. In 1864 he enlisted as major of the 14th Vermont 
volunteers, and did valiant duty at the front until the close of the war, 
participating in the battle of Gettysburg and other noted engagements. 

In 1870 he came to Jackson and engaged in the insurance business 
with the late James Gould and N. C. Lowe. He was a lawyer by 
profession and was a member of the Jackson county bar, but seldom 
practiced in court. He was not a politician in any sense of the word, 
and although often urged to accept nominations to office persistently 
declined. He was, however, prevailed upon to accept an appointment 
at one time as a member of the board of public works, a position 
which he filled with honor and integrity. A year ago he was appointed 
a member of the board of police commissioners, but tendered his 
resignation several weeks ago, which, however, was not accepted until 
last Monday night. Mr. Hall was a member of Jackson Chapter E. 
A. M. He leaves a wife and three children, Mrs. Harriet Kennedy, 
Harry K. Hall, and Mrs. Dolly Blanchard. 

Mr. Hall was a gentleman of high attainments and of the greatest 
integrity. His sense of honor was always of the most pronounced type 
and he was among Jackson's most progressive business men. His 
estimable qualities made for him hosts of friends who will sincerely 
mourn his loss. 

ELIAL W. HEATON. Elial W. Heaton died at his home on Green- 
wood avenue, Jackson, October 18, 1892, aged 76 years. 

Mr. Heaton was born in Clinton county, N. Y., July 10, 1816. 
Before reaching his majority he learned the trade of shoemaker, which 
he followed several years after he came to this city in 1847. In 1851 
he embarked in the meat market business and followed that calling 
until 1862. During that time he supplied the State prison for eight 
years with meat. During the fifties he was a very active, energetic 
business man and contributed largely of his time and money to advance 
the interests of the city. In politics Mr. Heaton was always a 
democrat but never held but one office, that of councilman of the 
village. He leaves a wife and five children: Frank S., W. P., Ed. K., 
Fred W., and Mrs. Fred Slayton. 

NOAH KEELER. Noah Keeler, one of the oldest pioneers of Jackson 
county, died at his residence in the township of Liberty, July 10, 

108 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

1892, in his 81st year. Born in Avoca, Steuben county, N. Y., he 
worked on his father's farm in the Cohocton valley, until he was 22 
or 23 years old, when he came to this county and settled on the farm 
on which he died. At the time he came west, Michigan was a frontier 
territory and Jackson county very thinly settled. There were at that 
time less than a dozen residents in the township and the country 
presented the appearance of an almost unbroken wilderness. Then no 
railroad had been thought of, and only a few short stage routes were 
in operation. No grist mill was located nearer than Ann Arbor, forty 
miles distant. The first grain he had ground he carried on his 
shoulders to and from Ann Arbor. He persevered, however, until he 
won an elegant home, wealth, and an honorable position in society. 

He was honest and upright in every act of his long life. To the 
deserving poor he was warm hearted, generous, and kind, and " Uncle 
Noah," as he was familiarly called, will long be remembered for his 
honesty, generosity, and many kindly deeds; and he will be missed by 
every one who knew him. A brusque, and sometimes rough manner, 
covered a strong and noble heart. 

In politics he was an uncompromising Jeffersonian democrat, and 
had been a subscriber to the Jackson Patriot from its beginning. He 
was always strong in his convictions of right and maintained them in 
a vigorous manner. 

"Uncle Noah" leaves a widow and two children, Ransom Keeler and 
Mrs. Joseph Hawkins, to mourn the loss of the husband and father. 

NELSON KELLEY. Nelson Kelley died at his home in Columbia 
township, September 11, 1892, aged 69 years. 

His death, though expected is a severe affliction to his family, and a 
great loss to the community where he had lived more than half 'a 
century. Mr. Kelley was a pioneer of Jackson county and ever one of 
its best citizens. Born in Middletown, N. Y., in 1823, he came with 
his parents to Michigan in 1839, settled on a crude farm in the present 
township of Columbia, and at once began the hard life of a pioneer 
farmer. In 1844 he married Miss Margaret Brooks and purchased a 
farm near Kelley's corners where he continued to reside until his death. 
By toil, industry, and good management he accumulated a large farm 
estate, numbering upwards of 400 acres, together with much other 
property. Nelson Kelley was a man of broad and liberal views, upright 
and honorable in all the affairs of life, a man whose friends were as 
numerous as his acquaintances and who never had an enemy. His 
aged wife survives him together with two children, Merchant Kelley, a 


prominent farmer of Columbia, and Mrs. John S. Flint, wife of 
Supervisor Flint of that townsMp. 

MRS. SARAH NIXON. Mrs. Sarah Nixon, of South Jackson, widow of 
the late William Nixon, departed this life September 9, 1892, aged 78 

Mrs. Nixon was born in the town of Washington, Dutchess county, 
N. Y., April 17, 1814, removing to Sharon, Washtenaw county in 1835, 
and was married to William Nixon in 1887. They resided in Sharon 
until 1873, when they came to South Jackson, where the remainder of 
their days were passed. Seven children were born to them five of 
whom are now living. They are Mrs. Martin Rowe, Norman and 
Eugene Nixon, of South Jackson; Mrs. Arthur Root, of Liberty, and 
Mrs. Darius Manchester of Jackson. Mrs. Nixon was a woman of 
strong character, always standing for the right. It is but a few 
months since that her companion of fifty-five years left for the other 

MARTIN OLDS. Martin Olds died at his home in Jackson October 1, 

In the removal of Mr. Olds by death, another of those hardy pioneers 
who assisted in transforming this region from an absolute wilderness 
into a place of beauty is taken away. 

Mr. Olds was born in England seventy-six years since. When a 
young man he came to America and settled in Oakland county. He 
came to Jackson county about 40 years since and located a farm in 
Spring Arbor, where he continued to reside up to twelve years ago, 
when he retired and removed to Jackson, in order to be near his only 
child, Mrs Charles W. Fowler, who died about one year ago. Since 
coming to Jackson Mr. Olds has resided at his late residence on 
Greenwood avenue. 

Mr. Old's life has been an exemplary one. When a young man he 
united with the Freewill Baptist church in his native land, and has 
been a consistent member of that denomination for a period of more 
than fifty years. Deceased was ever generous, possessing a great heart, 
and his voice was always on the side of the weak and oppressed. His 
many acts of kindness to neighbors and friends will never be forgotten 
while life lasts. 

Deceased leaves a widow and son-in-law, Mr. Fowler. 

CHAS. W. PENNY. Chas. W. Penny died at his home in Ann Arbor 
December 6, 1892. 

110 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

Mr. Penny was one of the first settlers in Jackson, and for a number 
of years was in the dry goods business, being associated with S. S. 
Vaughn and later with Charles King. Mr. Penny removed to Ann 
Arbor several years ago. 

He leaves a wife, Mrs. Henrietta C. Penny, and two daughters, Mrs. 
A. F. Lange, of Berkley, California, and Miss Jessica Y. Penny, a 
teacher in the Ishpeming schools. 

DANIEL D. PETKIE. Daniel D. Petrie died at his home in Jackson 
October 11, 1892. 

Mr. Petrie was born April 13, 1830, at Little Falls, Herkimer 
county, N. Y., and came to Michigan in 1838, with his parents and 
settled in Concord township, where he resided for many years. Mr. 
Petrie spent a portion of his time after reaching manhood in teaching 
and acted as an attorney in the justice courts. He served one term as 
justice in Concord township, after which he moved to Parma, where 
he opened a furniture and undertaking establishment. While living 
at Parma he served four terms as justice or sixteen years in all. Nine 
years ago he removed to Jackson, where he has since resided. Mr. 
Petrie was married May 27, 1855, to Miss Charlotte Walker, who, 
with three daughters and two sons survive him. 

Mr. Petrie was a member of the Baptist church at Parma, and was 
an earnest worker in church and Sunday school. 

CHAS. H. PLUMMER. Chas. H. Plummer died at his home in Saginaw 
November 2, 1892. 

Mr. Piummer was a native of Maine and was born in Kennebec 
county, July 10, 1840. His father was of English descent, while in 
his mother's veins coursed the true Scotch blood; and he was proud 
of her who molded his early ideas and energy. 

Mr. Plummer was born upon a farm, but he never took kindly to 
tilling the soil, and at an early age he longed to cut loose and make 
his way in the world, and was not content until he had entered the 
saw mills and forests of Maine, where he found congenial occupation, 
and there he remained - until 1861, when the civil war broke out. 
Fired with patriotism he walked twelve miles to a recruiting station 
and enlisted, though the commanding officer hesitated to accept him 
on account of his youth. He refused a commission and served in the 

It was his seeming desire through life to be classed among the 
people, and while he was ambitious, it was not of that character so 


often witnessed among men, to domineer or dictate At the expiration 
of two years he again enlisted for the war, and was among the first 
to enter Richmond in 1865. 

At the close of the war he returned to the lumber business, but he 
was not content with the narrow fields of Maine and embarked alone 
and unaided for Minnesota, when, after five years' experience, he 
removed to Michigan, and in 1869 began operations with Daniel 
Hardin and W. S. Green & Son at Saginaw. Later the firm of 
Sturtevant, Green & Plummer was organized at Saginaw, with Mr. 
Plummer as manager. He also became a member and was made 
manager of the Plummer Logging Company, and with various other 
extensive lumber institutions, all of which proved successful. Still 
later he opened a flouring mill in Saginaw City and became president 
of the Plummer Lumber Company of Sandusky, O. In 1884 he 
opened a lumber yard and planing mill in Jackson which proved a 
well paying investment. ' 

When it is considered that Mr. Plummer never had the advantage 
of superior schools, but was self educated and equipped by his own 
experience his achievements border on the marvelous. 

Mr. Plummer had large property interests in Jackson, the same 
being estimated at the value of $60,000. He was prominently identified 
with the business interests of Jackson and was largely instrumental in 
its growth and prosperity. He had recently built nineteen houses on 
lots owned by him there. His generosity was great, but unostentatious. 
Many a poor family of Jackson will attest the truth of this. 

As is well known, he met with financial reverses during the past 
year, but his indomitable will and energy would have overcome all 
obstacles had he lived a short time longer. 

Personally, Mr. Plummer was the most affable of men, and he 
counted his friends by the thousand. 

MR. AND MRS. PHILANDEB REMINGTON. Philander Remington died at 
his home in Grand Rapids January 14, 1892, aged 90 years. 

Mr. Remington lived in Jackson for many years until his removal to 
Grand Rapids eighteen or twenty years ago. He was a member of 
Jackson lodge No. 4, I. O. O. F., and Grand Master Haskin went to 
Grand Rapids to attend the funeral. He was an ardent democrat, 
having voted for Andrew Jackson and for every democratic candidate 
for the presidency since that time. 

Mrs. Remington died January 13, 1892, aged 84 years, and the aged 

112 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

couple were buried in one grave, after having lived together happily 
and harmoniously for about sixty-five years. They were both members 
of the Congregational church. 

MRS. HIRAM H. SMITH. Mrs. Hiram H. Smith died March 11, 1893, 
at the family residence, 1601 East Main street, Jackson. 

Mrs. Smith was a daughter of Philo Bates and was born in Genesee 
county, N Y., October 16, 1819. 

As a member of her father's family she moved to Ionia county, 
Michigan in 1885. From about 1843 she was a frequent visitor with 
her relatives in Jackson, and in 1849 she became the wife of Dr. Geo. 
W. Gorham of that city. Dr. Gorham died in 1860, and in 1865 she 
became the wife of Hiram H Smith, her death now terminating a happy 
union of twenty-eight years. 

Her two children, Seymour B. Gorham of Ionia, Michigan, and 
Samuel Denton Gorham of Jackson, Tennessee, survive her, and she 
has also a mother's place in the hearts of her stepchildren, Henry H. 
Smith, Dwight 8. Smith, and Mrs. E. M. Newman, all of Jackson. 
The deceased was a sister of Mrs. C. R. Knickerbocker of Jackson, 
and of Philo T. Bates and William Bates, both still living in Ionia. 
The place filled by Mrs. Smith was in the hearts of the many rather 
than the few. She was loved by everybody she knew, and she was equally 
at home among all classes. Her decease leaves a void in the hearts of 
very many people. Her genial manner and kind impulses will cause 
her to be long remembered. The loss, irreparable to him who has 
been her home companion during so many years, is one in which he 
has "the sympathy of their long list of friends and acquaintances. 

Mrs. Smith was a member of the Episcopal church of Jackson for 
more than forty years preceding the time of her death. 

SIDNEY S. SMITH. Sidney S. Smith died at his home in Eives 
October 21, 1892, aged 75 years. Mr. Smith was one of Jackson 
county's oldest residents, having lived in this county some forty years, 
coming here from Vermont. Mr. Smith was a life long democrat and 
a great admirer of Grover Cleveland. 

Deceased celebrated his golden wedding in January. He is survived 
by his aged wife and all of his children, viz., Mrs. Haight, St. Louis; 
Mrs. Bugby and Mrs. Frank Northrup, Chicago; Edgar Smith, Eives; 
and Mrs. S. B. Mettler, of Jackson. 


MBS. SARAH E. STONE. Mrs. Sarah E. Stone died at the home of 
her son in Horton, August 9, 1892, aged 84 years, 8 months. 

The deceased was a daughter of Jonathan and Ruth Brown, and was 
born in the state of New Jersey, town of Railway, November 20, 1807. 
She came to Michigan with her parents in 1834. Subsequently she 
made the acquaintance of her future husband, Chas. S. Stone. It is 
believed they were the first to be united in marriage in Hanover 
township, they settled on a tract of land and endured all the 
hardships and toils of a pioneer life. 

They became the parents of eight children, six of whom are still 
living, four being residents of Hanover township: Julia M., wife of 
Maynard Sharpe; Mary H., wife of Harry D. Griswold; Hattie, 
deceased wife of B. C. Hatch; Myra J., wife of C. E. P. Hatch; Albert 
N. Stone, Orlando C. Stone, and Delia S., wife of Teeter Blair. 

The deceased at the time of her death was the mother of six living 
children, grandmother of sixteen, and great-grandmother of thirteen, 
making a total of thirty-five living descendents. 

JOHN H. TELFORD. John H. Telford, one of Jackson's best known 
citizens and a man held in high esteem, died at his home, 111 First 
street, August 9, 1892. Mr. Telford was a successful business man, 
who had a very large circle of friends. He was born in Ulster 
county, Ireland, October 1, 1833. He was brought up there, coming to 
this country in 1857. Settling in Troy, N. Y., Mr. Telford engaged in 
the flour milling business. He remained in this line until tne close of 
the war, when he removed to Jackson. 

Mr. Telford carried on a grain business here for a number of years, 
embarking in the coal and wood business in 1878. At the time of his 
death and for the past nine years he was senior member of the firm 
of John H. Telford & Son, the junior partner being John H. Telford, 
Jr. The deceased leaves this son and two daughters. His wife died 
thirteen years ago. He was a member of St. Paul's church. 

MRS. FREDERIC WARREN. Mrs. Frederic Warren died at Spring 
Arbor February 4, 1$93, aged 70 years. 

Deceased was born in Steuben county, N. Y., in 1823, and has lived 
in Michigan most of the time since an early day. She was a member 
of the Wesleyan Methodist church, a devoted Christian and a kind 
friend and neighbor, who will be sadly missed by all who knew her. 
She leaves a husband and four daughters, Mrs. Young, Mrs. Baldwin, 
Mrs. Ira Cole, and Mrs. Charles Shaw, all of Jackson. 

114 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

JOHN WEBB. John Webb, for nearly 50 years a resident of Jackson, 
died suddenly at his home February 19, 1893. 

He was born in the borough of Down ton, in Wiltshire, England, May 
27, 1821, and there acquired a common school education; being reared 
to habits of industry and the principles which make of men good 
citizens and reliable members of society. Orphaned at an early age he 
was thrown upon his own resources and went to work in a bakery in 
Bradford, where he learned the trade and continued until the spring 
of 1844. Then he came into the states, following his trade in different 
cities and finally located in Detroit. 

In 1846 he came to this county. He still followed his trade and at 
the expiration of two and one-half years associated himself in partner- 
ship with Joseph Butler, a partnership which existed harmoniously for 
sixteen years. Mr. Webb then purchased the entire business which he 
conducted successfully, while Mr. Butler retired to the farm which 
they owned jointly. Mr. Webb removed his business to the Empire 
block, which likewise was owned by himself and partner, but of which 
he was at the time of his death sole proprietor. He carried on the 
bakery and confectionery business there until 1872, then selling out 
and renting his building, withdrew from the active cares of life. 

In April, 1843, almost fifty years ago, he was married to Miss Jane 
McLeod, a native of Cork, Ireland, a daughter of an Irish gentleman 
who married an English lady. She has been a helpmeet to Mr. Webb 
always and the source of much happiness; she survives him. But one 
child was born to them, Emily, now the wife of E. P. Burrell of 

MRS. JULIA WHITE. Mrs. Julia White, mother of Mrs. Spencer 
Moulton, died June 12, 1892, at the home of her daughter on Mechanic 
street, Jackson, aged 68 years. 

MRS. White came to Michigan with her father, the late George 
Stranaham of Columbia, fifty-five years ago, since which time she has 
always resided in Jackson county. Her husband, Tenny White died 
twelve years ago. 

MRS. ELLEN WILMORE. Mrs. Ellen Wilmore, wife of Thomas Wil- 
more, died August 17, 1892, at her residence, 312 West Mason street, 
Jackson, aged 69 years. Mrs. Wilmore was born in Philadelphia and 
came to this State in 1848, when it was a mere wilderness, settling in 
Jackson county, where she had resided ever since. All who knew her 


esteemed her for her amiable disposition and many kindly deeds. She 
, leaves a husband and six children. 

MICHAEL WUNDERLICH. Michael Wunderlich, who died August 15, 
1893, was one of the oldest German residents of Jackson. He was 67 
years of age and came to Jackson forty years ago, and for the past 
thirty-one years has been in the employ of the Michigan Central rail- 
road. He was a member of the German Workingmen's society No. 1; 
Court Jackson lodge No. 43, I. O. (X F.; Jackson lodge No. 4, I. O. 
O. F. ; Wildey encampment No. 5, and Jackson lodge No. 17, F. and 
A. M. His wife died last February. He leaves three children, Lewis 
Wunderlich,* Mrs. F. W. Hahn, and Miss Anna, Wunderlich. 

TUNIS VROOMA.N. Tunis Vrooman died February 25, 1893, at his 
residence in Summit, of old age. He was born in Middleburg, Scho- 
harie county, N. Y., and would have been 91 years of age the 29th of 
next April. Mr. Vrooman came to Michigan in the fall of 1835 and 
located at Jacksonburgh, near Summit on section 19. He was four 
times married; in 1823 to Hannah Knieskern of Carlisle, N. Y., who 
died six years after of consumption. Two years later he married Eliza 
raig of Shelby, Orleans county. She died in 1853 and two years 
thereafter, her sister Mary became his wife. The latter died in 1868, 
and January 26. 1871, he married his fourth and present wife, Mrs. 
Eliza Huggins Freeman of Jackson. The deceased leaves six children: 
Mrs. Hannah Walworth, Moscow, Hillsdale county; Mrs. Olive Brickley, 
David Vrooman, and Mrs. Cornelia Goldsmith of Isabella county; Mrs. 
Melinda Creech, Gratiot county; and Tunis Vrooman, Jr., of Summit. 
Mr. Vrooman's farm consisted of one hundred and sixty acres of land 
in flourishing condition. He was a member of the Christian church, 
as is also his wife. The deceased was a democrat, and he was a man 
highly respected in the com*munity. 





Date of 



Date of 



June 19 

Mrs. Jerusha Cook 


Dec. 12 

Mrs. Jerome T. Cobb 



Francis L. C. Denison. 



Garrett Stuart 



*A. D. P. Van Buren. . . 



John Maloy 


July 7 

John Phillips 




Worlender Fellows 


Jan. 9 

I. M. White 



Mrs. Seneca Smith 



Mrs. D wight May 



Anson L. Ranney. 



Russell Mason 



Freeman Chandler.. 



Thomas Rix 



Martha A. Hawes. 



Mrs. Albert B. Judson 



Hiram D. Loveland. . _. 


Feb. 2 

George Hoyt. 



* Hiram Arnold 



William M. Beeman 


Aug. 11 

Edmund 8. Weeks 



James Wrieht 



John Potter 



Henry Vandelere.. 



Catherine E. Lovill 



Dr. John Briggs 



Loretta Shaf ter Ransom 


March 20 

Alpheus Rood . 



Justin Cooper 



Fitch Drake 


Sept. 19 

Parmelia Ashley . 



George Nesbitt 



John Stiver ... '. 



Bridget Nolan 


Oct. 6 

Maria Abraham 


April 7 

George Judge . - 



Julia E. Stuart _ 



Samuel D. Walbridge 



Frederick Woodhams 



Flaria Vandewalker 



Stephen Smith 



Mrs. E. A. Bradley 



John Glynn _ . 



Albert Plough 



Mrs. Freegift Kolston 


May 11 

Sarah Bush 



Mrs. Sarah M.Burdick 



Almira J, Hogeboom.. 



Julia K. Krum. 



John Wilson 


Nov. 18 

Susan Gould. . 



Mrs. E. P. Oatman 



Mrs. Joseph Beckley.. . . 



William Worthington 



Mrs. William De Visser.... 



Dinnis Coogan . 


Dec. 5 

William Parker 



Mrs. Hiram Moon 



George Van De Walker 


June 2 

*Stephen F. Brown 



Joseph Beckley 


* State pioneer. 


JONATHAN PARSONS. Jonathan Parsons died at Saratoga, N. Y., 
whither he had gone for treatment, on August 17, 1892, aged 72 years, 
and was brought to his home at Kalamazoo for interment. He was 
born in West Springfield, Massachusetts, October 7, 1820, and lived 
there during his boyhood. When a young man he removed to 
Marshall. Michigan, and stayed there a short time, going from there 
to Bellevue, where he was a clerk in the employ of the late J. P. 
Woodbury. In the early forties he went to Kalamazoo, and engaged 
in the dry goods business with the late William A. Wood, continuing 
in the same a few years. He afterwards engaged with the late Hon. 
Allen Potter and Mr. Henry Gale in the hardware business. March 1, 
1860, a partnership was formed by him in the hardware business with 
the late Mr. Henry Wood, which continued until March 1, 1888, since 
which time he has not been actively engaged in business pursuits. 

Mr. Parsons was a staunch republican and had seen the party pass 
through many changes. He was three times elected to the State 
legislature, and served several times as a member of the village board 
of trustees. He had been a member of the First Presbyterian church 
for about a half century, and was a member of the session for many 
years. He was also an elder and was clerk of the board of elders at 
the time of his lamented death. Mr. Parsons was at one time a trustee 
of Michigan Female seminary of Kalamazoo. 

His business interests were large and varied. He was a director of 
the Michigan National Bank, a heavy stockholder in the Kalamazoo 
Paper Mill, and also had an interest in the Parsons Paper Company 
of Holyoke, Massachusetts. Mr. Parsons owned the old homestead at 
West Springfield, Massachusetts, which has been in the family about two 
hundred years. Among his interests was a large mint farm at 

As a member of the legislature Mr Parsons served his constituency 
well, voting on all questions as he thought would best serve his State. 
As a trustee of Michigan Female Seminary he had the best interests 
of that institution at heart. As an active member and supporter of 
the church' he will also be missed, and as a business man his word 
was all that was necessary to obtain and hold the confidence of the 
people. Mr. Jonathan Parsons was a thoroughly good man and his 
life may be well considered an example in the community where he 
had lived so many years. 

He leaves a wife and three sons and three daughters: Mrs. C. M. 
Phelps of Holyoke, Mass.; Miss Adella of Kalamazoo; Mrs. Edward P. 
Bagg of Holyoke, Mass.; and Mr. E. C. Parsons of Kalamazoo, Mr. 

118 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

George S. Parsons of Holyoke, Mass., and Mr. Allen Parsons of 

GEORGE NESBITT. George Nesbitt, whose death occurred March 25, 
1893, at the ripe age of 87 years, was one of the very few who settled in 
Kalamazoo county as early as 1830. Mr. Nesbitt settled on as beautiful 
a piece of government land as could be found in the State, which he 
cultivated and on which he erected all the buildings necessary for a 
comfortable home' for himself and family, and all necessary buildings 
for farming purposes. This was his Prairie Ronde home where he 
resided till the day of his death. He was of a very quiet, domestic 
nature; one that required no laws to keep him from transgressing on 
the rights of others, but on the other hand set such an example to 
others as helped to make the neighborhood a more desirable place to 
live and to enjoy all that makes man's own broad acres a home so 
independent over the city or the village. 

Mr. Nesbitt's education was sufficient to enable him to fill any office 
in the gift of the citizens of his township, and while he never sought 
office he held the office of supervisor for a number of years, and 'the 
office of justice of the peace for some forty years, but only used it to 
legalize documents to go on record, always preferring that his neigh- 
bors should be at peace with each other without his assistance 

Those first settlers had a hard struggle to obtain the bare necessities 
of life; and clothed themselves in a cheap, home made material, and 
they became so enured to that mode and manner of living that when 
more prosperous times came to them they did not feel like entering 
into the more modern extravagant way of living, or to run any risk of 
losing the home they had struggled hard to obtain. 

STEPHEN F. BROWN. Hon. Stephen F. Brown was born in London 
county, Virginia, December 31, 1819, and came with his father to 
Michigan when a boy at the age of 11 years, and settled on a farm in 
the township of Schoolcraft, December, 1830. His only^ chance to 
procure an education was at a district school, then kept three months 
in the winter, the other nine months he was employed on his father's 
farm, but he was very ambitious to fit himself to take an active part 
in politics; first began to speak at school lyceums, then on the stump 
in the interest of the whig party, and after the organization of the 
republican party he became a Jealous member and represented his 
county as its representative two terms in the State legislature, in 1856 
and 1858; in 1860, 1864, and 1884 as senator, which offices he filled 


honestly and so ably as to render himself very popular with, his 
constituents and was ever after, as long as he lived, looked upon as one 
who had served them honestly and faithfully. He was a great admirer 
of Henry Clay from whose life and speeches he first entered the field 
of politics, and he became a very convincing public speaker. 

He was the first master of the State Grange of Michigan and served 
as its treasurer ten years, filling both offices in a very acceptable 
manner. He has also filled the office of president of the Kalamazoo 
county pioneer society. He purchased a farm near the old homestead 
where he resided until he died, June 2, 1893, highly respected by all 
who knew him. He did more than his full share in saving the 
country during the late war by furnishing two sons in the cavalry, all 
he had old enough to serve their country. His family consisted of 
these two sons, one daughter, and one other son, then an infant. Mrs. 
Brown, then speaking of her family, said she had two sons in the 
cavalry and one in the infantry. The men of Stephen F. Brown's 
stamp are fast passing away. What his farm produced by good 
management and hard labor he used prudently to support himself and 
family. He commenced life at a time when the latch string always 
hung out and when, if he had money, he had no fear of being robbed. 
His home farm life and domestic habits, and surrounded by neighbors 
of like character, enabled him to live more in accord with nature's 
simple requirements and away from the strife and turmoil and the 
mode and manner of too many now in the villages and cities, who are 
living on the fruits of others' labor. 

Having been intimately acquainted with Mr. Brown for over fifty 
years has induced me to write this imperfect, humble tribute to his 

H. B. 

120 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 


JAMES BLAIR. James Blair died at his residence in Grand Rapids, 
vDecember 18, 1892, from heart disease. 

Mr. Blair was born at Blair's Landing on Lake George, in New 
York state, January 2, 1829. When twelve years of age he removed 
with his parents to Jackson, Michigan, and a year or two later located 
on a farm near Grand river, about eight miles below Grand Rapids. 
Farm life did not suit his active nature, and, when the Mexican war 
broke out he desired to enlist, but his parents objected. Seeing a 
steamer coming up the river one day, he left his oxen and plow 
standing in the field, boarded the boat and went to Grand Rapids, 
where he signed enlistment papers, but being too young, his father 
took him back to the farm. Soon afterwards he went to Grand Rapids, 
and engaged as a clerk in W. D. Robert's and other stores. Later he 
was a partner with the late Lewis Porter in the clothing business. 
During the war he was with the army of the Potomac as a suttler. 
About 1868 he entered the law office of Col. Geo. Gray, then the 
leader of the Kent county bar, as chief clerk. Here he acquired a 
taste for the commercial branch of law practice and in 1871 opened a 
law office for himself. A few months later, when Col. Gray left Grand 
Rapids, Mr. Blair formed a partnership with the Hon. L. D. Norris 
and purchased the retiring attorney's office and business. The follow- 
ing year Willard Kingsley became a partner and, excepting one year, 
has been associated with Mr. Blair ever since. Mr. Norris left the 
firm and Judge J. W. Stone went in. Upon the election of the latter 
to congress, Messrs. Eggleston and Kleinhans took his place, but Mr. 
Eggleston soon after withdrew, and the present firm of Blair, Kingsley 
& Kleinhans was formed and became the oldest law firm in Grand 

OLIVER BLEAK. Oliver Bleak, who has been in the grocery business 
at the corner of Lagrave and Fulton streets, Grand Rapids, for so 
many years, died at his residence over his store, June 6, 1893, aged 78 

Oliver Bleak was born in Holland, December 14, 1824. He served 
in the Holland army as a lad, then in the dykes department, where 
by his special ability before he was twenty-four years old, he secured 
a position worth some $5,000 a year. His mother had come to the 


United States previously, was settled near Buffalo, and so he and his 
wife, at her urgent request, followed her, coming in 1848. He settled 
on a dairy farm near his mother, and that was his home until 1855, 
when he came to Grand Rapids to live and bought the corner lot, 
where he died, for $900. That year he built the brick store where he, 
has lived and done business ever since, and which has never been 
changed in rooms since. He lived for a little time in the small house 
at the rear of the lot. Mr. Bleak was a very quiet, retiring man. an 
honest citizen, a good neighbor, a reliable friend. He had the respect 
and esteem of all who knew him. His wife preceded him some three 
years ago. He leaves two sons, Harry and Oliver, and two daughters, 
Mrs. A. M. Maris and Miss Cornelia; the last has always lived at 
home. He leaves a sister, Mrs. Yander Meulen of Buffalo; a half 
brother, Mr. C. De Vlieger, and a half sister, Mrs. L. Fisher of Sand 

JOHN CORDES. John Cordes died of pneumonia May 16, 1893, at his 
home in the city of Grand Rapids, aged 71 years. Mr. Cordes was 
among the pioneers of the Germans; was born at Westphalia, Germany. 
Came to this country with his parents in 1836, then 14 years of age; 
settled in Clinton county, Mich.; in 1843 he came to Grand Rapids 
and secured work in the plaster quarries. In May, 1850, he joined the 
company of Bostwick & Smith ;< id went to California. Returning in 
1857 with $2,000* in gold he imTi diately invested it in groceries and 
opened a store on Canal street, v here he had been continuously in 
business ever since. 

Mr. Cordes married Mrs. Anne Thome, who with three stalwart sons 
survive him, and are his successors in business. 

HON. E. S. EGGLESTON. Hon. E. S. Eggleston, for many years a 
prominent lawyer of Grand Rapids, died suddenly, August 8, 1892, at 
the home of his brother, J. L. Eggleston, in Parma, Mich., where he 
was visiting. 

Ebenezer S. Eggleston was born in Batavia, N. Y., May 12, 1825. 
He came west in 1837 and took up his residence in Litchfield, Hills- 
dale county, where he received his education in the public schools. 
He afterwards studied law, and in 1851 he came to Grand Rapids and 
was admitted to the bar in 1852. He soon became recognized as one 
of the leading lawyers in western Michigan and soon won distinction. 
He was elected prosecuting attorney for Kent county in 1856 and 
conducted the affairs of that office with credit to himself and to his 

122 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

constituency. In 1861 he was appointed consul to Cadiz, Spain, by 
President Lincoln, and held the office four years, discharging the 
duties with marked efficiency. Eeturning to Michigan he was elected 
a representative to the State legislature of 1873-4 from the first 
district of Grand Bapids: During his term in this capacity he served 
as an active member of the judiciary committee and chairman of the 
committee on private corporations. 

Mr. Eggleston during his residence in Grand Eapids formed several 
law partnerships. His first was with Solomon L. Withey, under the 
firm name of Withey & Eggleston. Colonel George Gray was after- 
wards a member of the firm. Mr. Eggleston withdrew from the 
partnership at the time of his appointment as minister to Cadiz. On 
his return he entered into partnership with United States District 
Attorney A. D. Griswold, and wag himself made assistant United 
States district attorney, and conducted most of the prosecutions for the 
government. His next partner was Jacob Kleinhans, with whom he 
remained for several years. The firm afterward became Blair, Eggles- 
ton, Kingsley & Kleinhans. Mr. Eggleston withdrew from the firm 
and remained alone for a number of years. He then formed a 
partnership with James E. McBribe, with whom he was associated for 
several years, and during the past three years he has been alone, his 
advanced age and failing health being a great drawback to his active 
practice. Among the celebrated cases in which he \^as engaged were 
the Clay- Con verse* law case; the Phillips murder case, in which he was 
leading counsel; the Bronson murder case, the Yanderpool murder case, 
tried in Hastings, in which he was retained by the county of Manistee, 
and the Christ murder case, tried in Grand Eapids. In all of these 
cases Mr. Eggleston greatly distinguished himself. 

October 9, 1877, Mr. Eggleston met with a crushing blow which 
saddened his later years, and from which he never recovered. His son, 
Herbert W. Eggleston, a bright young man of great promise, was 
accidentally killed while out hunting near Traverse City. The news 
of the accident was a terrible shock to the father and it is said by 
those who knew him well, that he was scarcely himself after that time. 
Another great shock was the death of his wife, about five years ago. 
The only surviving member of his immediate family is the married 
daughter in Boston, Mass. In a few days after, this daughter, Bertha 
Eggleston Ely, the last of his family, died at Boston. 

ISRAEL VICTOR HARRIS. Israel Victor Harris died at The Clarendon 
in the city of Grand Eapids on Sunday, October 17, 1886. 


Captain Harris was born at Pine Plains, Dutchess county, N. Y. y 
April 2, 1815, received an academic education and until his removal to 
Michigan in 1836 was engaged in farming, was commissioned a captain 
of the N. Y. state militia by Governor Marcy. He arrived at Detroit 
in December, 1836, and in the following spring made his way on foot to 
Grand Rapids, where he was soon joined by his youngest brother Silas G. 
with whom he formed a co-partnership with James M. Smith, with the 
firm name of Smith, Harris & Co., keeping a general store, groceries, 
dry goods and lumbermen's supplies. The partnership was dissolved in 
1844. His brother Silas was elected to the state legislature at 25 years 
of age and served as speaker of the house with much credit. He was 
of delicate health and died early. Myron Harris, another brother, came 
to Grand Rapids a year or two later, with whom he located eight or 
ten miles west on Sand Creek, now in Talmage township, Ottawa 
county, and engaged in lumbering and real estate business. 

Captain Harris was supervisor of Talmage for six successive years, 
and in 1852 was elected to the state senate running against Thomas W. 
Ferry, for the district which then embraced Ottawa county and all of 
those north to Mackinac; was a candidate for re-election but was 
defeated by Mr. Ferry; he then retired from official life but remained 
prominent in the counsels of the democratic party. In later years his 
residence had been at Grand Haven where he was cordially and uni- 
versally respected. He was always public spirited and influential in 
promoting enterprises for the welfare and development of his town and 
of the Grand River valley. 

JUDGE ISAAC H. PARBISH. Isaac H. Parrish died of apoplexy in 
the city of Chicago, September 10, 1892, and was brought to Grand 
Rapids for burial. Judge Parrish was born in Ontario county, N. Y., 
April 2, 1826 and came to Oakland county, Mich., in 1834. His youth 
was spent on a farm, the family living in a log house in the woods, 
and his early education was obtained in a log school house in Farm- 
ington, Michigan. After he was 20 years of age he read law and was 
admitted to the bar in 1848, then for twelve years he practiced suc- 
cessively at Pontiac, in Wisconsin and at Chicago. He came to Grand 
Rapids in 1861, in 1865 he was appointed clerk of the United States 
court here and held that position ten years, after which he returned to 
law practice. In 1881 he was elected judge of the superior court of 
the city of Grand Rapids and ably filled the position during the term 
of six years. 

Judge Parrish from time to .time during his residence in Grand 

124 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

Rapids was a contributor to the local papers furnishing interesting his- 
torical sketches of persons and events. 

He leaves a widow, four daughters and a son. 

REV. JAMES W. REID. Rev. James W. Reid, pastor of the Second 
street M. E. church of Grand Rapids, died at his home January 21, 
1893. He was born in Machias, Maine, April 7, 1837. His father's 
family moved to Michigan in 1859, and settled near St. Joseph. He 
early took to teaching in Michigan and Wisconsin, and in 1861 studied 
law, and was admitted to the bar under Judge B. F. Graves. In the 
early 60's he practiced law in this village, being a member of the law 
firm of Wilkinson, Reid & Cahill. It was while practicing his profes- 
sion here that he was converted, and immediately joined the Methodist 
Episcopal church and entered the ministry in the year 1868. His 
appointments in the order named have been as follows: Traverse City, 
Tekonsha, Homer, Grand Haven, Portland, Greenville, Girard, Union 
City, St. Joseph, Charlotte, Three Rivers, Grand Rapids. 

Mr. Reid originated the present system of conference finance, now 
endorsed by the general conference, and was for many years treasurer 
of the Michigan conference. He was also the author of what is known 
as " The long roll call," of which Chaplain McCabe says, " He could 
not have done the church as great service if he had given $100,000 to 
the cause." Of late years the Rev. Mr. Reid has been actively inter- 
ested in developing a system to better provide for the necessities of 
worn out preachers, and has seen his own conference improve from an 
offering of $1,500 to an annual fund of $10,000. 

He has always been an active friend of camp meeting, an aggressive 
evangelist worker, and was one of the projectors of the Eaton Rapids 
camp meeting and the originator of the Michigan State Revival Band 
and its first president, and was one of the chief workers for the 
Hackley Park camp meeting. A firm believer in the principles of the 
Prohibition party he resigned his charge two years ago to accept the 
chairmanship of that party's state central committee, and for weeks 
and months he devoted his time, money, and energy to the work. 
The campaign over, he was again received by the district conference 
and assigned to a church in Ravenna. So loud were the remonstrances 
of his old parishioners in Grand Rapids, however, that Bishop New- 
man was prevailed upon to restore him to his old charge, which he 
had held ever since. 

MR. and MRS. PHILANDER REMINGTON. Philander Remington died 
at his home in Grand Rapids, January 14, 1892. Mrs. Remington 
died January 13, 1892. For sketches see page 111. 


CHAS. A, EOBINSON. Chas. A. Kobinson died January 11, 1893, aged 
about 70 years. 

Mr. Robinson came to Plymouth, Wayne county, from the state of 
New York in an early day. Removed to Grand Rapids in 1855, 
opening a livery business with John Coldron. He was a leader in the 
Knights of Labor when they were first organized; was also prominent 
in G. A. R. circles, being a member of the 10th Michigan Cavalry. 

Deceased leaves a wife and Tson, Wm. A., also a daughter, Mrs. Mary 
L. Turner. He was a member of the Old Residents' Association of 
the Grand River valley. 

JAS. D. ROBINSON. Captain Jas. D. Robinson died September 18 r 
1892, aged 70 years. 

Capt. Robinson was born in Belfast, Ireland, April 17, 1822. Came 
to Grand Rapids in 1843 and worked at his trade (mason) for a 
number of years; built a home in 1848, at the corner of 2d and 
Scribner streets, it being the first brick house erected on the west side 
of the river in Grand Rapids. He went to California in 1850, over- 
land; on account of an injury received in the mines he returned by the 
Isthmus or Panama route. In 1861 he enlisted in the 1st Regiment 
Michigan Engineers and Mechanics, and was made captain of 
Company C of that regiment. 

Captain Robinson married Almeria Church, of Marshall, in 1853; his 
widow and three daughters survive him. 

He had acquired considerable property and was the president of 
the Fifth National bank, also of the Grand Rapids Savings bank. 

DR. CHARLES SHEPARD. One by one the pioneers who saw Grand 
Rapids expand from a hamlet in the wilderness into a city of 100,000 
souls, are passing away. On March 8, 1893, Dr. Charles Shepard, the 
pioneer physician, whose name is a household word not only in Grand 
Rapids but throughout the State, peacefully passed to the other life 
through the portals of sleep. 

Charles Shepard was born July 18, 1812, in Herkimer, Herkimer 
county, N. Y. He was the son of Silas Shepard, his mother's maiden 
name being Anna White. The doctor spent his early youth at school 
and with his father in the carpenter shop. At 18 he began to read 
for his profession in the office of Dr. Harvey W. Doolittle, of 
Herkimer, and graduated in March, 1835, from the college of physi- 
cians and surgeons of the western district of New York, situated at 
Fairfield. He practiced a few months in Jefferson county, N. Y., and 
then came to Grand Rapids, arriving here October 20, 1835, and gave 

126 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

out that he had come to stay and grow up with the promising village. 
He was the third regular physician to establish in the village, but the 
other two have long since passed away, and Dr. Shepard for many 
years has enjoyed the reputation of being the oldest practitioner in the 
city. His first call was to Ada, where he vaccinated 150 Indians on a 
contract. The work of a physician in those early days was extremely 
arduous. There were no roads about the country and he rode on 
horseback, frequently going fifty miles through the wilderness to see 
one patient. On one occasion he rode to Muskegon to perform 
operations on several sailors injured by shipwreck. At that time the 
city was made up of a sawmill and boarding house. The young 
physician was guided by one undeviating principle in those early days; 
if called, he went; no question of compensation was allowed to be a 
factor in the case. The demand meant necessity; nobody had time to 
nurse fanciful disorders. When done with a case he went home to 
sleep, no matter what the hour, and it came to be understood that 
absence from home invariably meant professional business. 

Dr. Shepard was brought into prominent notice in 1837 by some 
notable surgical operations performed upon the badly frozen crew of a 
vessel which was wrecked near the mouth of the Muskegon river. 
During 1813, 1860, and 1872, he spent much time in visiting the 
medical and surgical institutions of New York City, and lost no 
opportunity to keep at the very front of his profession. He was 
particularly noted as a surgeon. In treating the diseases of women his 
practice was simply unlimited, and he was conceded by his fellows to 
be without a peer in that line in the State. He was a member of the 
State medical association and was president of the Grand Rapids 
medical society. In politics he was a republican, having been 
converted from democracy in 1848. He served as alderman for several 
years, and was mayor during 1855. In 1876 he represented Michigan 
in the international medical congress at Philadelphia. He was a 
Mason for twenty years. 

The older residents will associate Dr. Shepard's memory with the 
old fashioned stone residence and office on the hill where now the 
Shepard building stands, the hill and house having both disappeared 
some years ago. This was where his daily life was spent for forty 
years, and it contained the medical library, which was one of the finest 
in the State and in which he spent his time almost constantly when 
not otherwise engaged. He was also greatly interested in microscopical 
research and owned the finest outfit of that kind in the city. In 1887 


he purchased the property at Jefferson avenue and Oakes street from 
L. H. Randall, and removed from the old homestead on the hill. 

In religious belief Dr. Shepard was in early youth an evangelical 
believer, but in later years he embraced the doctrines of Emanuel 
Swedenborg. Dr. Shepard's leading characteristic, however, was his 
practical charity, especially in his connection with the U. B. A. Home. 
He was president of its board of managers and also chief of the 
medical staff. Through the courtesy of fellow practitioners he was also 
given an honorary position on the staff of St. Mark's hospital. He 
was always in favor of allowing physicians of all schools to practice in 
the U. B. A. Home and finally gained his point, which resulted in 
allowing all physicians to practice there. 

He was married in 1836 to Lucinda A. Putnam, who died in April, 

1873. Their two daughters and a son by this marriage are all dead. 

He was married the second time to Dora Sage, at Portland, Conn. 

* They have had two sons, Charles and Silas E. Shepard, both of whom 

are living and are aged 15 and 11 years respectively. 

BILIUS STOCKING. Ripe with age, Bilius Stocking peacefully passed 
away May 28, 1893, at the residence he has occupied for more than 
half a century on Seventh street, Grand Rapids, at the head of the 
street which he marked out and which was named in his honor. Since 
the earliest day he has lived here, and until the infirmities of age 
overcame him, he was a vital part of the city's life, and was esteemed 
by all who knew him for his sterling qualities as a man and citizen. 

Mr. Stocking was born in St. Lawrence county, N. Y., on June 12, 
1808, and in the fall of 1833, with his brother Daniel C., he came 
west and spent the winter in St. Joseph, Michigan. In May following, 
fifty-nine years ago this month, they came to Grand Rapids, then a 
little hamlet in the woods. They made the trip on foot, following an 
Indian trail and two nights slept in the woods and one at Gull Prairie. 
They remained here two weeks, meantime visiting Grand Haven, 
thence returned as they came to St. Joseph, and thence by steamer to 
Chicago, and from there to Ottawa, 111., near which place Daniel 
Stocking purchased 160 acres of land. The brothers returned to the 
East, the trip occupying four weeks, and in the fall of 1836 Mr. 
Stocking again started for Grand Rapids, coming by water to Fairport, 
Ohio, and the rest of the way on foot, arriving there in the fall. That 
winter he chopped wood and split rails and the following spring settled 
upon the place where he died, which he purchased of the gov- 
ernment as soon as the land was opened for sale, at three dollars an 

128 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

acre. He took a quarter section, and with his own hand he cleared 
away the forest, and under his direction the farm became one of the 
best in the county. As the city grew his neighbors became more 
numerous, and the city's boundaries were extended, and the farm of 
early days is now a part of the city, and many of the acres have been 
cut up into building lots and are occupied by cozy homes. The old 
homestead, with the wide lawn in front, and the meadow patch at the 
side, and the apple and pear trees still standing, is the same as it has 
been for many years and is one of the landmarks in that part of the 
city. In the early days, while all was still in the forest state, without 
compass or guide, Mr. Stocking marked out a road southeasterly from 
his own front door to Bridge street, and this is now Stocking street 
and is lined with houses. The street was named in his honor and 
his name will always be connected with it. 

Mr. Stocking was treasurer of Walker township from 1843 to 1846 
inclusive, represented the township on the board of supervisors, served 
as justice of the peace, was under sheriff one term, and held various 
other minor offices and was always identified with the city's best inter- 
ests and prosperity. He was charitable and benevolent, and yet he 
gave so quietly that it was rarely known. He was formerly a repub- 
lican, but of late years affiliated with the prohibitionists. In religion 
he was a believer in the Swedenborgian doctrines and was a life long 
member of the New Church. 

In his family life Mr. Stocking was peculiarly happy. He married 
in 1838, Miss Mary H. Hunt, and his marriage by the Rev. James Ballard, 
was one of the earliest in the city. For more than half a century 
they traveled hand in hand, sharing the joys of life, dividing the 
sorrows and growing old together. She survives her companion of a 
lifetime and in her bereavement has the sympathy of a wide circle of 
friends. Five children were born to them and two daughters survive, 
Mrs. John Widdicomb and Miss Alida C. Stocking. 

ARTHUR WOOD. Arthur Wood died April 24, 1893, at his residence 
in Grand Rapids, aged 61 years, 11 months. 

Mr. Arthur Wood was born in Bristol, Eng., May 22, 1832. His 
parents came to this country when he was four years old and settled 
near Worcester, Mass. In 1856 he came to Grand Rapids, working at 
the carpenter trade, but later as bookkeeper for R. E. Butterworth. 
In 1857 and 1858 he was employed on the Democrat, by Jacob Barns, 
then editor of the paper. In the summer of 1862 he raised a company 
for the .4th Michigan Cavalry, but after six months service he was 


obliged to resign on account of deafness and returned home. In 1863 
he accepted a position on the Detroit Free Press under Mr. Barns, 
where he remained nearly five years. 

In 1867 he returned to Grand Rapids and embarked in the carriage 
business with Luther Colby and H. P. Colby, under the name of 
Colby, Son & Co., but later bought out his partners and gradually 
built up an important business. 

In 1860 he was married to Sarah F. Colby, daughter of Luther 
Colby, who is still living. There were five sons born to them, four of 
whom are living, all having an interest in their father's business, being 
stockholders. One brother, C. W. Wood, of Battle Creek, still survives 

Mr. Wood was a Mason, being a member of Valley City Lodge No. 
34, and in politics a democrat. 


MRS. ISAAC ADAMS. Mrs. Isaac Adams is dead. The journey was 
finished at Omaha, Nebraska, January 20, 1893. It was a long one, 
spanning this entire century, save the opening and the remainder of 
the present decade. The heart that has just ceased its beatings began 
to pulsate when this republic was an experiment and this continent, 
beyond the seaboard states, an unknown wilderness. It was before the 
second war with England, during the first administration of President 
Madison. There then lived in the village of Charlemont, amid the 
Berkshire hills of Massachusetts, a plain young couple of Puritan 
descent, John and Elizabeth Fisher. In 1811 their first child was 
born and christened Mary. As years passed brothers and sisters 
entered the household until the family circle numbered twelve sons 
and daughters. In addition to the village schools the children from 
time to time were given the advantages afforded by academies in 
neighboring towns. An epoch in the life of Mary was the winter of 
'29, when she attended a select school for girls by Mary Lyon, founder 
of the Mt. Holyoke seminary. Finally the time came when the anxious 
parents decided that the future of their flock demanded a wider field 
for operations than their snug New England home. In 1836 the great 

130 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

migration was undertaken. The rocky seventy acre homestead, and the 
father's cabinet shop were converted into money; the stage coach 
winding along the valley of the Deerfield, over Hoosac Mountain to 
Troy, was chartered; fond farewells were chokingly uttered; eyes 
blinded in tears looked for the last time upon the dear scenes of 
childhood, and the long journey westward was begun. At Troy there 
was the transfer to the Erie canal, and at Buffalo the canal boat was 
exchanged for the lake steamer. At Monroe, Michigan, family and 
household goods were transferred to wagons, and hauled by ox teams 
to their new home in the forest, three and one-half miles north of 
Tecumseh, now the farm of the youngest son, John Fisher. During 
the succeeding thirteen years Mary Fisher, as eldest daughter, contin- 
ued to share with her mother the responsibilities of pioneer life. In 1839 
she was one of fifteen who organized the Baptist church of Tecumseh. 
Of this little band of fifteen she was the last survivor. 

In 1849 she became the wife of Isaac Adams. Their companionship 
lasted thirty years, terminating with the death of Deacon Adams in 
1879. For the past ten years Mrs. Adams has resided with her only 
son, Isaac, at Omaha, excepting one year spent at Lincoln, Nebraska, 
with her daughter, Francina, now Mrs. J. J. Wilson. In early life 
Mrs. Adams was not robust, but care and prudence brought into 
healty action her vigorous" constitution so that for the last forty years 
of her life she scarcely experienced any sickness. In August last, 
paralysis rendered her helpless. Realizing that there was no relief, 
she longed to be free from the bonds which time had forged. With 
the opening of the year the disease assumed a new phase, but to her 
its progress was not unwelcome. She predicted that ere the 23d of 
January, the fourteenth anniversary of the departure of him whose 
memory she cherished so tenderly, she would have joined him. As 
the month grew apace she numbered the days as one waiting a long 
and anticipated meeting. Thus was "the passing of this life, long and 
ripe. The milestones along its way can be pointed out, but who can 
conceive the scope of its century of influence! She inherited many of 
those traits that have enabled the sons and daughters of New England, 
though comparatively few in numbers, to stamp their character upon 
all genuine American institutions. To her, Christianity and the highest 
Christian morality was not a faith and practice necessary to be accepted 
and cultivated, but it was ingrained and instructive. Anything else 
was simply unnatural and abhorent. Her influence was confined to the 
family circle. There, though silent, it was as vital and all-pervading 
as the atmosphere. Prior to the attack of paralysis her faculties, both 


physical and mental, never waned. She never grew old. She enjoyed 
the life of a growing city. Her surroundings and new associations 
were always agreeable. The past had no more grasp upon her than 
upon one who knows of it from hearsay only. She was abreast of the 
times, in full sympathy with the busy and progressive. She made 
herself companionable. She leaves to her children and relatives the 
best of legacies, an inestimable fund of precious memories. 

EDMUND W. BORDEN. Edmund Woodmansee Borden, the second son 
of Tyler and Hannah Borden, was born in Monmouth county, New 
Jersey, March 30, 1822. 

Orphaned by his mother's death when he was but eleven years old, 
by which event the family was broken up, he was almost immedi- 
ately thrown upon his own resources. Being drawn by the teachings 
of his pious mother, he soon left the farm where he had been engaged 
for a term of years, and buying up his unexpired time, he went to 
New York city to prepare himself for preaching the gospel. This he 
did by learning the tailor's trade, studying as he worked, and attend- 
ing night school. He thus supported himself and obtained a substantial 
basis for a thorough education, which he afterward acquired by private 
tutors, by a course of study at the University of Michigan, and by a 
remarkably patient, persevering, and thorough reading of the masters 
of learning in its various branches. His logical and close reasoning 
powers were always based upon verified truth. 

When twenty years old he married Miss Margaret Hopper of New 
York city and with her removed to Michigan in 1843, a land then in 
primeval forest and far away from the city of New !York, while as yet 
railroads were but just beginning to be. Taking up pioneer life at 
Battle Creek as a circuit rider of the M. E. church, he was instant in 
season and out of season to carry the gospel message to all within his 

After laboring in that church from his seventeenth year, when, he 
was licensed as an exhorter, his ordination taking place when he was 
twenty-one years of age, till 1858, a period of nearly twenty years, his 
theological views undergoing some change, he united with the Congre- 
gational denomination. In this body he continued his ministry about 
fifteen years. In 1873 he transferred his standing to the Presbyterian 
church, finding in its polity and system of doctrine a congenial resting 
place for his inquiring and independent mind. He gave up settled 
pastoral charge in 1888 but continued to preach until last summer, 
his last discourse being a funeral sermon on the 27th day of August, 

132 A*NNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

1892. His family consisted of eight children, five of whom, two sons 
and three daughters are still living. 

The last year showed rapid decline in his health, but he was still 
happy and fairly well at the anniversary of his golden wedding, October 
6, 1892. He died on February 27, 1893, at his home. So ended a 
career of triumph and an active ministry of fifty-three years in the 

Mr. Borden never lost a month of service nor was ever absent from 
his pulpit through sickness. He never took any vacations and as a 
public servant of Christ was faithful in all his charge. 

WM. BRESIK The death of William Bresie, April 23, 1893, at the 
ripe age of 76 years, removes from the social and business circles 
of Tecumseh, one of our foremost citizens. But few men typified 
better than he the restless energy and activity of the western pioneer, 
and his life was a long and eventful one. He was born in Tioga 
county, New York., April 25, 1817, and when six years of age his 
father's family moved to Conesus, Livingston county, New York, where 
the subject of this sketch lived for ten years, obtaining such a meagre 
education as the schools of those days afforded. At the age of seven- 
teen he caught the prevailing western fever, and started for Buffalo 
afoot and alone. Upon arriving there he took a boat to Detroit, and 
thence walked to Michigan City, Indiana. Here he pbtained work at 
driving stage and for about two years subsequently, he made his head- 
quarters in Chicago. In the spring of 1839 he returned east, and upon 
the 20th of March in that year he married Mary A. Johnson of Grove- 
land, Livingston county, with whom he lived a most happy domestic 
life for over half a century. Soon after his marriage he moved to 
Conesus, where he kept the village hotel for about six years. He then 
lived on a farm in Groveland for a time, and from there moved to 
Dansville, Livingston county, where he kept the Western hotel for 
several years. In 1850 he moved to Hornellsville, Steuben county, 
New York, and began work on the Buffalo & New York City railroad, 
now the N. Y., L. E., & W. Ry. He was employed first as baggage 
master and then as passenger conductor for a period of seven years on 
a run between Buffalo and Hornellsville. He then resigned to take a 
position with Mr. Geo. B. Gates, who was proprietor of the first 
sleeping car line the first sleeping car having been put in use about 
1858 and he served in this capacity for Mr. Gates during a period of 
ten years running on the New York Central, the Buffalo & Erie and 
the Cleveland and Ashtabula railroads, the two latter now forming a 


part of the Lake Shore system. Mr. Bresie enjoyed the distinction of 
being the first regularly appointed sleeping car conductor. He was in 
several wrecks but always escaped unhurt. 

At the expiration of his ten years' service here, he took charge of a 
sleeping car line between that city and Chicago. He then moved to 
Glenville, Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland, where he dealt largely in real 
estate. While a resident of Glenville he became a pioneer in the 
operation of street railways. He obtained the right of way and the 
original charter of the St. Clajr St. K. E. Co., a street car line run- 
ning from the heart of Cleveland to Glenville. To encourage the 
enterprise the owners and citizens along the route donated the use of 
the line without rent, and he managed it very successfully for ten 
years. His property' in Glenville increased very much in value and 
gave him a handsome competency. 

In 1874 he moved his family to Tecumseh and took up his abode on 
forty acres of land just north of the village which has made a model 
home for him during his declining years. His house was an historical 
landmark, being in an early day the homestead of Gen. J. W. Brown, one 
of the founders of Tecumseh. Within its hospitable walls he celebrated 
his golden wedding on the 20th of March, 1880, and' here he passed 
the remainder of his earthly pilgrimage. 'For nearly twenty years he 
was a resident of this village. He served as township supervisor, as 
village councilman, and as janitor of the cemetery, in all of which 
positions he displayed the same business tact and ability which made 
his early life such a marked success. 

Four children blessed his married life: Wm. R. Bresie, of Decatur, 
Illinois; Mrs. Elizabeth Crowell, of Cleveland, Ohio; Mrs. Sarah Betts, 
of Edmore; and Amanda, who died at the age of three years. 

MRS. SAMUEL HOLDEN. Mrs. Samuel Holden, who departed this life 
on the 9th day of January, 1893, was one of our oldest residents. Had 
she lived until May 23 next, she would have been 84 years of age. 
She was born in Groton, N. Y., in 1809, and was there united in 
marriage to Mr. Harlo C. Smith in October, 1832. In the spring of 
1834 they drifted westward into the territory of Michigan, and settled 
on a farm in the township of Cambridge, which was then almost an 
unbroken wilderness. Here they carved out for themselves a substan- 
tial home and here were born to them five sons, to make that home 
happy. In February, 1858, they moved upon a farm in Raisin where 
they lived until 1869, when they purchased the old Jas. C. Eddy place 
just west of Tectmseh. Mr. Smith died in October, 1875. In May 

134 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

1877, she was married to Mr. Samuel Holden, who now survives her; 
also two sons by her first husband, Albert E. Smith of Onsted, and 
Sylvester H. Smith of Adrian. The deceased was a woman of modest 
manners who loved her home and kindred, and fulfilled all the duties 
of wife and mother in the humble station to which God had assigned 
her. She was for many years a member of the Tecumseh M. E. 
church and died in the hope of a blessed immortality. 

JOHN RICHARD. Another of Lenawee county's sturdy pioneers and 
most worthy citizens died at his home June 12, 1892. 

John Richard filled a large niche in the local history of Lenawee 
county for more than half a century. He was descended from sturdy 
Irish ancestry, having been born in County Antrim, Ireland, in 
November, 1806. His father, Archibald Richard, was an Irish farmer, 
and the father of eleven children, John being the second child. He 
passed his boyhood beneath the parental roof, gathering such rudiment& 
of an education as the Irish schools of those days afforded. At the 
age of eighteen years he bade adieu to the old home and set sail for 
the new world, landing in Baltimore about the first of June. 1825. 
Here he worked for a few months at the brick and stone mason's 
trade and then went to New -Jersey, where he engaged in work in the 
iron furnaces until the fall of 1827, when he returned to his native 
land. In the spring of 1828 his father emigrated with his family to 
America, John having persuaded him to try his fortunes in the western 
world. They landed in New York in June, 1828, and proceeded to 
Geneseo, Livingston county, N. Y., where they purchased a farm and 
resided until 1833. In September of that year they came to Michigan 
and settled in the woods on section fourteen in Raisin. In 1831 the 
subject of this sketch again returned to Ireland. In January, 1882, he 
was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth Sherrard, of Antrim county, 
with whom he returned to America, and the next year, 1833, he came 
to Michigan with his father's family and located a farm on section 
twenty-three in Raisin, where he began the work of carving a home out 
of the wilderness. At his death he owned one hundred acres of land, 
with fine buildings and improvements, which is considered one of the 
best homes in this section. He began life in Raisin in a log cabin, twelve 
feet square, without a chimney, and in the midst of an unbroken 
forest. During the next forty years he endured the privations and 
performed the toil incident to pioneer life in the Wolverine State, 
during which time he made the forest to bloom like a garden and 
transformed the wild woods into a beautiful home. He had but one 


child, Alexander, who now resides on the old Archibald Richard farm 
in Raisin. 

The deceased was possessed of good physical health and a rugged 
'constitution, and took a deep interest in all matters of local concern. 
He was a great reader and kept himself en rapport with the times in 
current history and politics. Although unobtrusive and far removed 
from intolerance and mere partisanship, he entertained positive convic- 
tions upon religious and political subjects and could always give a 
reason for the faith that was in him. In politics he was an old line 
democrat. In religion he* was an ardent Presbyterian. He was an 
active member of ancf regular attendant upon the Raisin Presbyterian 
church, and gave a liberal donation to erect the fine .church edifice 
which stands on his farm. He also contributed liberally towards the 
building of the two Presbyterian churches in Tecumseh. He was 
frequently honored with the suffrages of his fellow citizens for offices 
of trust, having been twice chosen to the office of township treasurer 
and twice elected supervisor. 

"Uncle John Richards," as he was familiarly known by all, was a 
prominent character in this vicinity for nearly sixty years. As a 
husband and father he met his obligations and duties with religious 
fidelity ; as a citizen . and neighbor he -was honored and trusted ; as a 
pioneer he stood in the van of that valiant army of faithful workers 
who have made our commonwealth what it is today. He has fought 
the good fight, he has kept the faith, he has finished his course, he 
has entered into his eternal inheritance on high. 

JOHN SAGE. Another of the pioneers of Lenawee county has passed 
away. Mr. John Sage, of Macon, died August 26, 1892, on the same 
farm upon which he had resided since 1831, in the 88th year of his age. 

Mr. Sage came to Michigan from Livingston county, N. Y., in 
the spring of 1831. He took up land on section nine in Macon, 
Lenawee county, where he soon after erected a log house. October 24, 
1833, he was married to Miss Hannah Marshall, of New York state, 
and brought her to his new home in Michigan. .He was then 28 years 
old. Together they commenced the battle of life in a new country, 
sharing the hardships that are consequent in a new country. Their 
nearest neighbor was Dr. Howell, the father of Dr. George Howell of 
Tecumseh, and Edwin Howell of Macon, who now resides at his 
father's early home. 

Mr. Sage was compelled to cut his way from Mr. Pennington's 
through to his land, in order to get a team and wagon on his new 

136 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

farm, all being a dense forest. By true courage, a strong will, and a 
healthy and robust frame and constitution, he felled the primeval 
forest, broke the land and made for himself and family a beautiful 
home. Upon this farm he lived until his death. His wife was called 
away thirteen years previous and since that time to the hour of his 
death he was constantly attended by his youngest daughter, Mary E. 
Sage. Her true devotion to her father, her untiring care, her sleepless 
vigilance, her strong love for him during all those years merits and 
receives from all deep and abiding friendship and esteem. 

Mr. Sage was the father of seven children, four of whom survive 
him. Two sons died in defending their country during the war of the 
rebellion, one after four years of service on the battlefield in the 3d 
Michigan Cavalry, and the other in the llth Michigan Infantry. Two 
sons and two daughters survive him and were present with him to 
comfort his last years on earth and mourn his departure. 

Mr. Sage was a true patriot, a true man. Honesty, integrity and 
truth marked all his acts and he died at a good old age, honored and 
beloved by all, amid peace and prosperity, surrounded ,by children and 
many friends. 

REV. PETEK SHARP. Rev. Peter Sharp died in San Jose, California, 
September 13, 1892. Peter Sharp was born May 14, 1810, at Wills- 
burg, Essex county, New Jersey. He was the fourth son of Cornelius 
Sharp, who had eight sons and daughters, and moved with his family 
to Ohio, when his older children were quite small. 

Peter was converted at the age of eighteen and giving up the study 
of law, began at once to prepare himself for the ministry which he 
entered four years later. He continued in active service as an itinerant 
in the M. E. church until 1853 when the failing health of his wife 
made it necessary to locate. While the Ohio conference still included 
southern Michigan, he was stationed at Ann Arbor, and was married 
at that place to Miss Eunice M. Doty, March 19, 1837, in the presence 
of the Sabbath morning congregation of the quarterly conference and 
by the presiding elder, Rev. Henry Colclayer. 

His next station was Tecumseh, then a four weeks circuit, including 
Clinton, Franklin, Macon, and Eidgeway. 

From there he returned to Ohio and filled various appointments 
until 1849, when he was transferred to Michigan conference and 
stationed at Coldwater, at Constantine, at Ridgeway, and at Dundee, 
which was his last regular appointment. 

December 24, 1853, he began business in general merchandise at 


Ridgeway, Michigan. He received the appointment of postmaster soon 
after and continued to hold the office for nearly thirty-five years. 

He was a member of the Michigan legislature 1859-1860, and 
continued to preach the gospel as a local elder in the M. E. church. 
March -14, 1888, his beloved wife was called home after years of inval- 
idism and six months' helplessness. His untiring patience in caring 
for her, but proved his devotion. A few months after he yielded to 
the necessity and closed out his business at Ridgeway and moved to 
Tecumseh to live with his daughter. August, 1889, he went to Cali- 
fornia, where his oldest son lived on a mountain ranch. Here he 
found work for his Master in conducting a Sunday school at the 
nearest school house. In the spring of 1891 he moved with his son's 
family to San Jose. It was his intention to return to Michigan in the 
spring of 1892, but the Lord ordered otherwise. 

Peter Sharp was a man of true nobility, held in esteem and venera- 
tion by all who had the capacity to appreciate the excellence of his 
character and his ability as a theologian. 

Truly beloved by his family and intimate friends; devoted and 
untiring in the discharge of religious duty, seeming always to possess 
his soul in peace. 

ELLERY SISSON. Ellery Sisson died January 7, 1893, in his 80th 
yea|^ at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Geo. Shuart, in Jackson. Mr. 
Sisson resided in Tecumseh and Raisin for more than 70 years, until 
a few weeks before when he went to live with his daughter in 
Jackson . 

Mr. Sisson was one of the earliest settlers of this township. His 
father located the old Aaron Comfort farm, across the road from N. M. 
Sutton's, the present home of A. J. Van Winkle and of Dr. C. A. 
Waldron. He had voted in Tecumseh at every presidential election 
since attaining his majority, and was a staunch democrat. 

Miss FANNY STOCKING. Miss Fanny Stocking died at Tecumseh, 
Michigan, on April 28, 1893, aged 59 years. 

Miss Stocking was the. daughter of Amos and Theodosia Stocking, 
who were among the earliest and most respected settlers of the town 
of Tecumseh. The house in which she was born, being the first one 
north of Theodore Crane's, was one of the first frame houses built in 
the place. Miss Stocking was born in November, 1833. Her life has 
been one of the most quiet and yet one of the most useful of lives, 
having been spent, nearly all of it, in or near her native place, and in 

138 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

occupations which are more honorable and self-denying than conspicu- 
ous or remunerative. She early developed a taste for books and was 
a pupil of the Tecumseh school, of that of Prof. Estabrook and of the 
State Normal. She began teaching in Franklin at the early age of 
sixteen. She taught many years in Clinton also, where she is lovingly 
remembered for her labors. But it is in this her native town that she 
was best known and most widely and fully appreciated. Here she 
united at an early age with the Presbyterian church, to which she was 
warmly attached, and of which she was a consistent, and, until the loss 
of her health, an active and useful member, being for a long term of 
years the teacher of a large class in the Sabbath school. Here in 
Tecumseh also she conducted a private school, of whose advantages 
many parents were glad to avail themselves. Here for some years she 
discharged with loving faithfulness the duty of caring for her invalid 
father. All the work she undertook was performed in such a quiet, 
cheerful way as to convey the impression that it was easily done. 


MRS. ESTHER WAKEFIELD. Mrs. Esther Wakefield, wife of Stephen 
B. Wakefield, died at her home at Shawnee Springs in Monroetown, 
May 17, 1893, from creeping paralysis. The deceased was born in 
New York state November 20, 1823. At the age of ten years she came 
to Monroe with her parents, arriving here in June, 1833. She was 
one of the oldest residents of Monroetown and was well known. She 
leaves a husband, three sons and two grandsons. 


Miss LIZZIE BULLOCK. Miss Lizzie Bullock, the eldest child of Mr. 
and Mrs. A. A. Bullock, died April 9, 1893, at the home of her sister, 
Mrs. R. T. Stanton, in Chicago, where she went on a visit early in 

Miss Bullock was born in August, 1851, at Wells River, Vermont, 
and in 1857 came to Muskegon with her parents. All who knew her 
in private life loved her; her services to the public are best summed 


up in the following tribute paid by F. A. Nims, for so long a member 
of the board of education: 

"Miss Bullock received her school training in the public schools of 
this city. She commenced her work as teacher in 1869, in the old 
'ward school No. 1,' on Newaygo Hill. She was soon assigned to one 
of the schools in the old 'central,' where she taught until the spring 
of 1890, when failing health compelled her to suspend her school work. 
A protracted residence in Colorado seemed to restore her to vigorous 
health, and she never appeared better than since her return. She was 
eager to enter again upon her chosen vocation, and was an applicant 
for her old place for the coming school year. 

" She was regarded by the members of the board, as well as by the 
various superintendents under whom she served, as the best 'first 
primary' teacher we ever had; and her work as such was well known 
and appreciated by school workers throughout the State. 

" With her, as with all truly successful teachers, the elements of 
success were in her character, which for purity, modesty, gentleness, 
patience, and devotion was unexcelled. She was both womanly and 
motherly. Little children gave her their confidence without hesitation. 
Although a close student of educational theories and methods, her 
intuition was her best guide. She entered with her whole heart into 
the training and development of each child-nature that came into her 
charge; and with infinite patience and inimitable tact, brought out the 
best results." 

ISAAC CROSSETTE. Isaac Crossette, a pioneer of this State and of 
St. Joseph county, died at Three Rivers, May 19, 1893, of pneumonia. 
For a short period he has made Muskegon a temporary home, where 
the wholesale lumber business has been carried on successfully for 
several years by himself and his son, Heed, in the firm name of 
Crossette & Son. 

He had been seriously ill during the past winter at Muskegon, but 
having materially improved in health and strength he, together with 
his wife, went back to the old home, Three Rivers, now occupied by 
Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Keyport, his son-fn-law and daughter. With a 
prospect of better health for years to come Mr. Crossette had planned 
to build a new dwelling on the old home plat for himself, wife, and 
unmarried daughter. 

Isaac Crossette was born at Fort Ann, N. Y., August 14, 1824; 
removed with his father, mother, and the other children to Michigan 
in 1831. His boyhood days were spent in St. Joseph county. 

140 . ANNUAL MEETING, 1893, 

, By his own efforts he obtained a good common school education 
which he first made useful as a teacher in Three Rivers and other 
places in the vicinity. 

Isaac Crossette and Clara A. Reed were married in 1848 and went 
to Three Rivers in 1849. At Centreviile Mr. Crossette learned the 
blacksmith trade, but teaching was more agreeable to his taste. 
During the year 1849 he commenced the mercantile business at Three 
Rivers, which was pursued for about twenty years, during which time 
he was postmaster eight years, superintendent of the county poor for 
several terms and he also filled many other positions of responsibility, 
and to the general satisfaction of the people. 

Mr. Crossette and Captain Spencer together built the first brick 
block in Three Rivers, now occupied by Hummel and Klocke. 

As a business man Mr. Crossette was enterprising and gave the best 
years of his life to the growth and prosperity of this beautiful town. 

As a citizen Mr. Crossette ranked among the best. He was energetic 
in the temperance cause on all occasions, and his influence contributed 
to the moral growth of this community. 

Mr. Crossette is survived by his wife, one son and three daughters, 
Mrs. W. L. Antes of Baltimore, Maryland; I. R. Crossette of Muske- 
gon; Mrs. J. L. Keyport of Three Rivers, and Alie L. Crossette of 

GEORGE F. OuTHWAiTE. George F. Outhwaite died "February 3, 1893, 
at Muskegon. For sketch see Vol. 21, page 208. 

MRS. MARIA S. PIPER. Mrs. Maria S. Piper, who died on the 7th 
day of March, 1893, at the residence of her daughter, Mrs. D. C. 
Tillotson, on Lake street, was born in Mooers, Clinton county, N. Y., 
April 26, 1824. She was of a family of thirteen children, only one of 
whom, a brother, survives her. 

On the 27th of February, 1845, she was married to Benjamin S. 
Piper, of Irving, Massachusetts, who died in Muskegon in 1871. After 
marriage she made her home for a time in Northfield, Mass., then for 
some eight years in her old home in Mooers, N. Y. She then came 
west with her husband and family to Grand ^ Rapids, Mich., there to 
reside two years. Removing from there, they resided in Lament, 
Ottawa county, until June, 1862, when they came to Muskegon to 
make of this city a permanent home. 

Mrs. Piper at once actively identified herself on her arrival in 
Muskegon with church work. At that time there were but thirteen 
members in the Central Methodist church, instead of in the neighbor- 


hood of nine hundred as at present. She committed herself fully to 
the work in hand, and the prosperity of the church since that time 
has been due in no small measure to her fidelity. 

She was actively interested and identified with nearly every depart- 
ment of benevolent as well as church work. 

She was one of the original cemetery association organized in 1870 
by a few ladies, which did so much in the way of beautifying 
Evergreen cemetery, supplying it with a fountain and other attractive 
features. In every kind of social and other needed reforms she was 
interested and cheerfully active. Her entire life in point of purity was 
well symbolized by the whiteness of the lilies that lay upon her coffin 
and in point of completeness of maturity by the ripened heads of 
golden grain that lay beside them. 

FERDINAND WELLETR. Ferdinand Weller died at Muskegon on the 
9th day of April, 1893. He was one of the most widely known of 
Muskegon's citizens and has seen it grow from almost a hamlet to its 
present proportions. He was born in Asch, Austria, December 24, 1838, 
and spent the earlier years of his life in acquiring a good German 
education. When he was 18 years old he came to this country on a 
sailing vessel to attempt his fortunes among a strange people of whose 
tongue he was entirely ignorant. He made his way directly to Michi- 
gan and secured a place for a while on a farm near Detroit, where in 
the intervals of his chore duties he managed to acquire a smattering 
of English. He made up his mind that he wanted to be a printer 
and ultimately engage in the newspaper business, and with this definite 
purpose in mind went to Howell, this State, where he obtained a 
position in a printing office. Here he remained a short time when he 
went to Grand Rapids where he remained two years, working at his 
trade, and then came to Muskegon, arriving here in -the spring of 1865. 
He acquired and consolidated two papers, issuing them as the News 
and Eeporter. His press was of the original hand form, and putting 
the paper through the press in those days was not a joke. Gradually 
he built up one of the largest and best newspaper properties in 
western Michigan, which he disposed of in 1869. That year he married 
Miss Anna. Ellis of Earlville, Iowa, and the following year he made a 
trip to his birthplace and brought back his aged mother to this city, 
where she made he home for fourteen years. 

In 1870 he entered the newspaper business again, issuing his paper 
under the old name of News and Eeporter and in 1872 he came out as 
a Greeley democrat. Ten years later he began the publication of the 

142 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

News as a daily. In 1889 he disposed of his entire newspaper property 
to Wanty & Manning, the present owners, and gave his attention to 
his other interests, real estate and lumber. 

His first wife died in November, 1884, and on April 12, 1887, he 
married, at the home of her parents in Charles City, Iowa, -the wife 
who survives him. She formerly taught the high school in Holland, 
Mich., and met Mr. Weller while in Chicago. 

In the death of Ferdinand Weller, the local press of this city and 
county has lost a pioneer well known to a great mass of the people, 
and so thoroughly has he been connected with its history that it is 
impossible to give a sketch of his life without saying more or less of 
the history of our press. 

The first newspaper of Muskegon which became permanent was the 
Muskegon Reporter, the first number of which was issued in April, 
1859, by Fred B. Lee & Co. This was continued until October, 1864, 
when Fred B. Lee, who was the editor, having enlisted in the army, 
the paper was discontinued, although the type and furniture remained 
intact in the office. 

John Bole started a republican paper known as the Muskegon News 
on the 20th of August, 1864. Mr. Bole published this paper for a few 
months, when he sold it to Wm. K. Gardner, who continued it to 
March, 1865, when he sold his interest to Ferdinand Weller. The 
latter soon after bought the press and type of the Reporter, continuing 
the publication of the two papers for a short time when they were 
united as a republican paper known as the News and Reporter. 
This was continued by Mr. Weller until December, 1869, when he sold 
the paper to Geo. C. Rice, who continued the publication, changing 
the name to the Muskegon Chronicle. 

In August, 1870, Mr. Weller revived the News and Reporter as a 
democratic newspaper, and which he continued until his sale to Messrs. 
Wanty & Manning. He started The News in 1882. Mr. Weller was 
always known as a good citizen, thoroughly alive to the best interests 
of the city. 







Date of death. 


Ira Mattison 


Oct. 26, 1892 


Wm. ffl. Payne 


Jan. 11, 1893 


Ethan Hulbert 


Feb. 10, 1893 


Daniel H. Rankin 


Mar. 8 1893 


Wm. Erdley 


" 8, 1893 


Loretta H. Randall 


11 12, 1893 


Oliver Bray . 


" 15, 1898 


Asa Bray 


" 24, 1893 


Wm. Satterlee 


April 8,1893 


Warren Coolidge 


May 28, 1893.. 


Pinny P. Roberta.... 


June 5, 1893... 




BERNARDUS GROOTENHUIS. Bernardus Grootenhuis died unexpectedly 
March 3, 1893, at the age of 79 years. He was one of the earliest 
pioneers in this Dutch colony and closely connected with its history. 
He was born at Ommen, province of Overisel, Netherlands, September 
12, 1814, and twenty-seven years later he married Johanna Hoogewind. 
In 1846 they accompanied Rev. Yan Raalte to America, arriving here 
in the spring of 1847. Mr. Grootenhuis mastered the study of survey- 
ing and his help was of great assistance to the settlers in laying out 
their domains. His real occupation, however, was that of painter and 
after remaining here five years they left for Detroit, staying there 
three years when they returned to Holland for one year. His profi- 
ciency in the art of painting attracted considerable attention and he 
went to Grand Rapids where he formed a partnership with L. Dooge. 
After spending several years there, either in company or alone in his 
business, Mr. Grootenhuis and his wife returned here in 1872. While 
in Grand Rapids he took a leading part in the formation of the First 
English congregation there and of which he was elder. In Holland 
he was also one of the leaders in organizing the Hope church congre- 
gation of which he was also elder for several years. From 1867 to 

144 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

1879 he was supervisor of the township. Two sons, James and John, 
entered the union army, the former being killed in the battle of the 
wilderness. He leaves an aged widow and three married children, 
John, one of our leading painters, Mrs. J. Kerkhof, and Mrs. Janna 
Ter Beek. 


PIETER FREDERICK PFANSTIEHL. Pieter F. Pfanstiehl was born June 
12, 1806, in the city of Breda, Netherlands. He received a more than 
ordinary education, and spent a part of his youth and early manhood 
in other countries of the continent. June 5, 1833, he was married to 
Helena Meulenbroek, with whom he lived 52 years, having celebrated 
his golden wedding two years before the latter's death. Of seventeen 
children born to them five survive, two sons, Peter, of Holland, and 
Rev. Albert A., of Denver, Col.; and three daughters, Mrs. H. Boone 
and Mrs. Dr. F. J. Schouten, of Holland, and Frederika, who is being 
cared for in the Michigan asylum at Kalamazoo. Three days before 
his death Mr. Pfanstiehl was still considered to be in his usual health* 
The immediate cause of his death was congestion of the lungs. He 
entered into his final rest on Friday evening, July 8, 1892, at the ripe 
old age of 86 years. 

With the death of Pieter F. Pfanstiehl, Holland loses another of the 
few remaining links that connects its past with the present. 

The deceased was a well-to-do shoemaker, in the city of Arnhem, 
Netherlands, at the time when the first murmurings of dissatisfaction 
were heard on the part of his countrymen with reference to their 
material condition, actual and prospective. His sympathies were with 
them. In all the movements and deliberations leading up to the 
"emigration of 1847," he was an active coworker among those that 
had that exodus in charge. As such we have a right to especially 
designate him a connecting link between the present and the past. 

With his family he left the fatherland for the New World in the 
summer of 1847; arrived "in New York and remained there about eight 
months following his trade. While there he made the acquaintance of 
the late Dr. B. Ledeboer, an incident which also in later years led to the 
doctor's removal to Holland. In the spring of 1848 he left for the 
west, and was joined at Buffalo by Mr. I. Cappon, then a young man 
anxious to join the " Zeelanders." 

Mr. Pfanstiehl's .objective point was the colony of Dr. Van Raalte,. 
in Michigan, with whom he had held intimate relations in the old 
country. Upon reaching Milwaukee he left his family there for a few 
weeks, and came on to Holland. Here he again started at his trade,. 


at which he was an expert, having followed it in such cities as Brussels 
and Paris. It did not take him long, however, to realize that his new 
environments called for a different kind of foot wear than had been 
his wont to make, and he conceived the idea of starting a tannery. 
The material of some of the buildings in the " Indian Village," was 
utilized in constructing a tannery on the shore of Black Lake. The 
sills can still be traced at a point a little east of where Cappon & 
Bertsch in 1859 built their first tannery. Here also is where Mr. I. 
Cappon was initiated into the tanner's trade. Want of sufficient exper- 
ience soon caused this enterprise to be abandoned. Some leather had 
been made and was sold in Kalamazoo, where it fell into the hands of 
the late Simon Schmid. Mr. Pfanstiehl soon thereafter, in 1851, 
removed to Kalamazoo, remained there a year or so, when he again 
returned to "the colony," embarking in general merchandise, in which 
line he was more successful. 

It is not for us to follow his subsequent career in detail. Suffice it 
to state that for a while he also operated the stage line between Kal- 
amazoo, Allegan, Holland, and Grand Haven; was a dealer in staves, 
bark, etc., became a vessel owner, and manufacturer of cut staves and 

Having briefly stated his connection with the early settlement of 
Holland, as the pioneer tanner, there is one other incident in his 
career as a business man which is desirable to bring out, it being espec- 
ially worthy of remembrance. It was during the period known as the 
panic of 1857, which financial distress was very severe upon the then 
weak and struggling colony. The leading business man of that day and 
the commercial stay of the settlement, Mr. A. Plugger, was heavily 
involved, and at the complete mercy of his creditors. The times were 
exceedingly hard and trying. Just then also, as a matter of absolute 
self-preservation, the colonists had undertaken to construct their own 
harbor. Through the self-denying efforts of the late Mr. John Roost, 
they had obtained from the State a grant of swamp lands, lying princi- 
pally in the township of Olive. Not as a matter of investment, for 
those lands at that period had little or no value, but with a view of 
furthering the development of the harbor, Mr. Pfanstiehl at this critical 
period volunteered to take a certain amount of those lands, to enable the 
harbor board to secure sufficient dredging in what is at present the main 
channel of the harbor, but which was then only a recently cut out channel. 
(It should be remembered that this was in the days when government 
appropriations for the improvement of harbors were still held as 

146 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

" unconstitutional"). The relief obtained through this public spirited 
act of Mr. Pfanstiehl was timely and duly appreciated, for the panic 
had affected the market for all kinds of forest products to such an 
extent, that it left not enough margin for their shipment by means of 
scows to vessels lying outside the harbor. 

The deceased as a citizen never sought, but rather evaded promi- 
nence and leadership. The only position he ever held was that of 
member of the harbor board, of which body he was for years the 
efficient secretary. 

In common with many others he was a heavy loser by the great fire 
of 1871. He managed, however, to gather up sufficient fragments to 
secure him an ample competency during his remaining years. 


JOHN BARB. John Barr of Tittabawassee, so well known in Saginaw 
and in every part of the county for the last 30 years, died March 17, 
1893, aged 73 years. 

Mr. Barr was born in Scotland, June 1, 1819, and came to this 
country 'in 1842. He located in Canada where he assisted in the 
construction of the first iron -boat ever built in that country. From 
Canada he traveled over different parts of New York state, and in 
Buffalo, New York, assisted in building the first looms to knit or 
weave a shirt, it formerly having been done by hand. He located for 
eight years at Waterford, Saratoga county, New York, where he 
constructed fire engines. In 1865 he first came to Saginaw, where he 
has since lived. Although a skilled mechanic, of late years he had 
been engaged in the manufacture of brick and had turned out from 
twelve to fourteen hundred thousand annually. Mr. Barr was married 
October 12, 1846, to Agnes Brice. One child was given them, Agnes, 
who was born in 1847 and died in 1849. Mrs. Barr died July 23, 
1848, and in 1864 Mr. Barr married Mary Haslip, who survives him. 

Mr. Barr first became interested in Saginaw in 1848, when he 
furnished some money to William King of Bridgeport to buy land on 
the Tittabawassee. Subsequently the gentlemen divided their interests 


and Mr. King sold his part to a Mr. Albright, who soon after sold it 
to Solomon Malt. 

Mr. Barr was the owner of the farm, where he died, since 1848. 

Mr. Barr was noted as an upright, honorable man. No good cause 
appealed to him in vain. He always had a pleasant word ' for his 
friends, and he generally made friends of those with whom he was 
brought in contact. Aside from the farm where he lived Mr. Barr 
owned considerable city property. His home was one of the best in 
the neighborhood, and for years he has lived surrounded by the 
comforts to which frugality and industry are entitled. 

MRS. ELIZA D. BELL. Mrs. Eliza D. Bell died at the residence of 
her son Lewis, 705 Chestnut street, Saginaw, March 13, 1893, aged 69 
years. She was born at Amsterdam, Montgomery county, New York, 
in 1824, and came to Michigan in 1836, settling at Oxford, where she 
married Oliver H. Bell, now deceased. She came to Saginaw in 1857, 
and since resided here except a short residence at Freeland. 

She leaves two children, Delia A. and Lewis H. 

She had been a member of the Michigan avenue Baptist church for 
the past twenty years, and had the love and respect of a large circle 
of friends among whom she had lived for so many years. 

ROBERT L. BENJAMIN. Robert L. Benjamin died at the Good 
Samaritan hospital July 20, 1892. Mr. Benjamin was born in Madalin, 
N. Y.; Jane 14, 1808, and was therefore a little more than 84 years of 
age. He had been a resident of Michigan upwards of 45 years, and 
came to Saginaw 35 years ago from Clarkson, Oakland county, where 
he had lived about 10 years. In December, 1862, he enlisted in 
Company H of the 27th Michigan Infantry volunteers and served 
during the war. The hardships of the camp impaired his health 
somewhat, yet after the war he pursued the avocation of farming for 
many years, living in the township of Saginaw. The past three years 
he has lived in the city of Saginaw. 

In 1835 Mr. Benjamin married Belinda Wilcox, who survives him. 
They had three children, who grew to manhood and womanhood. They 
were the late Henry Benjamin, who died 32 years ago, Delos Benjamin, 
who died in 1873, and Mrs. Henry A. Newton, who died in 1872. He 
was a brother of the late D. E. Benjamin. A brother, Sidney Benja- 
min, who is in the upper peninsula, a sister, Mrs. Thurston of 
Clarkson, two grandchildren, Miss Stella Newton and Ralph Newton, 
of Saginaw, and a granddaughter who lives in Marshall, survive him. 

148 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

Miss SUE BENJAMIN. Miss Sue Benjamin died at the home of Mr. 
Thomas Merrill, Saginaw, May 14, 1893. 

Miss Benjamin was born in Newport, Me., April 19, 1845. She was 
the daughter of the late Jatnes and Euth Benjamin. Her mother, who 
makes her home with her son, John H. Benjamin, two sisters, Mrs. 
Gurney of Lewiston, Me., and Mrs. Marsh of Portland, Ore., and 
three brothers, Frank W. Benjamin of Dausen, North Dakota, and 
John H. and Fred G. Benjamin of Saginaw, are left to mourn the 
loss of one who in the relations of daughter and sister was all that a 
true Christian woman could be. 

JOSEPH BESCH. Joseph Besch died February 9, 1893, aged 73 years. 
A resident of Saginaw nearly 40 years. 

CAPTAIN ALONZO L. BINGHAM. Captain Alonzo L. Bingham died 
January 25, 1893, at his home in Saginaw, aged 76 years. 

Deceased was born in Perry, Genesee county, N. Y., in 1816. When 
about twenty-three years old he removed to Buffalo, where he taught 
eleven years and then came to Michigan, locating at Mt. Clemens, where 
he was engaged in teaching until his removal to Saginaw in 1854. The 
following year he was chosen principal of the union school on the east side, 
filling that position until late in 1859. In October, 1862, he was commis- 
sioned captain of Company H, 27th Michigan Infantry, which company 
he was instrumental in raising, and served faithfully and gallantly 
three years, being mustered out July 26, 1865. He was wounded four 
times in action, at Jackson, Miss., July 11, 1863; in the Wilderness, 
May 6, 1864; Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864; and at Petersburg, Va., 
June 28, 1864. 

He was elected register of deeds of Saginaw county in 1867 and 
served two terms. 

He was principal of the Freeland union school in 1889-90. 

He was married June 29, 1845, at Buffalo, to Louisa M. Folsom, 
who with two children, Mrs. Laura C. Healey of Lansing, and W. H. 
Bingham of St. Cloud, Minn., survive him. 

Captain Bingham was an honored member of Gordon Granger Post, 
G. A. E. 

MKS. IS. BOND BLISS. Frances E., relect of the late S. Bond Bliss 
died at her home in Saginaw, July 27, 1892. 

The deceased had been a resident of Saginaw since 1856, coming 
here from Elyria, Ohio, with her husband, and for years took a 
prominent part in the social life of the city. Mr. Bliss died in 1884 


and an only daughter who was universally beloved died some years 
ago. Walter B. Bliss is the sole surviving child. 

CASPEK BRADEN. Casper Braden, for forty years a resident of 
Saginaw, died February 24, 1893, aged 78 years. Mr. Braden was well 
known among the older portion of the community and was held in 
high esteem by all. For 16 years he was employed in the F. & P. M. 
car shops. He is survived by his wife, a daughter, Mrs. Engelbert 
Fischer, of Bay City, and a son, Lieutenant Charles Braden, of West 
Point, N. Y.- 

MICHAE"L BBENNAN. Michael Brennan, aged 84 years, died April 8, 
1893, at his residence in Saginaw. Mr. Brennan had resided in 
Saginaw for the last 30 years and was well known and much respected. 
He leaves five children, James Brennan of Kansas; Thomas Brennan 
of Chicago; Michael Brennan of Saginaw; Mrs. Joseph Martin of 
Detroit; and Mrs. Michael McHugh of Saginaw. 

RUDOLPH BEUSKE. Rudolph Bruske died April 26, 1893, at his home 
in Saginaw. Mr. Bruske was born in the province of Schlesia, Prussia, 
in 1851, and came to America when but three years old with his 
parents, who located in Saginaw. He was reared and educated here, 
and in 1865 began clerking in different stores; in 1868 entered the 
drug business with L. Simoneau, and was with him seven years, after 
which he took a four months' tour to Europe. He returned to Saginaw, 
opened business for himself, and has been successfully engaged in it 
for the past twenty years. He was thorough and energetic in his methods, 
and by this means had built up a .fine business. 

Mr. Bruske leaves to mourn his untimely death a wife and two 
children, three brothers and five sisters, O. E. Bruske of Saginaw; F. 
O. Bruske and E. H. Bruske of Chicago; Mrs. Richard Murphy of 
Chicago; Mrs. Cora Berger, Mrs. Jacob Cross, Mrs. Bertha Riegge, 
and Mrs. Henry Endert of Saginaw. 

MARGUERITE COMPTON. Marguerite Compton -died March 27, 1893, 
at the home of her daughter, Rachel Compton, 1103 North Granger 
street, aged 83 years. The deceased was born in Albany, N. Y., and 
at the age of sixteen was married to James Compton, now deceased. Three 
years afterward she moved to Ohio and in 1871 came to Saginaw. 
She leaves three sons, George and James, of Kingsville, O., and 
Samuel C. Compton of San Bernardino, Cal., and five daughters, Mrs. 
J. Brown, of Meredith, Mrs. A. Morse of Alexander, Minn., Mrs. D. 

150 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

W. Swart of Sheldon, N. Y., Mrs. J. W. Isaac, of Kingsville, O., and 
Mrs. Rachel Compton, of Saginaw. 

MBS. PRUDENCE COOK. Prudence, widow of the late L. Cook, died 
July 29, 1892, at the residence of Eobert -Latterman, at Cass Bridge, 
of old age. Her husband who was widely known, died three years 
ago. Mrs. Cook was a pioneer of the county. She was 83 years old 
and had passed fifty-three years of her life in the neighborhood where her 
death occurred. She leaves four children. 

GEORGE F. CKOSS. George F. Cross died March 19, 1893, in New 
York city. 

George F. Cross was born in New Hampshire in May. 1832, and 
was therefore nearly 61 years old. In early life he removed to Minne- 
apolis where he engaged in business. In 1862 he came to Saginaw 
and engaged in the lumber business, purchasing a tract of timber in 
Ogemaw county. A mill was built at Standish, the firm being styled 
Cross, Wright & Walker. Subsequently Mr. Wright retired and the 
firm became Cross & Walker, and still later Mr. Walker retired and 
A. Dyer of Boston became interested in the concern. In January, 
1889, the entire interest of the firm in Ogemaw county, including saw 
and planing mill, timber lands and a large stock farm, was sold to C. 
L. Judd of Saginaw. Mr. Cross then organized what is known as the 
Asher lumber company, purchasing a saw mill and 300,000,000 feet of 
timber in Kentucky, the mill plant being located at Ford in that 
state. Another saw mill and a large planing mill was built, Mr. 
Cross being president of the company. Mr. Cross was the principal 
stockholder and president of the George F. Cross lumber company, 
operating a planing mill in Saginaw. He was also a large stockholder 
and president of the Allington-Curtis manufacturing company of Sagi- 
naw, a large and profitable concern engaged in the manufacture of 
dust separators for planing mill plants. He also owned a half interest 
in 200,000,000 feet of redwood timber in California. It is understood 
that he also carried a life insurance of $60,000. 

A little over a year ago Mr. Cross rented his residence on Genesee 
avenue and removed to Ford, Kentucky, to take the active management 
of his business there. 

Mr. Cross lost a daughter and first wife by death nearly fifteen years 
ago. Several years ago he married Elizabeth M., daughter of Mr. 
George Weaver of Albany, N. Y., who, with one child, survives him. 

CHARLES S. DRAPER. Charles Stuart Draper died August 5, 1892, 


on board the steamship Columbia as he was returning home from 
Carlsbad, where he had been in search of health. 

Mr. Draper was a native of Michigan, having been born in Oakland 
county August 27, 1841, and was therefore almost x 51 years of age. 
Gifted by nature and possessing faculties of intellect seldom found in 
young men of his age and day, Mr. Draper employed the years in 
constant study and in sitting at the fount of knowledge, so that his 
majority attained, he was widely known as a scholar and student of 
high attainments. 

On the breaking out of the war he enlisted in the Third Michigan 
Infantry, and October 28, 1861 he was commissioned second lieutenant 
in that regiment. He was detached April 1, 1862 as aid on the staff 
of General Richardson, was promoted to the rank of captain and 
assistant aid-de-camp, served on the staff of General Phil Kearney, 
and was with that chivalric and brilliant officer when he was killed at 
Chantilly. Captain Draper was wounded at the battle of Antietam, 
September 17, 1862, and resigned March 19, 1863, honorably retiring 
from the service. 

Returning to Pontiac he was united in marriage to Miss Sarah 
Thurber, daughter of the late Horace Thurber, who survives him and 
who has been his devoted companion through the illness which ended 
with his death. They have no children. 

Mr. Draper came to Sagina^v in 1870, and engaged in the practice 
of law with H. H. Hoyt. Two years later he formed a partnership 
with O. F. Wisner, the firm of Wisner & Draper since becoming one 
of the most prominent in legal circles of the city and State. As 
attorney, counselor, citizen, and public spirited gentleman there is no 
need of endorsement in the record of Stuart Draper. His name and 
deeds will long remain as a monument to his sterling worth. 

Although many times sought after, Mr. Draper declined public life, 
not because of fear of its responsibilities, but from a sense of innate 
modesty. He was a staunch republican and served the party as 
controller of the city of East Saginaw from 1871 to 1873, and at a 
subsequent period filled the office of city attorney one term. He was 
elected one of the regents of the University of Michigan April .1, 1885, 
and was re-elected in 1889. His term would have expired December 
31, 1897. Mr. Draper was an honofed member of the Saginaw county 
bar and a member of St. Paul's Episcopal church. 

MRS. MARY J. DRAPER. Mrs. Mary J. Draper, wife of Calvin D. 
Draper, died at the residence of her son-in-law, James P. Walsh, 1110 

152 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

Genesee avenue, Saginaw, June 19, 1892, aged 69 years. Deceased 
was born in New York, and had resided in this city thirty-five years. 
Besides her husband she leaves four sons, Eugene, Alexander, Jesse, and 
W. A. Draper, all of Saginaw, and one daughter, Mrs. Loma Greenleaf, 
residing in Tuscola county. 

MRS. CATHERINE DEINDORFER. Catherine, the widow of John George 
Deindorf er, died August 22, ] 892, at the homestead, two miles north 
of Court street, on Hermansau street, Saginaw, at the age of 64 years. 
Mrs. Deindorfer came to Saginaw in 1852, when it was only a small 
village. She leaves a daughter, Mrs. J. M. Helmreich, of Bay City, 
and two sons, Richard J. and John G., both of Saginaw. 

MRS. ANTHONY DOERR. SR. Julia, the wife of Anthony Doerr, Sr., 
died at their residence in Jamestown on August 23, 1892, aged 73 
years. Mrs. Doerr came to Saginaw in 1850 and the following year 
was united in marriage to Mr. Doerr, who survives her. She had 
spent all of her married life upon the farm in Jamestown, where she 
died, and where she had gathered about her many friends. She leaves 
besides her husband, two sons, George and Anthony, both of James- 
town, and a daughter, Mrs. Clemens, of Meinburg. 

REV. CHRISTOPHER L. EBERHARDT. Rev. Christopher Ludwig Eber- 
hardt, pastor of St. Paul's Evangelical i Lutheran church and president 
of the Evangelical Lutheran seminary, died at his home April 27, 1893. 

He was born January 3, 1831, at Lauffen, Wurtemburg, on the 
Neckar, a branch of the Rhine. His father, who bore the same name, 
gave to his son first a common education and afterwards a four years' 
course in the industrial school. He then worked at home until he was 
of age and entered the Mission seminary, at Basel, Switzerland, 
graduating therefrom in June, 1860, being ordained August 5, of the 
same year by Decan Hamm in company with Stephen Klingmann, 
who was the late pastor of a leading church near Ann Arbor. 

He came to Michigan in 1860, when the conference consisted of only 
six members who, together with Mr. Eberhardt and Mr. Klingmann, 
organized the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Michigan at Detroit, 
December 9 and 10, 1860, and of that number the deceased was the 
last to pass away. * 

The mission work of the deceased commenced at Hopkins, Allegan 
county, and he organized churches at sixteen places throughout Michi- 
gan, embracing points covering 360 miles of territory in circumference 
and preached at each place once in three weeks, traveling mostly on 


foot. In June, 1861, he visited the Lake Superior regions and caused 
a missionary to be sent there. He was soon after called to the 
pastorate at Saginaw which had been in existence about ten years but 
had a membership of only about thirty. He entered upon his new 
duties with a vigor and enthusiasm that instilled life into the people 
and made the church enter upon a period of growth and prosperity. 
He had a fair knowledge of music and at once organized a male choir 
of which he acted as instructor, training them to a true appreciation 
of the worship of God in melody. He organized a little school of 
eleven pupils and taught it for over fourteen years, until it had grown 
to such proportions as to require at one time three instructors and it 
now has an attendance of nearly two hundred. 

A review of Kev. Mr. Eberhart's pastoral work includes much history 
closely interwoven with the interests of Saginaw and Michigan. The 
church he has left without a head now has nearly one thousand com- 
municants and he has for the past few years been the spiritual guide of 
over two hundred families. Several branch churches have now become 
strong and independent, such as Matthew's church at Tittabawassee, the 
St. Peter's at Carrollton, and the St. John's in Saginaw. 

Outside responsibilities have weighed heavily upon the deceased, 
who was always an untiring and enthusiastic worker. For nearly ten 
years he was the presiding officer of the synod of Michigan. At an 
early date he realized the needs of the church for a numerous and 
able ministry, and it was through his efforts that the now prosperous 
theological seminary on Court street was established in 1887. He was 
made president of the same, and it has constantly grown and flourished 
under his supervision. He continued to fill, until his death, the chair 
of theology and ethics, beside devoting much time and thought to the 
general conduct of the institution. He was a great success as an 
instructor, and was a great student of Bible history in the original 
Greek and Hebrew, and such profound theologians as Luther were his 
daily companions. 

Not only the church but the State of Michigan owe much to Mr. 
Eberhardt in the establishment of the noble institution of learning on 
Court street which is proving so beneficent in its results. 

In the pulpit and upon the rostrum pastor Eberhardt was a forcible, 
pleasant and interesting speaker. His sermons were always well prepared 
and showed a depth of thought and independent research. His people 
were deeply attached to him and no man commanded their love and 
esteem in so high a degree as he. His greatest monument will be the 

154 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

loving remembrance of thousands who have known him and have been 
benefited by his guidance. 

He was married April 16, 1863, to Mary Eemiold of Lodi, Washte- 
naw county, who departed this life but a few brief days before her 
life long companion went to join her in that great beyond where it is 
hoped their souls may repose in peace, the result of lives well spent in 
the service of the Master. 

MRS. JOHN FOSTER. Mrs. Sarah Foster, wife of John Foster, died 
April 9, 1893, aged 86 years. 

Mrs. Foster was born in 1807, and had been a resident for many 
years. Her husband, to whom she was married over 65 years before, 
and five children survive her. The children are Mrs. Louisa Mearns, 
Ms. Jeannette Steele and Mrs. Lizzie Home, of Saginaw; Mrs. M. E. 
Cranston of Boston, and John A. Foster of Oakland, California. 

MARTIN HEUBISCH. Martin Heubisch died March 26, 1893, at his 
residence, 227 South Third street, Saginaw. The deceased, who was 
61 years of age, had been a resident of the county for the past thirty- 
six years. He held the offices of deputy sheriff and supervisor for a 
number of years and was well known throughout the county. He 
leaves a wife, and a father who is ninety years of age. 

KOBERT C. HOWELL. Robert C. Howell of Thomastown, died at his 
home March 20, 1893. He was 75 years of age and had resided in 
Thomastown for thirty years. He leaves a wife. 

MRS. FREDERICK HUBERT. Mrs. Frederick Hubert died at her home 
in Saginaw, March 6, 1893. Deceased was born 59 years ago in the 
province of Quebec, and came to Saginaw from Port Huron with her 
husband in 1862, engaging in the cattle and meat business for many 
years, which attained success largely through the business knowledge 
and untiring efforts of Mrs. Hubert. Her husband died about five 
years ago. Only one son and a daughter, Mrs. Julia Button, survive. 
Mrs. Hubert was a woman of much force of character, an efficient wife 
and mother and a good neighbor. 

GOTTLEIB LA'NGE. Gottleib Lange died July 16, 1892, at his residence, 
1508 Germania avenue, Saginaw, at the age of 81 years. Mr. Lange 
was one of the pioneer residents of the city and for forty years had 
made Saginaw his home. He was for a time proprietor of the Forest 
City house on Water street and later of the National house on Jeffer- 
son avenue. He leaves four children, Mrs. John Reib of Detroit, 


Theodore Lange of Chicago, Rudolph Lange of San Francisco, and 
Albert Lange of Saginaw. 

MBS. CAROLINE C. MASON.- Caroline Clark Mason, widow of the late 
Dr. Orville L. Mason, died August 13, 1892. The deceased was born 
April 1, 1804, in Chester, Mass., and was a direct descendent in the 
fifth generation of Lieutenant William Clark of colonial fame, and a 
graduate of the Westfield academy, Mass. Dr. and Mrs. Mason moved 
to Saginaw in 1863. The last few years Mrs. Mason has made her 
home wiij^ her son, Lucius P. Mason. She also leaves a daughter, 
Mrs. Charles W. Mowry; Mrs. S. Bond Bliss, the other daughter, 
having died less than two weeks before,- a sketch of whom is found in 
this report. 

PETER McGREGOR. Peter McGregor, a pioneer of Saginaw county, 
died at his home in Tittabawassee township, September 13, 1892, at 
the advanced age of 83 years. Mr. McGregor was born in Scotland. 
He came to the county in 1843 and settled on the farm he has since 
occupied. He was a highly respected citizen and had filled various 
county offices, including justice of the peace and county treasurer. His 
wife died twenty-two years ago. 

MRS. KESYIAH OLIVER Mrs. Kesyiah Oliver died March 11, 1893, aged 
83 years. Deceased came to Saginaw in 1849 with her husband. Soon 
after they arranged with C. W. Grant, then of the firm of Hoyt & 
Grant, to take charge of the lumber shanty and cook for the men at 
work erecting what for years was known as "the blue mill," at the foot 
of German street. The cooking shanty was located on the present site 
of the Buena Vista block, corner of Tilden street and Genesee avenue, 
and here Mrs. George Oliver cooked the first meal for a white man in 
what was afterwards known as Hoyt's plat to East Saginaw. 

CHARLES H. PLUMMER. Charles H. Plummer died at his home in 
Saginaw, November 2, 1892. For sketch see page 110, Jackson county. 

MRS. ELIZA M. PALMER. Mrs. Eliza M. Palmer, relict of the late 
John W. Palmer, died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. E. St. John> 
919 Court street, October 19, 1892, of heart trouble. 

Mrs. Palmer was a daughter of the late Judge Perry Gardner. She 
was born in Ashtabula county, Ohio, September 6, 1817, and was 
therefore 75 years of age last September. She passed her last birth- 
day at the home of her daughter, Mrs. William Smith of Saginaw 
town. In 1824 Judge Gardner removed with his family from 


Ashtabula county to York, N. Y. Here Mrs. Palmer passed her girl- 
hood and attended the Canandaigua seminary, where subsequently two 
of her daughters attended 'school. Judge Gardner came to Saginaw in 
1832 and settled on what is now known as the D. E. Benjamin farm. 
Mrs. Palmer did not come till 1836. On May 22, 1839, she was 
married to the late John W. Palmer, who died March 24, 1884. Soon 
after their marriage they went to New York state, where they lived 
until 1843, when they returned to Saginaw and lived at the homestead, 
Judge Gardner having died during their residence in New York. In 
1846 Mr. and Mrs. Palmer removed to Flint, then a smafl hamlet, 
where they lived until 1875, since which time Mrs. Palmer's home has 
been in Saginaw. For the last eight years she had lived with her 
daughter, Mrs. E. St. John. She was the last of Judge Gardner's five 
children, and in her death one more of the pioneer families of 
Saginaw is gone, and the circle of those who have known Saginaw for 
a half century is one smaller. Mrs. Palmer's real worth was known 
only to those who touched her home circle, for it was within this 
circle that she lived. She was naturally of a retiring disposition, and 
for the past twenty-five years feeble health had prevented her from 
widening the circle of her active influence. Yet who shall say that the 
pure, noble life that she lived, and her devotion to home and family has 
not been far-reaching in its influence for good. 

Mrs. Palmer was the mother of eleven children, six of whom survive 
her. A daughter, Miss Alice Palmer, died in Saginaw March 18, 1886, 
and four died in Flint. Those who survive are Mrs. William Smith, 
Mrs. E. St. John, Mrs. James H. Wellington, and Walter F. Palmer, of 
Saginaw, and Miss S. C. Palmer and Mrs. H. L. Ketcham, of Chicago. 

MBS. HARRIET PASSAGE. Mrs. Harriet Passage, widow of the late A. 
B. Passage, died December 19, 1892, at the family residence, 938 South 
Washington avenue. The deceased, who was 66 years of age, for the 
past 26 years had been a resident of Saginaw and was much esteemed 
by a large circle of friends. Three children mourn her loss, Mrs. 
Allen McLean, Mrs. William Lewis, and Miss Hattie Passage. 

DANIEL D. EICHARDSON. Another of Saginaw's old residents, Daniel 
D. Eichardson, heeded the final summons to the great beyond 
February 6, 1893, at the residence of his son, John W. Eichardson, 
924 North Porter street. The deceased was born near Napanee, Ont., 
September 13, 1823, was married at the age of 22 to Miss Elmira 
Costlow, who died about eleven years ago. He came to Michigan in 
1859 and had lived in Saginaw for the past thirty years. Mr. Richardson 


served nearly three years during the war of the rebellion as a private 
in Co. G, first regiment of the Michigan volunteer engineers and 
mechanics. He leaves three daughters, Mrs. D. A. King of Saginaw, 
Mrs. Hester Ann Benner of Spokane Falls, Wash., and Mrs. Philinda 
Meyers of St. Paul, Minn.; and three sons, John, Charles, and Amos, 
all of Saginaw. 

MRS. WILLIAM KOESER, SB. Mrs. William Koeser, Sr., died at her 
home March 18, 1893. Mrs. Roeser, whose maiden name was Therese 
Von Yasold, was born near Rudolphsbath, Germany, July 16, 1829. 
In 1850 she came with her parents to this county and settled in 
Tittabawassee township. 

For years Mr. and Mrs. Koeser made their home in Tittabawassee, 
and subsequently came to Saginaw. Of their home and its influence, 
of Mrs. Eoeser as a friend and neighbor, hundreds of friends today 
speak with the sad thought that relations so well filled on her part 
are ended. 

Mrs. Koeser leaves a husband and eight children to mourn the irre- 
parable loss of a wife and mother, who in these relations was what 
only a noble-minded, large-hearted, unselfish woman can be. The 
children are: Oscar, Franz and Albert Koeser, of Grand Island, Neb.; 
Herman, Charles L., and Fred Roeser, Mrs. Enoch Solms, and William 
Roeser, Jr., of Saginaw. 

' AMASA RUST. Amasa Rust, prominent in business affairs in the 
Saginaw valley and of a family conspicuous in the lumbering interests 
of the northwest, died at his residence 207 Harrison street, Saginaw, 
January 26, 1893. 

Amasa Rust was born in Wells, Rutland county, Vt., May 27,. 1823, 
and was of a family of eight, of whom John F. Rust of Cleveland, 
Ezra Rust of Saginaw, and Mrs. T. G. Butlin of Chicago, are now 
living. The father of Amasa Rust was a farmer in moderate circum- 
stances and gave his family the educational advantages that the common 
schools of that date afforded.. In 1837 he removed with his family to 
Newport (now Marine City), where the subject of this sketch began 
the battle for life in 1841 in shipbuilding and sailing on the lakes 
until 1850, when he turned his attention to lumbering, which he 
followed until his death. He came to Saginaw in 1855, and at first 
was associated with his brothers under the firm name of D. W. Rust 
& Co., and subsequently he became a member of the lumber firm of 
Rust Brothers & Co., Butman & Rust, Burrows & Rust, and Rust, 
Eaton & Co.. operating large saw mills and salt works on the Saginaw 

158 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

river, and owning extensive tracts of pine timber. At the time of his 
death he was a director in the Commercial and First National banks 
of Saginaw. and the Saginaw county Savings bank. 

The hospitable and rugged personality of Amasa Rust were distinguish- 
ing traits in his character, and socially he was a most warm hearted 
and companionable gentleman. Through his untiring industry, business 
sagacity and energy he amassed a large fortune, which was used with 
lavish generosity to help those less fortunate in the struggle of human 
existence. He was also a public spirited man, had an abiding faith in 
Saginaw, and contributed liberally to every project calculated to benefit 
and build up the city. He was a true friend and good neighbor, and 
few citizens of Saginaw leave a larger circle of enduring friends, among 
them many who personally realize and appreciate the value of his 
worth and friendship. 

For many years Mr. Rust was a member of the vestry of St. John's 
church and one of the chief supporters of the church for the erection 
of which he was one of the most generous subscribers. He also gave 
liberally toward the erection of the guild house and rectory of St. 
John's parish, and in fact nis hand was ever in his pocket to respond 
to the appeal of any worthy charitable or religious project. 

In August, 1849, he was united in marriage to Mrs. Marietta A. 
Grout, who survives him. The fruits of this union were five children, 
of whom Charles A. and Ezra G. Rust of Saginaw and Mrs. Ida G. 
Macpherson of Duluth are living. He was also uncle of Hon. W. A. 
Rust of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, one of the prominent lumbermen of 
that state. 

RUDOLPH SCHACKER. Rudolph Schacker, one of the pioneers of Sag- 
inaw, died November 28, 1892, at his residence, 223 Park street north, 
from the effects of a paralytic stroke, aged 78 years and 8 months. 
Deceased had lived in Saginaw since 1847, and is said to have been 
the first cabinet maker to make Saginaw his home. He was well known 
and esteemed and will be greatly missed by the friends among whom 
he had resided for so many years. His family consists of his wife, to 
whom he had been married for fifty-two years, three married daughters 
who live in Toledo, one son in California and another, son whose where- 
abouts are unknown. 

PAUL SCHMIDT. Paul Schmidt, one of Saginaw's best known German 
citizens, died December 15, 1892. 

Mi*. Schmidt was 73 years of age, and was born in Vienna, Austria, 
where he learned the apothecary's trade. For about thirty years Saginaw 


has been his home, the greater part of which he has been in business 
at the corner of Germania and Genesee avenues. Upon first coming to 
the city he was for a few years in the employ of Henry Melchers as 
prescription clerk. His friends were many, for though somewhat 
eccentric, his kindly disposition and upright character gained for him 
the esteem of all with whom he was brought in contact. 

MRS. FRANCES STAFFORD. Mrs. Frances Stafford, wife of Philo Staf- 
ford, foreman of the Bust, Eaton & Co.'s saw mill for twenty-six years 
past, died February 20, 1893, at her home in Zilwaukee. Deceased was 
54 years old and had resided in Zilwaukee twenty-six years. She was 
prominently connected with the Woman's Equal Suffrage association of 
the State, and in all the walks of life she was an exemplary wife and 
mother and a most useful and highly esteemed member of the social 
sphere in which she moved. She leaves one daughter, Mrs. E. Clark of 
Cleveland, and four sons. 

MRS. AUGUST STRASBURG. Mrs. August Strasburg died at her home 
in Saginaw September 24, 1892, aged nearly 56 years. 

Mrs. Strasburg was born in Buffalo, N. Y., and her maiden name 
was Elizabeth Bangester. She married August Strasburg in Detroit in 
1853. They had resided in Saginaw since 1861. Mrs. Strasburg leaves 
a husband and four children, three sons and one daughter, the latter 
Mrs. George W. Hill. The sons are August, a resident of Saginaw; 
Herman, at Fort Sherman, I. T., and Edward, a resident of Los 
Angeles, Cal. Mrs. Strasburg was a good woman, an affectionate 
wife and mother, and a kind neighbor with a large circle of friends. 

WM. THAYER. Wm. Thayer, one of Chesaning's old residents, died 
at his home February 7, 1893. 

ENOS THROOP. linos Throop died at his home in Saginaw February 
20, 1893, aged 64 years. 

Mr. Throop was born in Bennington, Wyoming county, N. Y., August 
12, 1828, and removed with his parents when fourteen years old, to Kich- 
field, Genesee county, Mich., where he was twice married. He had resided 
in Saginaw for nearly thirty years, and was well known arid highly 
respected. He was the father of eleven children, four of whom are 
living, Mrs. Lillie Desaw of Standish; Maud Throop of Adrian, and 
William and Ira Throop, of Saginaw. 

CHARLES TOWNSEND. Charles Townsend died March 8, 1893, aged 
78 years. 

160 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

He had been a resident of Saginaw for the past thirty years, and 
leaves five sons, William of Saginaw, Charles of Kansas City, Mo., 
Alonzo of Topeka, Kas., M. W. of Denver, and John A. of Saginaw; 
and three daughters, Mrs. Kanson Curtis of Waterford, Ont., Mrs. O. 
P. Barber and Mrs. E. D. Peck, of Saginaw. 

EGBERT TURNER. Eobert Turner died May 20, 1893, the aged victim 
of the terrible conflagration. 

Mr. Turner was a native of Glostenbury, Conn., where he was born 
in 1804. For a long period he was an extensive woolen manufacturer in 
New York, but settled in Michigan some thirty-five years ago and 
engaged in the same business. Seven years ago he came to Saginaw 
and made his home with his daughter, Mrs. Luther Holland. Mrs. 
Turner, who survives him, is 85 years of age, it being sixty-five years 
since their wedding day. He leaves four children, Mrs. W. W. Whedon 
and Mrs. E. A. Spence, of Ann Arbor, Mrs. Luther Holland of Saginaw, 
and Henry E. Turner of Lowville, N. Y. 

ADAM WEGST. Adam Wegst, one of Saginaw's best * known citizens, 
died at his home on Germania avenue, October 3, 1892. He was a 
man held in universal esteem, enjoying the friendship and respect of 
all who knew him. In his demise Saginaw loses one who was in 
every sense of the term, a true citizen. 

Mr. Wegst was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, November 2, 1833. 
His father, who was in government employ, died when he was in his 
third year. He remained at home attending school until nearly four- 
teen, after which he learned the cooper's trade, serving a three years' 
apprenticeship, and at the age of seventeen came to America, in 1851. 
The sailing vessel in which he came was wrecked on Coney Island and 
all his baggage was lost. He came west as far as Cleveland and after 
six months went to Painesville, where he spent two years in a furnace, 
and then returned to Cleveland where he took up the business of a 
cooper, working for one employer eight years, and for one winter 
during the cholera scourge was at Washington Harbor, Wis. In April, 
1861, Mr. Wegst came to Saginaw, where he became partner with Fred 
Eump in the cooperage business, and then became foreman for Ten 
Eyck & Co. in that branch of their business. Afterwards he occupied 
the same position in the Orange county works at Carrollton until 1866, 
when he became a partner in the firm of Wegst & Mark, continuing 
this until 1873, when he bought out his partner and carried on a large 
trade. In 1886 Mr. Wegst formed a partnership with his son-in-law, 


J. P. Beck, and engaged in the manufacture of carriages, etc., the 
partnership existing at the time of his death. 

Mr. Wegst was married at Cleveland. March 23, 1856, to Jacobina 
Celler, who also was a native of Wurtemberg. She died February 16, 
1891, leaving one adopted son, John, and two daughters, Mrs. J. P. 
Beck and Miss Minnie Wegst. For some years the adopted son has 
resided in the west. 

In his church connection Mr. Wegst was associated with the 
Lutheran church. He took an active interest in the social as well as 
the business interests of the city that so long was his home, and was 
among the original members of both the Germania and Arbeiter 
societies and also a member of the pioneer society of the county. For 
eight years he served the city in the capacity of alderman and was a 
capable and valued member of the city's legislative body; for six years 
he was on the board of supervisors, for one year a member of the 
board of education and at the time of his death was on the board of 
review of the city. 

JOHN C. ZIEGLER.-^- John C. Ziegler, a resident of Saginaw since 
1859, died at his home, corner of Monroe and Bond streets, March 30, 

Mr. Zeigler was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, November 15, 1880. 
At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to a jeweler, and followed that 
trade in Germany until 1852, when he came to America and located at 
Detroit. In 1859 he came to Saginaw and entered the employ of 
Thomas Doughty, where he remained until 1861, when he enlisted in 
Company H, Second Michigan Infantry. He served during the war and 
then returned to Saginaw and established in the jewelry business on the 
west side, where he was for years the leading jeweler. Some ten years 
ago he met with business reverses, and poor health compelled him 
soon after to seek a -more healthful business, and though he has done 
something at his trade most of the time since then, he has been quite 
extensively engaged in growing grapes, which he made into wine. He 
was an honored member of J. M. Penoyer post No. 90, G. A. R., and 
of the Teutonia society. He has always been' esteemed as a good 
citizen and upright man. In 1861 he married Christina Hink. They 
have seven children, three sons, Louis Ziegler of Chicago, Charles and 
Albert, of Saginaw; and four daughters, Mrs. Emma Roth of Blum- 
field, and the Misses Augusta, Clara, and Helen, of Saginaw. 

162 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 



JAMES CUMMIN. James Cummin died at his home in the village of 
Morrice, December 15, 1892, aged 77 years. 

The death of Mr. Cummin removes from our midst one of the most 
prominent and best known pioneers of Shiawassee county. Mr. Cummin 
was of Scotch ancestry, tracing his lineage to the Cummin clan who 
fought with the renowned Sir William Wallace. His father, Alexander 
Cummin, was born in County Down, Ireland, and died at Corunna 
at the age of 82 years. In religion the Cummin clan were strict 

Mr. James Cummin, the subject of this sketch was born in County 
Down, Ireland, and came to this country a young man, and worked at 
the carpenter's trade in Detroit for a time in the 30's, and acquired 
some property which he sold and then moved to Shiawassee county, 
and was one of the first pioneers of the township of Perry. He 
followed farming and real estate business, and at one time was the 
owner of over 3,000 acres of land which he accumulated by hard labor 
and careful management. Being a liberal and public spirited man, he 
invested nearly $10,000 in the bonds of the Detroit & Milwaukee and 
Chicago & Northwestern railroads, the most of which was a free gift 
to aid in their construction. At Corunna, when the Corunna car 
company was organized for the purpose of manufacturing freight cars, 
he gave a portion of the necessary land for its location, and indorsed 
notes to aid it to the amount of several thousand dollars, and lost the 
whole amount. He also advanced the money to build the Presbyterian 
church at Corunna, which was returned to him after several years' use. 
Mr. Cummin became interested with Lansing parties in the State 
Insurance Company and invested $5,000 which he lost. He was also a 
large stockholder in the First National bank at Corunna for several 
years and was one of the principal founders of the first bank of this 
county, known as the Exchange Bank of J. B. Wheeler & Co. He 
was also very active in securing the location of the county seat at 

In politics Mr. Cummin was a sturdy democrat, and during the dark 
days of the Rebellion, at the solicitation of committees from various 
towns of the county, he held war meetings to secure recruits and free 
the towns from the draft, in which he was very successful always 
freely contributing his services. 


Mr. Cummin served the county as county treasurer for fourteen or 
.sixteen years, being elected to that office on the democratic ticket in 
1864, when the republicans had about one thousand five hundred 
majority in the county, the only democrat elected on the county ticket. 

Mr. Cummin, while living in Detroit was married to Miss Julia A. 
Beale, who was born in Kochester, New York. She died at Corunna 
in 1880. Ten children were born to them, four of whom died when 
small and one in later years, Captain William E. Cummin, now resid- 
ing in Corunna, being the eldest surviving child. The other children 
are George E. and James F. Cummin, now successfully engaged in 
business at Cheney, Washington, and Mrs. Lizzie Cummin Phelps and 
Miss Julia Cummin of San Jose. California. These absent ones were 
unable to be present at the funeral of their father. Beside these 
children Mr. Cummin leaves a widow, to whom he was married several 
years ago. 

DR. W. B. Fox. Dr. Wells B. Fox, late surgeon of the Eighth Mich- 
igan Infantry and surgeon-in-chief of the field hospital of the first 
division, ninth army corps, died of apoplexy May 30, 1893, at Bancroft 
after an illness of but a few days. He was to have delivered the 
memorial address, it having been customary for him to take part in the 
exercises for a number of years. He was a very eloquent speaker. 

Wells B. Fox was born in Buffalo, N. Y., September 1, 1823. When 
a child of eight years he was injured, and was placed for surgical 
treatment in the care of one of the most eminent surgeons of the 
Empire state. The old doctor had no children and finally adopted 
young Fox. He early imbibed the idea of studying medicine and, 
from the time he was fourteen years old, compounded all the doctor's 
medicine and traveled with him all over that part of the country. Fox 
studied medicine in Buffalo, and graduated at the Union college at 
Schenectady, N. Y. For two years he was medical attendant of the 
county hospital of Erie county. 

In 1849 he came to Michigan and located in Livingston county, 
beginning a general practice. He continued there until 1862 when he 
entered the army as surgeon. He was appointed assistant surgeon of 
the Twenty-second Michigan Infantry by Governor Wisner. In this 
capacity he served until June, 1863, when he was made surgeon of the 
Eighth Michigan Infantry until the close of the war. While in the 
Twenty-second regiment, after Morgan's raid in Kentucky, he organized 
the hospitals at Lexington, Ky. In September, 1864, he was made sur- 
geon-in-chief of the field in front of Petersburg, and continued in that 
position until he was discharged July 20, 1865. 

164 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

He was at Appomattox with his hospital corps, and was by invita- 
tion of Gen. Sheridan, a witness of the making of the terms of peace 
between Grant and Lee. It is said that during the war he amputated 
9,000 limbs, and conducted 14,000 other operations. At the close of 
the civil war he returned to Michigan. In 1877 he came to- Bancroft 
and took an interest in its improvement, erecting a number of buildings 
of great benefit to the village. 

The marriage of Dr. Fox and Miss Triphena Skinner took place 
January 8, 1853. She died August, 1888. By this marriage the doctor 
had two daughters who survive him. Both are married and reside at 
Bancroft. He was a prominent Odd Fellow and belonged to the Byron 
encampment. He stood high not only in the councils of the G. A. R. 
but also in his profession, and his reputation as a surgeon was national 
in its character. 

ISAAC GALE. Isaac Gale was born at Bern, Albany county, N. Y., on 
the 4th day of December, 1808. His parents were of German extract- 
ion; the Sherburn family, to which his mother belonged, emigrated 
from Germany to England in the sixteenth century, and from England 
to America in the seventeenth century. Isaac, like the majority of 
farmer's boys of that day, remained at home working on his father's 
farm until he was twenty-one years old. This early discipline of busi- 
ness and economy laid the foundation of his future success. His school 
privileges were confined to the district schools of his neighborhood, but 
with an active and logical intellect, with an ambition to acquire knowl- 
edge, he made life a long term of school, and accumulated a fund of 
practical information that is seldom covered with a college diploma. 

He wisely concluded to attempt success in the calling to which he 
was born and reared. He came to the territory of Michigan in the 
spring of 1830 and located one hundred and sixty acres of timbered 
land in Washtenaw county. About this time he was married to Miss 
M. A. Wilbur of Duchess county, N. Y., who still survives him. 

In 1840 he exchanged his farm in Washtenaw county for a tract of 
unimproved land in the township of Bennington, Shiawassee county; 
this farm he improved and enlarged until it embraced three hundred 
and eighty acres one of the finest farms in the county. Mr. Gale's 
maxim was to live within your income, and he demonstrated that suc- 
cess was sure along that line. Daring his long and active life he 
accumulated a fortune of over one hundred thousand dollars. His 
judicial mind and his extensive reading made him a leader among the 
pioneers of Shiawassee. He was supervisor of his township for fifteen. 


years. He was justice of the peace for thirty-six years, and served* 
four years as record judge of the county court before the present cir- 
cuit court system was adopted. 

In his official capacity he labored to keep his township out of debt 
and to have the county governed in a conservative and economical 

Later in life he was interested in banking and in the construction 
of a portion of the Chicago and Grand Trunk railway. He was social in 
his nature and was never too busy to talk with a neighbor or friend. 
In politics he was a democrat and was strong in the belief that the 
" rascals should be turned out " of office. About five years before his 
death he moved to the village of Morrice where he died July 2, 1892. 
Among the many men of ability who became identified with the early 
history of Shiawassee county, probably none contributed more to its 
material and social prosperity than Isaac Gale. 

MRS. DANIEL JEFFEES. Mrs. Daniel Jeffers died at her home in 
Burton June 2, 1893, aged 84 years and 10 months. Her aged 
husband and five children survive her. The names of the surviving 
children are Mrs. Mary Phipps of Stanton, Mich.; Aaron Jeffers of 
Groomsville, Ind.; George Jeffers of Flushing; Mrs. Jennie Packer of 
Caro, Tuscola county; and Mrs. Louisa Adams of Burton. 

The deceased was born in England and came to Michigan in 1833. 
At the time of her death she had resided in Burton fifty-four years. 
The deceased was a woman of exemplary life and enjoyed the friendship 
of a large circle of friends. Her children sincerely mourn the loss of 
one of the best of mothers. 

SAFFORD PITTS. Safford Pitts died at twelve o'clock, December 31, 
1892, or at the ushering in of the new year of 1893. He was born in 
Richmond, Ghittenden county, Vermont, in 1825. He came to Mich- 
igan in 1830 with his parents, Moses and Sally Pitts, first settling in 
Bloomfield, Oakland county. In 1836 his father took one hundred and 
twenty acres of land from government in Bennington, Shiawassee 
county, Michigan, and in 1838 moved his family, thereon, with a place 
cleared only large enough to set a house. All commenced life in earnest. 
In 1850 the father died leaving a family of eight children of whom 
Safford was the eldest. With the persistent push and energy which 
characterized the people in those days, all moved on, Safford teaching 
school winters and working on the farm summers, and in time he owned 
one hundred and sixty acres of land on the Grand River road where it 
is intersected by the Owosso & Perry road, one mile from the old 

166 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

homestead farm. He was married in 1858 to Miss Cornelia Grenell of 
Rose, Oakland county, Michigan, and this farm became his permanent 
home. Buildings were erected on it, a nice school house built on one 
of the opposite corners, and a church a little east of another corner 
which was dedicated a Baptist church. Other buildings arose, some for 
business and some for dwellings, until they had quite a settlement and 
they called it Pittsburgh, and a postoffice was established, Mr. Pitts 
appointed postmaster, which office he held until 1885. This was also 
called Pittsburgh postoffice. Mi*. Pitts was converted in early life, and 
united with the Baptist church and lived and died a Christian, and 
was also a thorough temperance worker. 

The deceased leaves a widow and three children, A. G. Pitts, a 
lawyer in Detroit, Mrs. W. O. Carrier, wife of a Presbyterian clergy- 
man in Wausau, Wisconsin, and Miss Allie Pitts. 


MRS. ELIZABETH ASHTON. Mrs. Elizabeth Ashton died at her 
residence in Port Huron, July 31, 1892. She had nearly reached the 
age of 64 years. ' She was born in Yorkshire, England, and came to 
this country at the age of thirty years. Here she married and moved 
to St. Clair a number of years since. For the last seven years of her 
life she had been afflicted with total blindness. Two children, a 
daughter, resident in Detroit, and Robert Ashton of Port Huron, are 
left to mourn her. 

MRS. ANDREW BLACKIE. Mrs. Andrew Blackie, aged 88 years, living 
in China township, died July 15, 1892. The deceased was an old 
resident and was respected by all who knew her. 

WM. BURNS. Wm. Burns, ex-county treasurer, died at his home, 
1534 Poplar street, Port Huron, May 3, 1893, aged 55 years. Mr. 
Burns was born in Chapel township, County Wexford, Ireland, and 
came to America with his brother Moses forty years ago. He located 
in Fremont, Sanilac county, on land purchased from the government. 
Three years later he moved to Worth, in the same county, and shortly 
afterwards to Jeddo, in Grant township, where he settled on a farm.. 


His first wife was Mary Ann Carroll, daughter of a Grant farmer. 
She died twenty years ago, leaving two sons and two daughters, Wm. 
and John, now of Chicago, Mrs. John Dawson of Dakota, and Miss 
Katie Burns of Port Huron. Mr. Burns was married the second time 
to Mrs. Thome of Port Huron seventeen years ago, and from this 
marriage had one son, John, aged 16 years. He had two sisters resid- 
ing in Chicago, and a brother, Moses, in Sanilac county. In 1886 Mr. 
Burns was elected county treasurer on the democratic ticket and came 
to Port Huron to reside. He was [elected a second time. For two 
years he was under sheriff. As an officer he was a courteous and 
obliging gentleman and made many friends. He was an enthusiastic 
member of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, a member of the Knights 
of Labor and of Huron tent, K. O. T. M. In the death of Mr. Burns 
Port Huron has lost a good citizen. 

JAMES W. CAMPBELL. James W. Campbell died at his farm on 
Lapeer avenue, Port Huron, August 9, 1892, aged 74 years. He had 
resided on the same farm for forty-four years. He leaves a wife, five 
sons, and one daughter. 

THOMAS CURRIE. Thos. Currie, an old resident of Algonac, and 
father of Capt. Thomas Currie of Port Huron, died at the home of 
his daughter, Mrs. Frank Hart, of Marine City, on Sunday, February 
5, 1893, aged 79 years. Mr. Currie was born in Belfast, Ireland, in 
1818, and moved to Nova Scotia when seven years of age. In 1839 he 
moved to Algonac and has since resided there. Five sons and three 
daughters survive him. 

MRS. JOSEPH EBERT. Mrs. Joseph Ebert died February 8, 1893. 
She was born in Bavaria, Germany, 1832, and came to this country at 
an early age. She was married in 1852, at St. Clair, which place has 
always been her home since her arrival in this country. Five children 
survive her, three of whom are married. Two, Mrs. M. Gearing and 
Edw. Cashine reside in Detroit, and Mrs. G. S. Anderson in Allegheny, 
Pa. The other two have always lived here at her sister's home, the 
St. Clair House. She also leaves two sisters and one brother to mourn 
her loss. 

ANDREW FOSTER. Andrew Foster died suddenly of heart disease 
October 7, 1892. Andrew Foster was born in Ireland on February 2, 
1828. He came to Canada with his parents when 18 years of age. He 
grew to manhood in Canada and was at one time engaged in the boot 
and shoe business in Guelph. At the breaking out of the war he 

168 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

moved to Detroit and in 1862 came to Port Huron and entered the 
employ of H. J. Bockius. Two years later he engaged in the boot and 
shoe business on his own account and has since continued in it, and , 
at the time of his death was the oldest boot and shoe dealer in this 
section of the county. Two sons and two daughters survive him, Fred 
Foster, Wm. Foster, Mrs. Fred Wright, and Miss Edith Foster, all of 
Port Huron. 

JOHN H. HOYT. John H. Hoyt died at his home in Port Huron 
June 3, 1892, aged 56 years. 

Mr. Hoyt came to Port Huron over thirty years ago. At one time he 
was engaged in the drug business, was for years a member of the 
customs force, and was connected with Howard's lumber office for 
some time. A wife, 'one son, and one daughter survive him. 

MRS. FRANKLIN W. HUNTINGTON. Mrs. S. M. Huntington, nee Kings- 
bury, died October 20, 1892. She was born in Ogsdensburg, N. Y., in 
1820. Her father subsequently established the family home in Canton, 
N. Y., at which place the marriage of his daughter, Susan M., to 
Franklin W. Huntington was solemnized. Mr. and Mrs. Huntington 
moved to Kentucky where they both engaged in teaching. A few years 
after they were again at the old home in Canton, from which place 
they came to Port Huron in 1850. Eight children were born to them, 
four of them still living, viz., Mrs. Geo. W. Jones, Mrs. E. O. Avery, 
of Alpena; Mrs. Fred A. Fish of Port Huron, and Geo. P. Hunting- 
ton of Detroit. Mrs. Huntington's character was moulded in child- 
hood through the religious influences of a pious mother, which, early 
in life, led her to seek connection with the Presbyterian church in 
Canton. During the whole period of her residence in Port Huron she 
was a consistent member of the Congregational church of that city. 
Five members only are living of older membership than herself. Her 
literary taste made her a very desirable co-worker in the Ladies' 
Library Association, of which she was a charter member, and for which 
she had rilled the offices of librarian, recording secretary, correspond- 
ing secretary, etc., with ability and care. On the occasion of a visit 
from the L. L. A., of Flint, Mrs. Huntington's poem to mark, the 
occasion elicited much applause, and in this connection we will say 
that her talent for composing in " measure " a poetic faculty was 
often exercised, and, on fitting occasions, a poem from her facile pen 
was frequently solicited. . Her tenacious memory was a marvel to her 
friends until advancing years weakened its power. A quiet dignity 


seemed her personal accompaniment, and her friends will recall its 
gentle power on many occasions in the past. 

GAGE INSLEE. Gage Inslee died at his home in Port Huron, Janu- 
ary 27, 1893. Mr. Inslee was born in New York state August 8, 1818. 
He came west with his parents in 1835. In 1856 he engaged in the 
milling business in Port Huron. In 1860 he was appointed deputy 
United States marshal and also served as provost marshal. In 1862 he 
was appointed to a position on the customs force and held the place 
until 1885. He was an uncompromising republican. In 1841 Mr. Inslee 
married Miss Elsie Ann Montague of Orange county, N. Y. She died 
about five years ago. The deceased leaves one son, Chas. Inslee, of 
Grand Rapids, and one daughter, Mrs. A. B. McCollom. 

MRS. M. McELROY. Mrs. M. McElroy, whose death occurred July 21, 
1892, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 56 years ago. 

In 1854 she was married to Jacob McElroy, a brother of Hon. C. 
McElroy of St. Glair, and soon after moved to the state of Alabama 
where they lived until her health failed, when she with her husband 
and five children came north again, settling at New Baltimore. In the 
year 1871 they moved to Marine City where in March, 1879 they cele- 
brated their silver wedding. Mr. McElroy died soon after. In August 
of the same year the widow moved to St. Glair where she had resided 
ever since. Frail in body yet of a persevering and energetic nature 
her life was prolonged much beyond the expectations of her friends. 

During her residence in St. Glair, until the past year and a half, she 
successfully carried on the furniture and undertaking business. During 
these years of business she served with delicacy and appropriateness at 
a large number of funerals. Her manner was of that quiet and retir- 
ing kind that wins friends at every point. She was a member of the 
Congregational church. 

The example of perseverence and industry as illustrated in the life 
and character of Mrs. McElroy is one which could be followed by all 
with profit. 

MRS. EGBERT MILLS. Phoebe Gumpton Mills, wife of Robert Mills, 
was born near Wardsville, Canada, fifty-nine years ago and died at her 
home in Port Huron, June 4, 1892. For many years she lived at 
Belle River, in what is known as the Hart settlement, She became a 
member of the Methodist church when quite young and always lived 
an upright, Christian life. 

170 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

OSCAR F. MORSE. Oscar F. Morse was born in New Hampshire, 
February 13, 1842. He came to St. Clair with his parents in 1846. At 
the age of 20 years he joined the 8th Michigan Cavalry and entered 
the service in defense of his country. In the fall of 1863 he was 
taken prisoner near Athens, Tennessee, and for the next fourteen 
months languished, starved, and suffered in five different southern 
prisons, among the number being Libby, Richmond, and Andersonville 
prisons. At the end of this time he was exchanged and came home 
badly broken down in health and the sufferings thus endured made 
him more or less an invalid for the balance of his life. After the 
close of the war he served in various public positions, among them as 
clerk of the house of representatives for one year, and engrossing clerk 
of the senate for two years. The duties of these offices he performed 
very acceptably. 

In the year 1869 he was married to Miss Sarah Saph, who died May 
23, 1892. Five children were born to them, four of whom are left to 
mourn his death. 

Three years ago Mr. and Mrs. Morse joined the Congregational 
church of St. Clair, and at the time of his death, which occurred July 
23, 1892, Mr. Morse was a trustee of the society and clerk of the 

The deceased directed the building of the hotel at Grande Pointe 
and was manager of the same for some time. Later on he occupied 
positions of steward and manager of the Oakland .and Somerville 
Springs hotels respectively and made many friends by his attentions 
to the welfare and comfort of thousands of guests. 

He was a member of Miles post G. A. E. and of Palmer lodge No. 
20, Knights of Pythias, of St. Clair, and was buried by the latter 
organization. A detachment from Sanborn post G. A. R, of Port 
Huron, accompanied by a portion of Miles post, of St. Clair, attended 
the funeral services. 

CALIXTE PAILLE. Calixte Paille, an old resident of Port Huron, died 
at his home, 409 Ontario street, August 14, 1892. Heart difficulty 
was the cause of his death. The deceased was formerly a well known 
boot and shoe dealer but of late has lived a retired life. He had 
resided in Port Huron fifty years and had resided in the same house 
for thirty-nine years. He leaves a wife and one daughter, Mrs. Geo. 
Tebo of Chicago. 

MRS. MALINDA PARIS. Mrs. Malinda Paris died in St. Clair, October 
22, 1892, aged 68 years. She was born at Paris, Ky., December 24, 


1824. Her maiden name was Robinson. Her father was a slave, but 
her mother was born free. From this marriage there were nine 
children, of whom Malinda was the sixth. 

On account of the father being a slave a very determined effort was 
made to enslave the children. This the mother steadfastly resisted 
through the courts for fourteen years, when they were finally declared 
free. Malinda, the subject of this sketch, distinctly remembered the 
time, she being then five years of age. The mother then tried to buy 
the freedom of her husband, but the sum asked ($15,000) being beyond 
her power to secure, he urged her to take the children and go north^ 
choosing to die there alone in slavery rather than run the risk of 
having them stolen from her. She finally did so, taking her departure 
in the night, her husband, unknown to his master, accompanying them 
nine miles of the way. They then knelt together and prayed and 
sang a parting hymn, and the slave father turned back alone to end 
his life a slave, while the faithful mother hurriedly bore her children 
onward to a place of safety. 

They never met again on earth. She found a home for herself at 
Terre Haute, Ind., where they earned their living, the mother at her 
trade as a tailoress, and the children working out. There Malinda 
became acquainted with William Paris, whom she married at the age of 
eighteen. He was born free, but had been kidnapped at three different 
times and taken into slavery. Twice he was held thus for six months 
at a time before he found opportunity to escape, and the last time he 
was held a year. This was before their marriage. 

After their marriage they went to Vincennes, Ind., where they found 
employment in a hotel as cooks. But they had not been long there 
when his would-be master found him out, and came with his blood- 
hounds to force him back into slavery; but by means of the 
"underground railroad" a safe landing on Canadian soil was secured 
to him. He went to Chatham, where he was soon joined by his wife, 
Malinda, and there their first child, Jane, was born. He enlisted as a 
soldier, but in a short time the regiment was disbanded. After this 
they went to Detroit, and meeting there with Gen. S. B. Brown they 
were hired by him to come to St. Glair and cook in his hotel, and 
here they spent the remainder of their lives, she being left a widow in 
the year 1860. 

There were seven children born, to them, three of whom are still 
living. Her oldest son, Henry, enlisted in the war of the rebellion, 
where he ^remained until its close, a period of over three years and 
three months. He contracted disease in the army, consumption, and 

172 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

after a lingering illness, died in his mother's home. She finally applied 
for and received a pension on his account, but only lived to enjoy it 
for about three years. She was always a very hard worker, and for the 
last few years of her life she suffered a good deal from difficulty of 
breathing. Fourteen months ago she had a very sudden and serious 
attack of sickness which the physicians pronounced heart trouble. 
From this she never recovered. During the most of this period her 
sufferings were intense. She knew, that her life hung upon a very slender 
thread, but her trust in God was unfaltering to the end. Her desire 
for continued life was only for the sake of others, that she might still 
help to bear their burdens. The. immense concourse of people present 
on the occasion was sufficient testimony that " Aunt Malinda " will 
long be held in loving remembrance by the people of St. Clair. 

KEV. A. HASTINGS Boss. Rev. A. Hastings Boss died at his home 
in Port Huron, May 13, 1893. He was a native of Worcester county, 
Massachusetts, and was born in the town of Winchendon on April 28, 
1831. His early life was spent on a farm. He attended the common 
school there and entered the academy. He afterwards went to Oberlin, 
Ohio, where he entered Oberlin college, and graduated in 1857, After 
graduating he entered the theological seminary at Andover, Massachu- 
setts, where he pursued his theological studies for three years. His 
first pastorate was at Boylston, Mass., where he remained five years. 
He then accepted a call and was pastor of the Congregational church 
of Springfield, Ohio, for seven years, and was afterwards pastor of a 
church in Columbus, Ohio, for two years. He then accepted a call 
from the first Congregational church in Port Huron, and came here 
on June 1, 1876. During his lifetime Mr. Ross was a lecturer on 
church polity in the Oberlin Theological Seminary, and was elected 
"Southworth lecturer on Congregationalism" at Andover Theological 
Seminary. During his seventeen years residence in Port Huron he 
built up a large congregation, with several branch chapels. He was 
one of the founders of the Hospital and Home and was its president 
at the time of his death. He will be missed in this institution. Mr. 
Ross was also prominently identified with other charitable institutions 
of the city. He was respected by all classes in all churches, and was 
acknowledged a man of much ability. 

Mr. Ross was united in marriage October 15, 1861, to Miss Mary M. 
Oilman, of Churchville, New York, who survives him. He leaves no 


DEWITT C. SMITH. Dewitt Clinton Smith, of Brockway, died Novem- 


her 10, 1892, in Port Huron, at the home of his daughter, Mrs. George 
Plaisted, aged 65 years. Mr. Smith was born in Amherst, Mass., Sep- 
tember 3, 1827, was one of the earliest settlers of the county, coming 
to St. Clair with his father in 1836. He was a member of the Presby- 
terian church in which for many years he has been an earnest and 
faithful worker. 

MRS. C. M. STOCKWELL. Mrs. C. M. Stockwell died at her home in 
Port Huron, August 22, 1892. She had resided in Port Huron with her 
husband for forty-one years and her many friends will be pained to 
learn of her death. A husband, two sons and two daughters survive 
her, Dr. G. A. Stockwel] of Detroit; Dr. C. B. Stockwell of Port 
Huron; Mrs. Walter McMillan of Detroit, and Mrs. Harry Hyde of 

MR. JOSIAH WEST. Mr. Josiah West, one of St. Glair's oldest citi- 
zens, died at the residence of his son, Mr. Fred West, in St. Clair 
township, July 30, 1892. Born in Middlesex,* Vermont, December 15, 
1804, he had nearly rounded out eighty-eight years of life. As a boy 
of ten he accompanied his parents, in 1814, to Broome county, N. Y. 
From there he moved to St. Clair in 1855. His residence has since 
been in this vicinity. For a number of years disease attendant upon 
old age had kept him confined to his room. 

Over fifty years ago he became a member of the Baptist church. 

He was three times married, and the father of fourteen children, but 
four of whom are now living. 

At one time during the late war he had four sons in the army cf 
the Union forces. 

MRS. CHARLES H. WATERLOO. Mrs. Charles H. Waterloo died at her 
home in Port Huron, July 27, 18.92. 

Shie who was Mary Jane Beebe was born in Genesee county, New 
York, June 21, 1818. Both her father and mother came from old New 
England stock. Her ancestors were of those who sought, found, and 
helped maintain a home for the oppressed. W^h her brothers and 
sisters, of whom there was a goodly lot in that sturdy family, she was 
educated in an humble way in the public schools of Genesee and 
Cataraugus counties. In 1836, when this portion of Michigan was prac- 
tically a wilderness, the family came to this State, the journey occupy- 
ing several weeks, and located at what is now Richmond, in Macomb 
county. The settlement there established was long known as, and is 
still occasionally called, " Beebe's Corners " a mark of distinction in a 

174 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

way for the dominating family among Macomb's pioneers. They were 
not rich, these people who came here in the early days, but they were 
progressive. The men felled the forest, and with the first logs, after 
homes had been built, school houses were erected. In one of these 
homely places of learning Mary Beebe taught boys and girls who have 
since carried on the task inaugurated by the pioneers. The school 
house stood on the river bank near the site of Marysville. Ked men in 
canoes filled the great water path in front that is now traversed by the 
craft of a mighty commerce, 

In November, 1844, the young school teacher was married at Richmond 
to Charles H. Waterloo, who, with his parents, brothers, and sisters, had 
left England some seventeen years before. The Waterloos had first 
established themselves on a farm near Detroit, but were now in 
Columbus township, St. Clair county. Here Charles and his wife began 
a married life that lasted nearly half a century. Their first home, like 
those all about them, was of logs, for they were in the heart of the 
woods. Turkeys so wild that they were not afraid of man, camte to 
the very doorway to be shot. Deer and other game offered themselves 
as easy sacrifices to the growing family. In time the log house and 
barns gave place to prouder structures of frame. The children and the 
grainfields demanded it. Mr. Waterloo had been a successful farmer 
in a small way and had become well known in the community. In 
1862 he was elected register of deeds of St. Clair county, and shortly 
thereafter abandoned farm life for a home in Port Huron. Here the 
homestead has remained. The house in which Mrs. Waterloo died, she 
had lived in and loved for twenty-eight years. Her children attended, 
and some of them taught in, the public schools of the county. Ten 
children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Waterloo. Two of them died more 
than two score years ago. Indeed the Almighty, in whom she had an 
abiding faith, had dealt kindly with her, in that she had seen a large 
family of children reach full maturity. These children are Stanley, 
Althea (Mrs. Jerome Campbell), Belle (Mrs. Frank Flower), Hattie, 
Charlie, Minnie (Mrs. Ed. Conway), Lucy, and Burke. All were with 
their mother at the time of her death with the exception of Stanley, 
and he arrived in time to attend the funeral. The pall bearers were 
the dead woman's own sons and Mr. Campbell, her son-in-law. 

Mrs. Waterloo was a member of the Congregational church and had 
been for nearly thirty years. During long months of sickness and 
suffering she bore up bravely, and to the very last she taught to those 
around her a lesson of unselfishness, humanity, and immortality. The 
world is better because of such women as she. 


MRS. CATHERINE YOUNG. Mrs. Catherine Young, widow of the late 
James Young died at her home in Port Huron, April 29, 1893. She 
was born in Aberfeldy, Scotland, December 13, 1817, and was 76 years 
and 4 months old at the time of her death. She came to this 
country with her sister and settled in Detroit in 1830 and was married 
to James Young in 1832. They moved to Port Huron in 1837, being 
among the first settlers here. Mrs. Young watched Port Huron grow 
from a small settlement to a thriving city. Naturally of a retiring 
disposition and thoroughly devoted to her home and family, she was 
but little known except by the older settlers. By her death her children 
lose a loving mother, and they sincerely mourn their loss. Four 
daughters and two sons survive her, viz.: Mrs. Ann Greenfield of 
Detroit; Mrs. Jacob P. Haynes, Mrs. W. V. Elliott, Mrs. M. N. Petit, 
John M. and Wm. M. Young, of Port Huron. 


MRS. WATSON PERKINS. Mrs. Martha Perkins, relict of Watson Per- 
kins, died at the home of her adopted daughter, Mrs. Anna Sturgis in 
township of Sturgis, May 28, 1892, aged 83 years. She was buried at 
White Pigeon. 

MRS. ABRAHAM BUYS. Mrs. Elizabeth Buys, relict of Abraham Buys, 
died June 9, 1892, in the 100th year of her age. She was an, early 
settler in Colon township in 1834 or '35. 

MRS. MARY SKIRVIN. Mrs. Mary Skirvin died in Sturgis, May 20, 

MRS. ELIZABETH EAMES. Mrs. Elizabeth Eames died at the home of 
her daughter, Mrs. Frank Koys of Florence, May 27, 1892, aged 77 

MRS. WILLIAM DICKINSON. Mrs. Ann Dickinson, relict of the late 
William Dickinson of Florence, died at her home in Florence, June 4, 
1892, aged 81 years. Was one of the early settlers of, the township. 

LYMAN RHOADES. Lyman Ehoades died at his home in White 
Pigeon, June 1, 1892. Was born in Monroe, then called Frenchtown, 

176 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

in 1809, and of his more than eighty-three years residence in Michigan, 
about sixty years have been in the township of White Pigeon. 

MRS. POLLY A. EEED. Mrs. Polly A. Reed, for forty years a resi- 
dent of Three Rivers, died in that place May 27, 1892, aged 77 years, 
10 months, 21 days. 

MRS. C. W. COND. Mrs. C. W. Cond died June 6, 1892. She was 
born in Branch county in 1836; married to Mr. C. W. Cond May 24, 
1865, and had been a resident of Constantine nearly fifty-six years. 
She was an educated, amiable lady, a good neighbor and friend, a 
faithful wife who has well borne her part in life. 

DR. ALVA M. BUTLER. Dr. Alva M. Butler, a former resident of 
Constantine, died May 31, 1892, at Dowagiac, aged 66 years. He was 
Born in Rome, N. Y., May 25, 1826; was married at Watertown, N. Y., 
in 1861, and came to Constantine where he remained until 1891. His 
wife and two sons survive him. 

JOSIAH SIMMIS. Josiah Simmis died June 7, 1892, at White Pigeon, 
aged 68 years. 

MRS. MARY HACHENBERG. Mrs. Mary Hachenberg, widow of the late 
I. P. Hachenberg, died June 14, 1892, at the residence of her son H. 
H. Hachenberg, aged 92 years. 

MRS. HIRAM WELLS. Mrs. Hannah Gilbert Wells, wife of Hiram 
Wells, died at her home in Mottville, June 12, 1892, aged 65 years. 

MRS. M. V. RORK. Mrs. M. V. Rork, formerly Miss Anna West, 
died at Salem, Oregon, June 11, 1892, in the 57th year of her age. 
Was for seven years preceptress of the White Pigeon school. Her 
honorable and womanly life was an incentive to many who now look 
back to her teaching with gratitude. 

MRS. HENRY P. GILLETTE. Mrs. Henry P. Gillette was born at 
Harpersfield, Ohio, October 7, 1848. She died at her late home, 
Auburn Park, Chicago, June 22, 1892. During a union of over twenty- 
five years four sons were born to them, all of whom are living and 
mourn her loss, together with a large number of friends and neighbors 
who knew her so well. 

JOHN H. McOkiiRE. John H. McGuire, who was some years ago a 
well known man and active merchant tailor in Constantine, died at 
Toledo, Ohio, June 8, 1892, aged nearly 73 years. 


JABEZ WHITMOEE. Jabez Whitmore died in Colon, July 3, 1892, 
aged 78 years. He had resided in Colon and vicinity thirty-seven 

WM. W. BATES. Wm. W. Bates died in Burr Oak, July 2, 1892, at 
the home of his son, E. P. Bates, publisher of the Acorn, aged 55 

Roberts died July 8, 1892, at Constantine, Mich., aged nearly 72 years. 
She was born near Eaton, Preble county, Ohio, October 4, 1819. At 
the age of fourteen years she came with her father to Fort Wayne, 
Indiana. She was married to Absalom Roberts, September, 1836. In 
1860, with her husband, she removed to Constantine and settled near 
the village. She was the mother of nine children, six of whom survive 

ANDREW MC!JELAND. Andrew McLeland, a resident of St. Joseph 
county since 1837, died in Mendon, July 13, 1892, nearly 76 years old. 

FRANK FRENCH. Frank French, of the firm of French Bros., Van- 
derbilt, Mich., and brother of C. D. French, of Constantine, was killed 
July 14, 1892, by being struck by a board violently thrown back from 
a saw in the firm's mill. He was born in Constantine fifty-two years 
ago. Served three years in the union army and leaves a wife and 
four children. / 

MRS. EVELINE EMERY. Mrs. Eveline Emery died in Centreville, 
August 9, 1892, aged 58 years. She had resided in Centreville for 
fifty years. 

MRS. ELIZA B. HAGADORN. Mrs. Eliza B. Hagadorn died in Burr 
Oak, August 3, 1892, aged 74 years, 3 months. 

MR. AARON HAGENBUCK. Mr. Aaron Hagenbuck died at his home 
in Constantine, August 21, 1892. He was born in Berks county, Pa., 
April 8, 1810, and was married to Rachel Hill at Berwick, Columbia 
county, Pa., January 26, 1835. Three years later they came to 
Constantine where they resided together until the death of Mrs. 
Hagenbuck April 19, 1889, a period of fifty-four years. 

Since the death of his wife the infirmities of advanced years have 
shown a marked hold upon him and to them he has at last succumbed. 
He leaves a family of three sons and two daughters, all arrived at 

178 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

mature years and for all of whom he made ample provision. He came 
here early when the country was new, and has been a witness and 
participator in the growth and improvement of the country for over 
fifty-seven years. He was a man who gave blunt expression to decided 
opinions. Helpful and considerate to those he liked; those whom he 
did not like did not require the services of a secret detective to find 
it out. 

A. W. HUFF. A. W. Huff, an old resident, died at his home six 
miles southeast of White Pigeon, Thursday, August 25, 1892, aged 76 
years, 6 months and 1 day. He formerly resided on the prairie in 
the township of Mottville, on the farm where Mrs. Jas. G. Shurtz 
resides. He came from New York state to St., Joseph county in 1836. 

MRS. WILLIAM DAVEY. Mrs. Elizabeth Ann Lowry Davey died at her 
home in Constantine, August 25, 1892. She was born at Truro, in 
Cornwall, England, September 7, 1831, and was married May 4, 
1852, to William Davey. In 1856 they went to Wellington, Ohio, 
and in 1858 they removed to Constantine, Mich., where they continued 
to reside until her death. A husband, four sons, and four daughters 
survive her. 

MRS. E. E. HILL. Mrs. E. K. Hill died in Colon, August 26, 1892. 
She had been a resident of Colon nearly fifty years. 

ERNEST C. KLOSSERT. Ernest C. Klossert, who settled on a timbered 
tract in the township of Sherman in 1861, died at the residence of 
his son C. F. Klossert in Burr Oak township, September 2, 1892, aged 
83 years. 

SAMUEL TEESDALE. Samuel Teesdale died at his home in Constan- 
tine, September 24, 1892. He was born near the city of Boston, 
Lincolnshire, England, March 9, 1855 and had reached the ripe age of 
77 years, 6 months and 15 days. From the year 1835 to the year 
1892, a period of fifty-seven years, he was a business man in the 
village of Constantine. He was an exemplar in conduct and conversa- 
tion of an earnest and consistent Christian. He was a good citizen in 
all regards and will be remembered by all who knew him as one whose 
influence was always on the right side. 

JAMES JONES. James Jones died in Burr Oak, September 2, 1892, 
aged 70 years. 

MR. LEWIS CROSS. Mr. Lewis Cross died October 4, 1892, at the 


home of his adopted daughter, Mrs. Moses Avery, in Constantine. 
He was a stone mason by trade, industrious, honest, a kindly, helpful 
neighbor and good citizen. He was about 74 years old and was quite 
actively employed until a few days preceding his death. 

MRS. MARY JANE SIDLER. Mrs. Mary Jane Sidler died in Parkville, 
September 25, 1892, aged 69 years. 

MRS. ELIZA ANN TRACY. Mrs. Eliza Ann Tracy died in Constantine, 
October 8, 1892, aged 85 years. Mrs. Tracy came from New York to 
Michigan in 1832, and had lived since that time on the land in this 
township that was procured from the government when they came to 

WM. BETTS. Wm. Betts, who built the first store in Burr Oak 
(Locke's Station), died in Chicago, September 29, 1892, aged 68 years. 
He was a brother of Hon. Charles Betts of Burr Oak. 

JOSEPH SHACKMAN. Joseph Shackman died at Elkhart, Indiana, 
October 27, 1892, aged 63 years. He carried on the clothing business 
in this village some twenty years ago. 

MRS. LEMUEL O. HAMMOND. Mrs. Lydia Hammond died in Constan- 
tine, October 30, 1892, in the 82d year of her age. Lydia Kichmond 
was born in Batavia, Genesee county, New York, March 3, 1811; was 
married to Lemuel O. Hammond, May 2, 1830; moved to Florence in 
the spring of 1844, and in 1856 came to Constantine. Mr. Hammond 
died in 1875. 

MRS. ELEANOR EDGARTON. Mrs. Eleanor Edgarton died near Three 
Rivers, November 1 , 1892, aged 76 years. She was a native of Monroe 
county, Penn., and came to Michigan in 1864. 

MRS. LAURA PARSONS. Mrs. Laura. Parsons died in Three Rivers, 
November 10, 1892, aged 85 years. 

HENRY BEEM. Henry Beem died in Three Rivers, November 9, 1892, 
aged 56 years, 5 months. 

HARRY ROBERTS. Mr. Harry Roberts, for thirty-one years a resident 
of Constantine, died November 22, 1892, at his home, aged 62 years. 

MRS. JOSIAH WOLF. Mrs. Josiah Wolf, a resident of St. Joseph 
county since early youth, died at her home in Florence, November 16, 
1892, aged 72 years. 

180 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

MRS. HELEN SEEKEL. Mrs. Helen Seekel died at the home of her 
son in Three Rivers, November 29, 1892. She was formerly a well 
known and highly respected resident of White Pigeon. 

EGBERT P. CLARK. Robert P. Clark died in White Pigeon, Novem- 
ber 27, 1892, aged 87 years. He had resided in Lima, Indiana, for 
forty years previous to his removal to White Pigeon. 

ARNOLD W. PHILLIPS. Arnold W. Phillips died November 20, 1892,. 
in Sturgis, where he had resided since 1860, aged 76 years, 8 months. 

CHARLES COOPER. Charles Cooper died at his home in White Pigeon, 
December 3, 1892. He was bom in Waterloo, N. Y., June 19, 1825; 
came to Michigan in 1840, and in 1847 was married to Mary Ann 
Heitzman, who died April 3, 1892. He leaves two daughters, Mrs. W. 
B. Howard of Kalamazoo, and Mrs. John Fagarty of White Pigeon. 

MRS. CHARLES SIMMONS. Mrs. Charles Simmons died in Constantine,. 
December 6, 1892, aged 83 years.- 

DAVID HOFFMAN. David Hoffman died at his home on the Dr. Rob- 
inson farm, a mile and a half southwest of Constantine, on December 
10, 1892, aged 60 years. 

JACOB K. BERGER. Jacob K. Berger died at his home in Constantine. 
December 8, 1892, after an illness of three days, aged 72 years, 3 months 
and 16 days. Was born in Berks county, Pennsylvania, August 22,. 
1820, and came to Constantine sixteen years ago. 

MRS. JOHN HARRISON. Mrs. Ellen Burnham Harrison, wife of John 
Harrison, died at the family residence in Florence, November 29, 1892. 
Robert Burnham, her father, was the second person buried in the 
White Pigeon cemetery. He died sixty-one years ago and within three 
weeks after his arrival in this country from England. The number of 
persons buried between the time of the two interments is probably 
greater than the number of persons now living in the vicinity. 

DAVID FRENCH. David French died in Sturgis, December 27, 1892,. 
aged 71 years. He had lived in Sturgis nearly all his life. 

WARREN D. PETTIT. Warren D. Pettit died at his home in Lock- 
port township, near Three Rivers, December 23, 1892, aged 80 years, 
He came to Three Rivers in 1842 and started a wagon factory, the 
first in the village, which business he continued until 1859 when he> 
retired to the farm where he died. 


EMANUEL KEAM. Emanuel Ream died in Parkville, January 4, 1893, 

MRS. CILINDA COOK. Mrs. Cilinda Cook died in Park township, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1893, aged 77 years. 

MRS. MARY MATHERS. Mrs. Mary Mathers died in Sherman, January 
23, 1893, aged 83 years. 

MRS. JERRY STAGE. The wife of Jerry Stage died at her home on 
the Wheeler farm in Flowerfield, January 5, 1893, aged 53 years. Mrs. 
Mina Stage was the daughter of the late David Hassinger, 

A. M. TOWNSEND. A. M. Xownsend, of Mendon, died January 1, 
1893. He had been a Mendon business man for twenty-five years. 

MRS. MARY F. FERRY. Mrs. Mary F. Ferry died in Lockport town- 
ship, January 10, 1893, aged 77 years. 

GEORGE HAMILTON. George Hamilton, an old and respected citizen 
of Florence, was instantly killed by the cars in Constantine, January 
14, 1893. Deceased was about 60 years old and unmarried. Resided 
with a brother and sister some five and a half miles east of Constan- 
tine on the Centreville road. 

Miss SARAH ANN WADDINGTON. Miss Sarah Ann Waddington died 
at her home on the William Dickinson farm, northeast of White Pigeon 
village, in Florence township, February 11, 1893. She was born August 
12, 1835. Had always been a resident in the vicinity and was one of 
the oldest persons born in this part of the State. Her mother, the late 
Mrs. William Dickinson, died June 4, 1892, since which time Miss 
Waddington's health had gradually failed until her death. She had 
long been a consistent member of the Methodist church. 

JACOB DUNHAM. Jacob Dunham died of lung disease in Three 
Rivers, February 10, 1893. He was a brother of the late sheriff John 
Dunham, a well known and highly respected business man. 

MRS. CLINTON DOOLITTLE. Mrs. Sarah H. Doolittle died at her 
home in Constantine, February 12, 1893, aged 72 years. She was the 
widow of the late Clinton Doolittle and had been a resident of the 
village more than fifty years. 

JAMES BERGER. James Berger died at Irs home on the Millington 
farm, one and one-half miles north of Constantine, February 15, 1893, 
aged 68 years, 5 months and 10 days. Deceased was born in Berks 

182 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

county, Pa., September 25, 1824. Came to Michigan in December,- 

MRS. F. J. HOUGH. Mrs. F. J. Hough died in Adrian, February 
13, 1893. Deceased will be remembered as a resident of Constantine 
for many years as Mrs. C. P. Hubbard. 

Miss KATE HAMILTON. Miss Kate Hamilton died in Colon, February 
11, 1893, aged 78 years. 

NORMAN HENRY HARVEY. Norman Henry Harvey, a native of Con- 
stantine and all his life a resident of the township, died at his home 
February 17, 1893, aged 55 years. 

THOMAS SILLIMAN. Thomas Silliman died at Three Kivers, February 
21, 1893, aged 69 years. 

MYRON B. HOCK. Myron B. Hock died at Three Rivers, February 
26, 1893. 

MRS. EUGENE GODFROY. Mrs. Eugene Godfroy died at Sturgis,, 
February 21, 1893. 

WM. SHARER. Wm. Sharer died in Colon, February 18, 1893, aged 
81 years. 

JOHN HENDERSHOTT. John Hendershott died at the home of his 
daughter, Mrs. Jesse Murich, in Florence, March 1, 1893, aged 90- 
years, 11 months, 14 days. 

JOHN STEPHENSON. John Stephenson, a well known resident in the 
vicinity of Constantine, died at Inland, Nebraska, March 2, 1893, aged 
75 years. He was born in England in 1818, coming to Michigan in- 
1851, remaining until 1886, when he removed to Nebraska. 

WATSON GRAY. Watson Gray died at Three Rivers, March 5, 1893,, 
aged 62 years. 

JOHN RUTHERFORD. John Rutherford died in Nottawa township, 
March 16, 1893, aged 78 years, 8 months. He had lived in St. Joseph 
county for fifty-seven years. 

MRS. PRISCILLA R. BARKER. Mrs. Priscilla R. Barker died at White 
Pigeon, March 22, 1893, aged 54 years. 

MRS. ELIZABETH BOUGHTON. Mrs. Elizabeth Bough ton died at 
Quincy, April 2, 1893, aged 89 years. She was in Constantine Thanks- 


giving day visiting her granddaughter, Mrs. W. H. Parsons, where 
representatives of four generations sat at the supper table. 

MR. BENJAMIN MERRILL. Mr. Benjamin Merrill died at his home in 
Chicago, No. 479 Fullerton avenue, April 12, 1893, aged about 82 years. 
Was formerly for many years a resident of Constantine. "Went to 
Chicago over thirty-five years ago, became very wealthy, and until his 
last few hours sickness was engaged in active business. 

WM. BOYEB. Wm. Boyer, for twenty-five years a resident of White 
Pigeon, died at his home April 13, 1893, aged 51 years. 

MRS. HENRIETTA FONDA. Mrs. Henrietta Fonda died in Nottawa, 
April 9, 1893, aged 73 years. 

MRS. EODNEY ANDRESS. Mrs. Kodney Andress died in Flowerfield, 
% April 5, 1893, aged 62 years. 

THOMAS WELBOKN. Thomas Welborn died at his home in Constan- 
tine, April 11, 1893, in his 83d year. He was ]porn in Yorkshire, Eng- 
land, October 18, 1810, and came to Michigan in 1834, two years before 
his father and brothers came, and settled on White Pigeon prairie. 
For many years he owned a farm on the western edge of the prairie 
in this township. After selling which he removed to the village of 
Constantine. For more than forty years we have known him as a 
most exemplary citizen; a kind hearted Christian gentleman, thoughtful 
of the poor and kind to all in misfortune; as squarely and thoroughly 
honest a man as ever lived. He was twice married, to Sarah May in 
1843, who died in 1868, and to Mary George in 1869, who survives 

JOSEPH EDWARDS. Joseph Edwards died at his home in Three 
Rivers, April 18, 1893, aged about 62 years. He was a brother of 
James Edwards, of Constantine, and for many years a resident of that 

DWIGHT STEBBINS. Dwight Stebbins died in Lockport township, 
April 17, 1893, aged 78 years. 

MRS. GEORGE W. LEE. Mrs. Lorinda S. Lee, wife of George W. Lee, 
died in Burr Oak, April 14, 1893, aged 71 years. 

HARVEY MUNSELL. Harvey Munsell died in Burr Oak, April 18, 
1893, aged 74 years, 7 months. 

184 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893, 

DB. ION VERNON. Dr. Ion Yernon died in Three Rivers, April 18, 
1893, aged 65 years, 8 months, 25 days. 

MRS. PAUL JAMES EATON. Mrs. Abigail 8. Eaton, wife of Paul 
James Eaton, died in Oentreville, April 17, 1893, aged 57 years. 

JAMES FONDA. James Fonda died in Nottawa, April 7, 1893, aged 
76 years. 

MRS. ZERN BENJAMIN. Mrs. Asenath Benjamin, widow of the late 
Zern Benjamin, died at the home of her son, W. W. Benjamin, of the 
town of Florence, April 24, 1893, aged 90 years. 

MRS. WALTER BRADSHAW. Mrs. Harriet L. Bradshaw, widow of the 
late Walter Bradshaw, died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. David 
E. Wilson, in Constantine, April 29, 1893, aged 81 years, 8 months, 13 
days. She was born in Gleuville, Schenectady county, N. Y., August, 
16, 1811; married to Walter Bradshaw, March 9, 1832. 

MRS. WILLIAM MELVJN. Elizabeth Crouch Melvin died in Constan- 
tine, May 1, 1893, aged 83 years. She was born in Maryland, January 
1, 1810, and moved to Constantine in 1836, was married to William 
Melvin, June 1, 1829. William Melvin died in 1849. The fifty-seven 
years of her residence here have witnessed all the changes and improve- 
ments which make this an old country. 

MRS. PERRIN M. SMITH. Mrs. Harriet T. Smith, widow of the late 
Perrin M. Smith, of Centreville, died in the Kalamazoo Asylum for the 
Insane, April 30, 1893, of pneumonia, aged 72 years. She had been an 
inmate of the institution thirteen years. 

CLINTON H. FELT. Clinton H. Felt died at Meridian, Texas, April 
26, 1893. He was a business man of Constantine until about two years 
ago, when he went to Texas for his health. 

L. K. EVANS. L. K. Evans, for nearly twelve years past the editor 
of the Three Rivers Tribune, died at his home in that village, May 11, 
1893. He was 61 years old the 21st of October, 1892. He was a 
soldier in the union army during the war. He was an industrious 
editor, an able and conscientious writer, who earnestly sought to do 
good for the sake of the good. 

MRS. FREDRICA J. IRA. Mrs. Fredrica J. Ira died in Sturgis, May 
10, 1893, aged 65 years. 


MRS. L. W. EARL. Adeline Frances Earl, wife of Kev. L. W. Earl, 
died in Burr Oak, May 4, 1893, aged 54 years, 10 months. 

JACOB RUMSEY. Jacob Rumsey died in Newberg, Cass county, May, 
1893, aged 67 years, 1 month, 10 days. He was the last member of 
the original family of Rumseys who were among the early settlers of 
this section. 

MRS. HENRY E. PURDY. Mrs. Henry E. Purdy, a former resident of 
Constantine, died at Michigan City, May 10, 1893, in the 67th year of 
her age. 

MRS. LAURA A. GLEASON. Mrs. Laura A. Gleason died in Lockport 
township. May 12, 1893, aged 75 years, 10 months and 20 days. 

NATHAN SNYDER. Nathan Snyder died at Three Rivers, May 13, 
1893, aged 84 years. 

STEPHEN W. CADE. Stephen W. Cade died at Sturgis, May 22, 1893, 
aged 67 years. In the death of Mr. Cade the community suffers an 
irreparable loss, as he was a representative man in his neighborhood, 
having held many offices of trust and honor, all of which he filled 
with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of his constituents. Mr. 
Cade was born in Yorkshire, England, in 1826. When but four years 
old his father, the late Thomas Cade, removed to America and settled 
on Sturgis prairie. Stephen succeeded to the old homestead, where he 
had since lived for over sixty years. He was a noble, generous hearted 
man, his ear ever open to the wants of the poor and needy. The 
worthy were never turned away empty handed as many of the early 
settlers can testify. At the time of his death Mr. Cade was president 
of the St. Joseph county pioneer society. 

JOHN WALTER. John Walter died in Colon, July 19, 1892. He was 
born in Northampton county, Pa., May 9, 1835. He removed to 
Michigan, April 14, 1871, and settled in St. Joseph county. 

MRS. B. COOLEY. Mrs. B. Cooley died in Sturgis, May 20, 1893, 
aged 67 years and 9 months. 

DR. S. P. CHOATE. Dr. S. P. Choate died in Three Rivers, May 20, 
]893, aged 86 years and 9 months. A resident of Three Rivers for 
fifty-four years. 

MRS. ALVAH GLEASON. Mrs. Alvah Gleason died in Fabias, May 22, 
1893, aged 79 -years, 1 month, 21 days. 

186 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

MRS. DWIGHT STEBBINS. Mrs. Elizabeth A. Stebbins, widow of the 
late Dwight Stebbins, died in Lockport near Centreville, May 23, 1892, 
aged 72 years. She had been a resident of St. Joseph county sixty-two 



MBS. ANNA DENNIS. Mrs. Anna Dennis, mother of Mrs. Nathaniel 
Dann, died at Caro, July 20, 1892, aged 85 years. 

MRS. JAMES I. CALKINS. Mary L., wife of James I. Calkins, died at 
Caro, March 16, 1893, aged 72 years. She was born at Woodstock, 
Conn., May 6, 1820, and had resided in Michigan since 1836. 

MR. AND MRS. LEWIS ELDRIDGE. Mrs. Lewis Eldridge died at her 
home in the town of Indian Fields, January 5, 1893. Also on February 
7, 1893, Lewis Eldridge, her husband, died, aged 69 years. They had 
been residents thereof or sixteen years, removing thither from the 
southwestern part of Michigan. 

THEO. L. EVANS. Theo. L. Evans died at Vassar, December 5, 1892, 
aged 66 years. He was born in Boston, Mass., 1827. 

ANTOINE DUPAUL. Antoine Dupaul died in the town of Aimer, 
November 6, 1892, aged 72 years. A resident since 1865. 

MARK JOSHUA. Mark Joshua died at Indian Fields, November 29, 
1892. Probably he was the oldest Indian in Michigan at the time of 
his death. He was a chief of the tribe of Chippewas in the Cass 
River section, and was about 100 years of age. 

MATTHEW D. NORTH. Matthew D. North died at Vassar, August 7, 
1892, of heart^failure. He was born in Ulster county, N. Y., in March, 
1826. He had been a resident of Vassar since 1853, and was a brother 
of the late Townseud North. 

THOMAS MCPHERSON. Thomas McPherson died at Arbela, August 7, 

1892, aged 50 years. He had been a resident of the county for thirty- 
five years. 


WM. SLAFTER. Wm. Slafter died at Tuscola, August 8, 1892, aged 
85 years. He had been a resident of Tuscola township since 1849. 

SYLVESTER SMITH. Sylvester Smith died at Tuscola, December 5, 
1892, aged 85 years. He was an old resident of the county. 

JOHN STROHAWER. John Strohawer died at his home in Aimer 
township, March 1, 1893. He was born at Darnstadt, Germany, April 
15, 1837, and had been a resident of the county since 1852. He 
enlisted in Company C, Eighth Michigan Infantry, August, 1862. 


FELLOW PIONEERS Another year has passed and we, through a kind 
providence, are spared to once again present the record of those of our 
fellow pioneers who have gone to that " undiscovered country from 
whose bourne no traveler returns," and many of whom were with us 
at out last meeting. 

The following deaths have occurred during the year ending May 24 r 
1893, of those recognized as members of this society, either actively or 
by affiliation, viz.: 

HON. EDWARD V. CICOTTE. Hon. Edward V. Cicotte was born in 
1810, died May 31, 1892. Mr. Cicotte was a native of Wayne county 
as were also his father and grandfather. He held many positions of 
public trust and honor. 

MRS. CHARLOTTE BIEBER. Mrs. Charlotte Bieber, formerly Mrs. 
John McGuire, died June 1, 1892. She was the mother of Mrs. Andrew 
Cullen, Mrs. Wm. Woodbridge, Mrs. McCabe, Mrs. Phil Chapoton and 
Miss Annie McGuire. 

MRS. MANASSEH HICKEY. Mrs. Sarah Ann Hickey, wife of Eev. 
Manasseh Hickey, died after a long illness at Mt. Clemens, June 7, 

WALTER NEWCOMB. Walter Newcomb died at Ecorse, June 15, 1892, 
aged 84 years. 

. HENDERSON. Wm. Henderson died June 2, 1892, aged 81 years. 

188 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

DAVID EASTMAN. David Eastman died June 21, 1892, aged 81 years. 

CHARLES LABADIE. Charles Labadie died June 22, 1892, aged 71 

W. K. MUIR. W. K. Muir died June 23, 1892. Mr. Muir was born 
at Kilmarnock, March 20, 1829. In 1852 was superintendent of the 
Great Western railway, then in the course of construction, subsequently 
he became superintendent of the Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee 
R. It., assistant general superintendent of the Michigan Central. In 
1867, general manager of the Great Western R. R., afterwards super- 
intendent of the Canada Southern R. R., on his voluntary retirement 
from the latter road, he became president of the Eureka Iron and 
Rolling Mills, also of the Star Line of steamers. 

Mr. Muir served the city of Detroit for a number of years as presi- 
dent of the board of poor commissioners, and was actively engaged in 
various public and private enterprises and benevolent institutions. He 
was a man j loved and respected by all who knew him. 

JOSHUA W. WATERMAN. Joshua W. Waterman died June 24, 1892, 
aged 68 years. 

For many years Mr. Waterman was engaged in the practice of law in 
the city of Detroit. He was somewhat of a retiring disposition and 
mingled but little in general society, but was a liberal giver to all 
enterprises of a moral and benevolent character, and for these generous 

acts will be long remembered. 


MRS. G. MOTT WILLIAMS. Mrs. Emily Strong Williams died July 
19, 1892, aged 72 years. She was the widow of the late G. Mott 

TIMOTHY MAHONEY. Timothy Mahoney died July 12, 1892, aged 69 
years. He was the husband of Mary Mahoney and the father of Mrs. 
J. J. Kearney and Mrs. P. J. Kearney. 

WM. LYNDON. Wm. Lyndon died July 12, 1892, aged 70 years. 

PATRICK Hennessey. Patrick Hennessey died July 12, 1892, aged 
79 years. 

AMELIA ABRAHAM. Amelia Abraham died July 14, 1892, aged 71 

MRS. MARY PULCHER. Mrs. Mary Pulcher died July 14, 1892, aged 
86 years. 


HENRY GLOVER. Henry Glover died July 7, 1892, aged 80 years. 
Mr. Glover was one of Detroit's oldest citizens. Born in Madison 
county, N. Y., and came to Detroit in 1836. 

MRS. BEEVES. Mrs. Reeves died at Flat Bock, Wayne county, July 
1, 1892, aged 96 years. 

MRS. JAMES STIRLING. Mrs. Mary Stirling died July 21, 1892, aged 
70 years. She was the widow of the late James Stirling. 

JOSEPH MILLER. Joseph Miller died July 20, 1892, aged 73 years. 

EARLSEY FERGUSON. Earlsey Ferguson died July 28, 1892, aged 74 
years. Mr. Ferguson was born in Bedfield, Oneida county, N. Y., and 
came with his parents to Michigan in 1826, and after spending- a year 
at Monroe, came to Detroit where he lived until his decease. In 1844 
Mr. Ferguson entered the employ of the Michigan Central railroad, 
reaching the position of station agent and train dispatcher, resigning 
the position in 1875, when he devoted his attention to the truck business. 
Mr. Ferguson was commissioned first lieutenant in the Michigan 
militia by Governor Mason, and was in active service with his com- 
pany during the winter and spring of 1837, guarding the Canadian 

Louis HOCHSTADT. Louis Hochstadt died August 30, 1892, aged 82 

JAMES GARRIGY. James Garrigy died September 1, 1892, aged 85 

MRS. H. B. JOHNSON. Mrs. Priscilla Johnson died August 15, 1892. 
Mrs. Johnson, formerly Mrs. French, was the wife of H. B. Johnson 
and the mother of Mrs. G. B. Holloway. 

JOSEPH COTTIN. Joseph Cottin died August 15, 1892, aged 91 years. 

MRS. PROCTOR WEAVER. Mrs. Proctor Weaver died August 15, 1892, 
aged 79 years. 

Louis LA FONTAINE. Louis La Fontaine died August 26, 1892, aged 
77 years. His name is familiar in the history of Canada and Michigan 
since the year 1701. His ancestors being among the first settlers on 
this continent. 

JOHN MASON. John Mason died August 1, 1892, aged 77 years. 

190 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

MRS. WM. B. BEOK. Mrs. Mary N. Beck died August 1, 1892, aged 
75 years. She was the wife of the late Wm. B. Beck and mother of 
Mrs. Hugh McDonald. 

MBS. CLOTHILDE ROBINSON. Mrs. Clothilde Eobinson, the oldest 
woman in Detroit, died August 9, 1892, aged 106 years. She was born 
in southern Ohio of Quaker ancestry and came to Detroit at the age 
of seventy. Mrs. Earsley Ferguson was her warm friend and long 
contributed to her necessities. She was also often befriended by the 
late Judge Moran. 

HENRI HOUK. Henry Houk died at Northville, in this county, 
August 29, 1892, at the age of 95 years. Mr. Houk was a native of 
Steuben county, N. Y M and came to Michigan in 1833. He cast his 
first presidential vote for Andrew Jackson. He lived and died a 
devoted Christian. 

JAMES STEWART. James Stewart died September 7, 1892, aged 80 
years. His death occurred at the residence of his son-in-law, Thomas 
Brown, Savannah, Ohio. He was formerly a prominent vessel owner 
of Detroit. 

COLONEL JAMES I. DAVID. Colonel James I. David died at his 
residence on Gross Isle, October 13, 1892. Col. David went out with 
the 7th Michigan Cavalry and served during the recent civil war. He 
was subsequently, in 1873, State senator. As a public and private 
citizen he obtained the respect of all who made his acquaintance. He 
was born in 1811 in the state of New York. 

MRS. EDWARD L. PORTER. Mrs. Mary O. Porter died at the residence 
of Mrs. John H. Hover, September 13, 1892, aged 84 years. Mrs. 
Porter was the wife of the late Edward L. Porter. 

CONSTANTINE MINK. Constantine Mink died September 1, 1892, aged 
71 years, 4 months. 

MRS. CATHERINE SCHWARZ. Mrs. Catherine Schwarz died SeptembeT 
1, 1892, aged 70 years. 

CASPAR KREUGEL. Caspar Kreugel died October 29, 1892, aged 81 

WM. M. CHAPIN. Wm. M. Chapin died at Eomulus, in this county, 
September 4, 1892, aged 74 years. He was the father of W. W. 
Chapin of Detroit. 


GEORGE WATSON. George Watson died September 29, 1892, aged 75 

MBS. MAGDALENE C. LAWSON. Mrs. Magdalene C. Lawson died 
September 24, 1892, aged 74 years. 

ME. LUTHER BEECHER. Mr. Luther Beecher died September 16, 
1892, aged 77 years and 7 months. Mr. Beecher was widely known 
both in this and other states as a man of great business energy, and 
although somewhat eccentric in his methods, was recognized as a man 
of superior business sagacity combined with an unostentatious benevo- 
lence of character, which those who knew him best fully appreciated. 
He was a man in advance of the age in the conception of great 

CHARLES COLLINS. Charles Collins died October 13, 1892, at the age 
of 74 years, 7 months. He leaves a widow, Mrs. Charlotte Collins, and 
one brother to mourn his loss, besides many old citizens who will not 
forget his genial courtesy and kind manner. 

MRS. MARY ANN EICHARDS. Mrs. Mary Ann Richards departed this 
life at the residence of her daughter, Mrs. Virginia Defere, October 
13, 1892, aged 84 years. 

MRS. MARY HOMIE. Mrs. Mary Homie departed October 15, 1892, 
at the age of 83 years. 

EDGAR HOWARD. Edgar Howard, who for sixty years was a resident 
of Dearborn, went to his long home October 30, 1892, at the age of 
70 years. 

WILLIAM WALKER. William Walker, who for many years walked 
the streets of Detroit an upright, honest man, and whose acquaintance 
extended over the entire State, passed over the dark river October 24, 
1892, aged 80 years. 

MRS. JENNISON GLAZIER. Mrs. Electa Glazier, widow of the late 
Jennison Glazier and mother of Mrs. John Lindley and Alice M. 
Glazier, died October 1, 1892, aged 84 years. 

MRS. MARY SMITH. Mrs. Mary Smith died October 10, 1892, at the 
age of 102 years. She was the mother of Mrs. John Pollard and Mr. 
Phillip Smith. 

MRS. JOHN EADEMACHER. Theresa Rademacher died October 10, 1892, 
aged 72 years. She was the widow of the late John Rudemaclier. 

192 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

JOHN F. GUINA. John F. Guina, son of Mr. and Mrs. John F. 
Guina of Detroit, died in the city of New York. His remains were 
buried from St. Vincent's church, October 17, 1892. 

MRS. CATHERINE McSouLEY. Mrs. Catherine McSouley, mother of 
John and Patrick McSouley, died December 10, 1892, aged 86 years. 

JOSEPH CONN. Joseph Conn died December 30, 1892, at the age of 
86 years. 

J. HUFF JONES. J. Huff Jones, a well known capitalist and genial 
man of business, died at the Eussell House, December 16, 1892, at the 
age of 72 years. He had occupied the room in which he died for over 
twenty years. 

MRS. ELIZABETH BRODEL. Mrs Elizabeth Brodel died December 23, 
1892, at the age of 83 years. 

MRS. MARY WRIGHT. Mrs. Mary Wright, late of New Haven, Mich., 
departed this life at 1000 Trumbull avenue, Detroit, December 14, 1892, 

aged 84 years. 

EX-GOVERNOR HENRY P. BALDWIN. Ex-Governor Henry P. Baldwin 
passed to his rest December 31, 1892, in the 79th year of his age. 

Henry P. Baldwin needs no lengthy eulogy. His life was devoted to 
the interests of the public, and the numerous evidences of his handi- 
work as a Christian, as a philanthropist, and a promoter of all that 
makes men better fitted for this, as well as that future life, are all 
about us, and are engraven in the hearts, as well as recorded in the 
books of the State and city of his adoption. 

MRS. JANE WALLACE. Mrs. Jane Wallace, mother of Mrs. Eichard 
K. Turn bull, went to her rest December 9, 1892, aged 89 years. 

MRS. NICHOLAS WAGNER. Mrs. Annie Wagner, wife of Nicholas, and 
mother of John Nicholas, Jr. and Michael Wagner, died December 28, 
at the age of 89 years and 9 months. 

W. H. KNOWLES. W. H. Knowles, formerly of Detroit, died at 
Eoyal Oak, Mich., December 28, 1892, aged 86 years. 

DAVID M. FREEMAN. David M. Freeman died December 4, 1892, in 
the 78th year of his life. 

DARIUS COLE. Darius Cole, who for nearly half a century has been 
a navigator of our great lakes, passed over the dark river of death 


January 10, L893. Captain Cole was born in Wales, Erie county, N. Y., 
in 1818 and was left an orphan at the age of six years. When sixteen 
years of age he came to Michigan, and for a time worked on the farm of 
Judge Wm. A. Burt in Macomb county. In 1839 he settled at Lexing- 
ton and in 1850 engaged in the vessel business with James Walcot at 
Bay City, and from there came to Detroit. 

MKS. EUGENE WATSON. Mrs. Matilda St. Aubin Watson, relict of 
Captain Eugene Watson, departed this life January 6, 1893, at the age 
of 74 year.s. Mrs. Watson was descended from one of the oldest French 
families in the state, after whom was named St. Aubin avenue. 

JAMES HARRINGTON. James Harrington died at his residence, Janu- 
ary 30, 1893, aged 96 years. 

MRS. JOHN MILES. Mrs. Alice Miles, wife of the late John Miles, 
died January 5, 1893, at the age of 87 years. 

LEWIS M. KIVARD. Lewis M. Rivard died at Grosse Point, January 
7, 1893, aged 84 years. He was a worthy representative of the original 
French settlers of Detroit, retaining in a marked degree many of their 
courteous and genial characteristics. 

JAMES LAIRD. James Laird died January 10, 1893, aged 90 years. 

FRANCIS CRAWFORD. Francis Crawford, one of the oldest dealers in 
real estate, died at the residence of his son, Samuel, in Springwells, 
January 20, 1893, at the age of 85 years. 

WILLIAM GALLOWAY. William Galloway, of Taylor, died January 30, 
1893, aged 88 years. 

JAMES WARRINGTON GRAHAM. James Warrington Graham departed 
this life January 28, 1893, aged 94 years. 

MRS. MARGARET COOPER VERNON. Mrs. Margaret Cooper Vernon 
passed from earth January 31, 1893, from the residence of her nephew, 
Wm. T. De Graff, in the 87th year of her age. 

PETER HILL. Peter Hill, aged 78 years, passed away January 17, 

MARTHA HOUGHTON. Martha Houghton died February 16, 1893, 
aged 82 years. 

ELISHA CROSS. Elisha Cross died February 20, 1893, in his 91st 

194 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

year. All who traveled the Grand River road in early days will recol- 
lect Cross' Tavern and its genial host. As age began to tell upon his 
physical frame Mr. Cross removed to Detroit, preserving his mental 
powers till the end came for his removal to his final home. 

MRS. JOHN WALSH. Eliza Walsh, relict of the late John Walsh, 
died February 7, 1893, aged 82 years. 

CARL HEISE. Carl Heise died February 17, 1893, aged 84 years. 

MBS. JOSIAH J. NORRIS. Mary Norris, wife of the late Josiah* J. 
Norris, formerly of Detroit, departed February 11, 1893, at the age 
of 89 years. 

JOHN LEDBETER. John Ledbeter died January 11, 1893, in the 84th 
year of his age. He was a well known paving contractor for many 
years and did much to improve the "ways" of Detroit. 

ALANSON SHELEY. Alanson Sheley went to his long home, November 
7, 1892. He was born in Albany, N. Y., August 14, 1809, and came 
to Detroit in 1831. t On arrival he first engaged as contractor of 
building. In 1832 he. superintended the construction of the old light 
house on Thunder bay; afterwards he went into lumbering on Black 
river; and, lastly, formed a partnership with the late Jacob S. Farrand 
in the wholesale drug trade. In all his undertakings he was successful. 
He was always foremost in church matters, and gave much time, 
money and thought in promoting all- moral reform enterprises. 

He served the public well and faithfully as State senator and in 
other responsible official positions which he held during the half 
century of his life in Detroit. His integrity and great sagacity made 
his advice sought after by all classes of society who now feel his loss. 

MRS. JOHN BURT. Julia A. Calkins Burt, widow of the late John 
Burt and mother of Mrs. Eobert Leete, Mr. H. A. Burt of Marquette, 
and A. C. Burt of Detroit, departed this life November 7,- 1892, aged 
78 years. 

MRS. HARRIET A. ANDREWS. Mrs. Harriet A. Andrews died Novem- 
ber 7, 1892, aged 71 years. Mrs. Andrews was a sister of M. S. Smith, 
Frank G. Smith and T. A. Smith, and mother of Mrs. Wm. V. Moon. 

JEREMIAH HANNIFAN. Jeremiah Hannifan died November 29, 1892, 
aged 65 years. He was a soldier in the Mexican war, where he 
received a severe wound which made him a pensioner of the 


JOHN TROESTER, SR. John Troester, Sr., died at his residence, 
October 30, 1892. 

JOHN BARRETT MULLIKEN. John Barrett Mulliken died November 
23, 1892, aged 61 years. 

E. PETER DEMILL. E. Peter DeMill died at the residence of his 
son-in-law, George Wm. Moon, October 31, 1892. 

Mr. DeMill came to Detroit at a very early day and at once took a 
prominent position in the churches and schools of the city as well as 
in business circles. For a long time he was the secretary and manager 
of the Detroit Gas Light company, and since his retirement from it 
had been identified with several other manufacturing enterprises. 

HORACE HALLOCK. Horace Hallock, who died November 12, 1892, in 
his 86th year, was for many years engaged in the clothing trade, in 
which he continued almost up to the time of his decease. Mr. Hallock 
was identified with the churches and Sabbath schools of the city for 
over fifty years and in all his business and religious life furnished the 
evidence of a pure and conscientious Christian man and upright 

MRS. JOHN M. PALMER. Mrs. Jane M. Palmer died March 18, 1893, 
at the age of 93 years. She was the widow of the late John M t 
Palmer, who came to Detroit fifty years ago. 

MICHAEL DUNN. Michael Dunn, who died March 10, 1893, was th e 
father of Mrs. M. Lally. He had reached the age of 85 years. 

J. PETER DEVROE. J. Peter Devroe died March 10, 1893, aged 93 
years. He was an old and well known citizen. 

DAVID PRINDLE. David Prindle died at the residence of his daugh- 
ter, Mrs. De La Fontaine, March 20, 1893, aged 86 years and 3 months. 

FREDERICK L. SEITZ. Frederick L. Seitz, who died March 29, 1893^ 
aged 58 years, grew up in Detroit; was for many years engaged in 
banking; latterly he was secretary of the Mutual Gas Light company ^ 
He was always recognized as an energetic, generous man and a 
worthy citizen. 

GEORGE ZITTEL. George Zittel was the beloved husband of Margaret 
Zittel and the father of Geo. Zittel, Jr., Henry D. Zittel, Mrs. Annie 
Pinet, Mrs. Edward C. Curtis, and Wadsworth J. Zittel of Buffalo, 

196 ANNUAL MEETING, 18y3. 

N. Y. He went to rest, leaving them all to mourn, March 29, 1893, 
aged 77 years. 

MRS. SOLOMON DAVIS. Mrs. Solomon Davis died at San Diego, Cal., 
March 4, 1893. One year ago we chronicled the decease of her 
husband, Solomon Davis. 

JOHN TROWBRIDGE. John Trowbridge died April 8, 1893, aged 88 

MRS. PATRICK BARRY. Margaret Barry went to her last home from 
her daughter's house, April 8, 1893. She was the relict of the late 
Patrick Barry and the mother of Mrs. Jeremiah Calnon, and had 
reached the age of 84 years. 

JOHN NAUMANN. John Naumann had lived one hundred and three 
years when in April, 1893, he was called to a higher life. He was the 
father of nineteen children, among them Mrs. Jacob Barnowisky, at 
whose house he died. 

DR. J. N. HOLLYWOOD. Dr. J. N. Hollywood died April 9, 1893, 
aged 79 years. He was regarded as a skillful physician. 

MRS. PHILO PARSONS. Mrs. Ann Eliza Parsons, wife of the Hon. 
Philo Parsons, died April 5, 1893, aged 72 years. She was an 
estimable woman, a true Christian, and beloved by all who had the 
pleasure of her acquaintance. 

HENRY C. KIBBEE. Henry C. Kibbee, who that knew him can 
forget him? He died April 6, 1893, at the age of 79 years. 

JOHN NORMAN. John Norman had lived on this earth over one 
hundred and three years when God called him away, April 6, 1893. 

JOHN MOLDENHAUSE. John Moldenhause died May 4, 1893, aged 80 

MRS. JOHN LADUE. Mary Angel Ladue died at her residence on 
Lafayette avenue, May 5, 1893, aged 83 years. She was the widow of 
the late John Ladue and the mother of Geo. N., Austin G. and Charlotte 
M. Ladue. 

LADINA ARNOLD. Ladina Arnold died May 2, 1893, aged 80 years. 

ALEXANDER CHAPOTON, SR. Alexander Chapoton, Sr., was called to 
take up his abode in that eternal city whose foundation stones will 
never crumble, May 2, 1893. 


Alexander Chapoton was born in Detroit on February 2, 1818, and 
was therefore 75 years and 3 months old when he died. He was a 
descendant of an old French family of Duges, Languedoc, in the south 
of France, a member of which, Dr. Chapoton, was the first surgeon of 
Fort Pontchartrain, at the occupation of Detroit by Cadillac in 1701. 
The Chapotons had been builders for generations back and the 
deceased learned the trade of stone and brick mason from his father, 
Eustache Chapoton. He started in business for himself long before he 
was of age, and acquired a fortune which is estimated at $250,000. 
He always voted the republican ticket since the Grant campaign of 
1868. In 1863 he served a term in the State legislature, and during 
Governor Baldwin's administration he was chosen one of the three 
building commissioners to supervise the erection of the State capitol 
at Lansing, completing it at less cost than the appropriation fund, an 
achievement scarcely equaled in the history of American public build- 
ing. In 1881 he was a member of the commission that selected the 
site for and constructed the Northern Asylum for the Insane at 
Traverse City. For nine years he discharged faithfully the duties of a 
member of the board of public works. 

Mr. Chapoton was a citizen of public spirit and integrity, and he 
shared a large portion of his wealth with the deserving poor. School 
inspector Lingemann, who was for years Mr. Chapoton's clerk in the 
board of public works, said: 

"Very few people knew Mr. Chapoton's goodness of heart. Every 
Christmas he used to give me a number of envelopes, which contained 
five, ten, and twenty dollar bills, to deliver to poor people whom he 
designated. But not alone at that season of the year was he charitable. 
Every now and then he gave me money envelopes to give to some 
poor people." 

Mr. Chapoton was father of ten children, six of whom grew up and 
four of whom are still living. They are Alexander Chapoton, president 
of the Peninsular Savings bank, who is fifty-three years of age; Mrs. 
Emily S. Brush, Mrs. K. A. Baby and Dr. E. A. Chapoton. His 
daughter Elizabeth, wife of A. E. Viger, died -about eight years ago, 
and another daughter, Miss Felice, died last year. There are twenty 

STEPHEN W. LEGGETT. Stephen W. Leggett died May 9, 1893, aged 

85 years. 



Members of the Pioneer and Historical Society: 

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN The periodical meetings of our association 
are occasions of mingled joy and sorrow joy at the greeting of long 
known and well tried friends, sorrow that so many of our companions 
have passed to the spirit land and can be with us here no more. They 
who were the earliest pioneers of our republic, who subdued the forest 
and laid the foundation stones of its noble institutions and of the 
prosperity of its free people, now no longer with us, have built for 
themselves a monument which can never crumble to dust. Generation 
after generation shall walk in their footsteps enjoying the blessings 
which their labor and their foresight have secured and never ceasing 
in grateful encomiums of their fathers. 

Our association deals with the historical. As a single state forms 
but a small portion of the great globe, so its history constitutes only 
a brief chapter in the history of nations; yet that brief chapter is a 
part of the great whole and the entire record must be read as one. 

The migrations of a people in bodies large or small, the settlement 
of new countries and the establishment of new nationalities are not a 
thing of modern times alone. Despotism has always been restless and 
uneasy and has never ceased to thrust itself upon its neighbors' terri- 
tory. It came to conquer and not to bless or to aid. It led its 
phalanx of warriors and sought no place for the agriculturist, the 


mechanic, or the civilian. Its victory brought to the conquered only 
the sad boon of death or slavery, or utter degradation. The past is 
full of such aggressions upon the territory and the rights of others. 
How often has the conqueror passed over the wide expanse of Asia! 
Mede and Persian, Greek and Roman. Mongol and Mohammedan, 
have in succession planted their foot in this fertile land, but always 
in hostile array, carrying destruction and terror and leaving no monu- 
ments of a higher civilization. Eome, the mistress of the world, 
extended her power over almost all of Europe, and France and Spain 
and Germany long submitted to her authority. For almost five centu- 
ries England was dominated by her power, and her legions enforced 
her mandates. But in all these we seek in vain for any evidence of 
the good fruit which all immigration should bear the building up of 
communities with rights better secured, freedom of thought and action 
more safely guaranteed and the field for the higher faculties and 
aspirations of man enlarged. 

But it is not migrations such as these that this association would 
commemorate. The true pioneer is the bearer of the banner of civiliza- 
tion in the highest sense of that noble word. He comes n6t as a soldier 
but as a man and a citizen. He bears no scepter as an emblem of 
his power to command, for in the company of pioneers all are equal. 
He is followed by no military retinue, for his mission is peace and he 
has no enemy to fight. He seeks a permanent location for himself, 
and the generations which shall succeed him, where prosperity and 
happiness shall have their home. Whatever of knowledge, whatever of 
science, whatever of learning, whatever of economic habits and enter- 
prise, whatever of moral and religious principles, were his in the old 
homes, these are the treasures which he carries with him to the new. 

But the life of the pioneer is not one of liesurely ease or voluptuous 
enjoyment. Here as everywhere success is the outgrowth of thought- 
fulness, of judicious action and of toil. Without these success will 
not come. This necessity, however, he counts not so much an evil as 
an incentive to press him on in the noble work dearest to his heart, 
and his bosom throbs with joy as he overcomes obstruction after 

Civilization in its highest state of perfection with any people, is the 
growth of centuries. It is a fact not a little surprising that no con- 
siderable division of the habitable earth rests in solitude and without 
inhabitants. Within a little more than four centuries past, the area of 
the inhabitable world has been wonderfully enlarged by discovery. 
The great American continent, Australia, Australasia, the West India 

200 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

islands and the islands of the Pacific, comprising a very considerable 
portion of the habitable globe, have been discovered within that time. 
No continent or island was found to be uninhabited, but always by a 
people sunk in degradation and in the lowest stages of ignorance and 
savagery. Can these people, unaided by their more enlightened fellow- 
men, work out for themselves the great problem of civilization? Can 
they, by their own efforts ever attain the dignity and elevation of 
character which properly belong to man? Will the uncivilized negro 
of Africa ever place himself beside the cultivated and christianized 
fellow man of England, or France, or Germany? If no European had 
ever placed his foot within our own national limits, would the forest 
have given place to cultivated fields, the institutions of humanity and 
of learning, and the innumerable evidences of a highly cultivated pop- 
ulation which now surround us? We do not know what Providence 
may have in store for them in the illimitable future, but we do know 
that changes from savage life to the refinements, the comforts and the 
rational enjoyments of civilization are necessarily slow and seldom 
complete. Indeed modern history gives us no instance of a savage and 
uncivilized people becoming one of refined civilization by their own 
efforts and without intercourse with others more advanced and the aid 
which such intercourse brings with it. 

Civilization is itself progressive. Growth within itself and expansion 
without mark its progress. It is the work of the pioneers of civiliza- 
tion to revolutionize the world. They are not merely the promoters 
of their own individual interests, but it is upon them that the improve- 
ment of the world largely depends. They are the builders of nations. 
The history of all civilized and highly cultured and prosperous people 
traces their rise from small beginnings and does not fail to bestow due 
praise upon the pioneers who have led them on to greatness. It is 
for this reason and in recognition of the noble work they have 
performed, that the pioneers of civilized society have come to stand 
out as a prominent class in public esteem and to be held worthy of 
honorable regard by future generations. 

The history of the world presents no such noble example of the 
progress of civilization, the building up of a new nationality in a 
wilderness country and beautifying it with cultivated fields and popu- 
lous cities and all that can make it delightful as the home of millions 
of prosperous citizens, as our own republic. 

We look for the pioneers of this American territory to the early 
colonists of Virginia in 1607 and the Pilgrims who landed at Plymouth 
in 1620. Struggling as colonists they stretched their sparse settlements 


along a narrow strip of land on the Atlantic shore, and in 1783 they 
burst the bonds that bound them and became a free though a feeble 
nation. Yet here was the nucleus of the present great American 
nation. Here were the pioneers who stand at the fountain head of its 
greatness. But we can but admit that " They builded better than they 
knew." In their wildest dreams they never could have fancied that 
the time would ever come when the little strip of land which they 
occupied and the great unexplored and unknown wilderness which 
stretched away to the west, and the south, and the north of them 
would ever form the great nation which it has now become. Would 
they could now be with us to know and to realize how great is the 
result from so small a beginning, in which they bore so prominent a 

They would find a nation foremost among the nations of the earth, 
with a population greater than that of any nation in Europe, and an 
extent of territory exceeded by that of Russia alone. They would find 
a nation which excels all others in the world in its agricultural 
productions, in its manufactures, in its mining operations and mineral 
product. They would find a nation which produces one-half of the 
gold and one- third of the silver used in the world, a nation with fewer 
paupers than any nation in Europe except Switzerland, a nation where 
ninety millions of dollars are paid annually for books and newspapers, 
and where the proportion of illiterate persons who can neither read 
nor write is smaller than in any other country in the world. They 
would find the most wealthy nation on the globe, with more miles of 
railroad than all Europe, and with the exception of England more 
ocean navigation. They would find the land which above all others is 
adorned with churches and institutions of learning and asylums for the 
relief of all the ills to which humanity is subject. 

More than two hundred years have elapsed since these early pioneers, 
the founders of the nation, finished their labors and passed to their 
rest, but the legacy which they left to the world and to humanity will 
be imperishable. 

No true American fails to look upon England as the home of his 
forefathers. The English speaking people have encompassed the earth, 
and in their course have established the language and many of the 
institutions of their island home. Mr. Dilke, in the interesting narra- 
tive of his travels through English speaking countries around the 
globe, gives his book the appropriate title of " Greater Britain." 
Britain is no longer confined to the little island washed by the waves 

202 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

of the eastern Atlantic. It has outgrown its ancient limits. The city 
without the walls has become greater than that within. Somehow the 
English people seem peculiarly fitted for planting the blessings of 
civilization in foreign lands. Their peculiar fitness for this work is 
strikingly illustrated in our own history. 

As early as 1562 the Spaniards took possession of the southern portion 
of our national domain and built St. Augustine, the oldest city in the 
United States. For more than two hundred years they held possession 
of the region, but their struggle for permanent occupancy and 
dominion came to naught. France planted her colonies on the St. 
Lawrence before the English settled at Plymouth, or in Virginia, and 
burning with ambition to build up a nation such as the world had 
never seen, she spread out her scattered settlements and claimed 
exclusive dominion over the vast valleys of the St. Lawrence, the 
great lakes, the Ohio and the Mississippi, but her high ambition was 
destined to be disappointed and the rich prize fell into other hands. 
The Swedes, under the sanction of the great Gustavus Adolphus, 
established a colony in New Jersey and Delaware, but its growth was 
slow and its continuance brief. The Dutch colonized Manhattan Island 
and the beautiful region bordering on the Hudson river as early as 
1614, and soon extended their occupancy into New Jersey and Dela- 
ware. By Mr. Bancroft, the historian, Holland is declared to be "the 
mother of four of our states," and her industrious, enterprising and 
prosperous' colonists might reasonably have anticipated a growth which 
would give them, at no very distant day, a national organization and 
place them at the very front among the powers of the New World. 
But all of these efforts proved unavailing, and Spain, and France, and 
Sweden, and Holland, all in turn withdrew from the scene, and 
England with her thirteen colonies held full and exclusive sway over 
the land. 

We look back to these English colonies as the beginning of our 
nation, and to the colonists as the pioneers of American civilization, 
growth and prosperity. But if we stop at this point we leave half the 
tale untold. 

In 1783 the colonies became an independent nation and the nation 
in its turn became the father of pioneers and the builder of new states. 
The enlargement of territorial limits by accession has been marvelous. 
I well recollect reading many years ago an extract from a French 
writer in which said that the English language would never attain its 
highest state of perfection, nor English institutions their most perfect 
condition until the colonists had carried them across the continent and 


established them on the shores of the Pacific. When this was written 
no proposition could have been announced more improbable than that 
the feeble little colony on the Atlantic would expand until it reached 
the Pacific and peopled the broad expanse of the continent. Yet all 
this has happened. From the day when the colonies assumed the 
dignity of nationality, the star of empire has been steadily on its western 
course, and thirty-one new states have been added to the Union. Each 
of these states has had its pioneers who entered its borders while it 
was yet a wilderness and have adorned it with the evidences of their 
toil, their intelligence and their patriotism. 

And what are these new states? With the exception of the slight 
restriction contained in the national constitution which connects them 
with the Union and secures to them blessings beyond all estimation, 
they are independent nations. They make their own laws. They elect 
their own rulers. They vote the taxes which they are themselves to 
pay. Every man is free to enjoy his own opinion, to worship where 
he pleases and read the books and papers which he chooses. The 
English language is theirs and they delight in the history and glory 
of old England still the American state is not England. All of good 
that the venerable customs of the mother country can give, all that the 
common law of the realm in its growth of ages has secured, all the 
wisdom that her judges and her statesmen have uttered are ours; but 
many things in our system of government, our laws and our condition, 
are purely American. We have no recognized distinction of classes, no 
primogeniture, no entailment of estates, no privileges of rank, no title 
of nobility. Our written constitution was intended to lay a broader 
foundation for a popular government than could elsewhere be found, 
to give to the people more freedom of action, to secure the enjoyment of 
greater privileges and multiply the inducements to all to press on to a 
higher type of manhood and civilization. It is the charter of the 
masses and not of a favored few. It is a guaranty of rights to the 
democracy and not a grant of license to an aristocracy. It seeks to 
lighten the burden of taxation and to enforce economy in the admin- 
istration of the government. While Great Britain pays her Queen 
$3,100,000 and the Prince of Wales and other members of the royal 
family $1,200,000 annually, this nation pays its president only $50,000, 
and has no list of idle supernumeraries to support. It was of this 
constitution that Mr. Gladstone said: "As far as I can see the 
American constitution is the most wonderful work ever struck off at 
one time by the brain and purpose of man." It established a new 
and untried form of government and the praise which it has received 

204 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

from hundreds of the most thoughtful men of other countries attest its 
merits and superiority as compared with others. It is an instrument 
of few words, but in those few words is treasured the germ of the 
freest of governments and the most prosperous of nations. 

" Through America England is speaking to the world." These are 
the words of one who is both 'a true Briton and an admirer of the 
American Union, and they are true words. Yet the voice of America 
is not the mere parrot-like repetition of the words of England. She 
has added largely to the message of the mother country. All that is 
peculiar in her institutions and her form of government, all that her 
history tells of the blessings enjoyed by a self-governing people, she 
proclaims in language not to be misunderstood, and her message meets 
with the hearty response of all liberty-loving people. The colonies of 
England are scattered far and wide over the globe and the time is 
sure to come when they will become independent nations. When this 
time comes who can doubt that each in turn will yield to the voice 
and follow the example of our country and become a republic like the 
American Union rather than a monarchy like England? 

It is the pride of Michigan that she is one of the states that sprung 
from the "old thirteen" on the Atlantic. There are those living who 
well remember the venerable men who were the first of our lineage to 
enter its borders and whose death occurred before the present State 
organization. Peace be to their ashes and honor ever to their memory! 

I see before me some of the pioneers who have witnessed the growth 
of our State from its beginning and whose energy, judgment and 
untiring toil have largely contributed to make it what it is. If you, 
my friends, could recall and record your hopes and your fears, your 
discouragements and your joys, your aspirations and the many brilliant 
fancies of the future which you indulged during the period of its 
growth, it would be the most interesting history of the childhood and 
advancement of the republic which could be written. 

But certain it is that the most enthusiastic of the band of early 
pioneers could never have dreamed of a success which should make 
the Peninsular State what it has already become. The richness of its 
soil, the beauty of its scenery, the charm of its many rivers, the 
grandeur of the ocean-like lakes that encompass it, were enough to 
attract the beholder and mark it for his future home. But nature did 
not then reveal even to his searching scrutiny half its treasures. He 
did not know that in ages long past old ocean had here deposited, 
now far beneath the earth's surface, its treasures of salt and fountains 


of brine which were awaiting the discovery of man and since have 
proved a mine of wealth. He did not then know that there was hid 
in the far away forest that store of pine timber which has since 
yielded millions of wealth to the laborer and the enterprising operator. 
He did not know of those vast deposits of iron ore, the working of 
which has since given employment to thousands of workmen and 
furnished capital for the building of towns and cities and maintaining 
fleets of carrying vessels on the lakes. I have not at hand the means 
of ascertaining the aggregate sum of the product from this source 
since the opening of the mines forty years ago, but a single furnace 
which closed down only a few days ago is reported to have turned out 
pig iron to the amount of thirty millions of dollars, and official 
documents show that Michigan produces more iron than any other 
state in the Union, and nearly half of the entire quantity furnished 
by all. 

The copper mines, now so famous, were for all practical purposes 
unknown until their discovery by Dr. Hough ton, the geologist of the 
State in 1840. In the abundance of the yield and the richness of the 
ore these mines have no equal in the world. For more than forty 
years they have given to the market a product almost beyond estimate 
in value. A single mine, the Calumet and Hecla, is said to have paid 
its owners in dividends for two years the princely sum of four millions 
of dollars and to have yielded forty millions of dollars worth of copper 
since the organization of the company in 1867. 

But it is not merely secrets such as these that nature has revealed 
in modern times to aid in human progress. Science has disclosed 
many a fact in the natural world of great practical value. Steam, 
which no man can see, is so applied as to do work beyond all human 
power. It labors at the mine, it works at the mill, it operates the 
machinery of the manufacturer, it gives continuous motion to the press 
of the printer and folds the printed sheets, it warms our houses, it 
propels the steamers of the world and draws the cars upon the world's 
three hundred thousand miles of railroad. Electricity, that mystery of 
mysteries, has just put itself at the service of man for practical use. 
It propels the car and lights our streets and dwellings. It carries 
written messages around the world; and if we would hear the voice of 
a distant friend we have but to turn our ear to the telephone and we 
listen to his words. 

All these are but instruments in promoting the .welfare of man, and 
they aid in pressing him forward to the highest stage of civilization, 
intelligence and happiness which man can attain on earth. 

206 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

In all these blessings Michigan has had her full share. In all the 
labors necessary for true progress Michigan has borne her full part, 
and we may well congratulate ourselves on the result. 



A pure, strong, brave spirit has gone from among us. These halls, 
where for so many years his work was done, will know him no more. 
Not again will he pass under these beautiful oaks; his daily tasks will 
lead him not again over these green lawns. This great school which 
he did so much to establish, will remain arid grow, but for it his 
personal work has ceased. In the lives of the many students whom he 
quickened and strengthened, his influence will grow from year to year, 
but his voice will no more be heard to counsel and to inspire. I 
would recall some of the events of a life so strong and so reverent, 
some of the qualities that gave him influence so deep and lasting, 
some of the deep gratitude that today lives in the hearts of men, 
scattered in many lands, who have been helped by that influence. 

From the eastern and the middle states has come the great stream 
of manhood that has brought strength, industry, education, religion, 
the institutions of law and liberty throughout the mighty west. In 
the most eastern of the Eastern states, Theophilus Capen Abbot was 
born, the home of his infancy being in Vassalboro, Maine. While he 
was yet an infant his father removed to Augusta, Maine, where in the 
public schools he received his early training, and from whence, at the 
early age of fifteen he entered the classical course in Colby University 
at Waterville, then known as Waterville College. He graduated in 
1845, a leader among the thoughtful men of his class. He taught for 
a short time in an academy, then for several years in a seminary in 


northern Maine, spending his vacations usually at Waterville in grad- 
uate study. 

His temperament led him to reflect on the great questions of religion 
and to think of entering the ministry. He took a course in theology 
at the Bangor Theological Seminary in preparation for this work, on 
completing which he again took up teaching, this time entering the 
faculty of his college as teacher of Greek, where he continued for a 
year and a half. 

He had now been for many years closely engaged in school work, 
either as student or teacher, and desired rest and change. He desired 
to see somewhat of our "old home" across the sea, and to go among 
the scenes endeared to all, where have been enacted some of the great 
deeds in the progress of human liberty, where have lived some of the 
greatest poets and historians and orators of the world. He went to 
England and Scotland and remained about a year, studying their 
history, their literature, their people on the spots made famous by 
some of the greatest men of all time. Soon after his return from 
abroad he came to Michigan, in 1856. He taught for a few months 
in Berrien Springs, Berrien county, then accepted the principalship of 
the high school in the city of Ann Arbor, then one of the important 
educational positions in Michigan. Here he first met the lady who 
afterwards became his wife, Miss Sarah Merrylees, she being then 
preceptress in the Ann Arbor high school. During his first year at 
Ann Arbor he was chosen to the chair of English Literature at the 
Agricultural College, but his engagement there prevented his coming 
here until the year following. In 1858 he entered upon his duties 
here where the remainder of his great work, extending through nearly 
thirty years, was to be done. His thorough knowledge of the subject 
he taught, his clearness as a teacher, his constant courtesy and kind- 
ness made him from the first successful. He won friends at once 
among students, faculty, and board of control. 

In 1860 he was married to Miss Merrylees in Ann Arbor. The 
coming of a bride to the college was in those days an unusual and 
important event. Under the efficient leadership of Dr. George Thurber, 
then professor of botany, the faculty and students decorated the house 
(now Dr. Beal's), in which the newly wedded couple were to live, with 
branches of evergreens, with great ferns from the woods, with the few 
flowers that in those early days were to be found on the campus. As 
the carriage containing the couple drove to the door it was greeted by 
the whole college population, cheerful lights gleamed from the windows 
of the flower-decked rooms, and a great balloon, made for the occasion 

208 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

under the Doctor's direction, sailed into the skies to proclaim the 
welcome. His home at once became the chief social center of the 
college, and so continued during the many years that he and Mrs. 
Abbot lived on the campus. 

It was in the summer of 1858 that he entered upon his work here 
as professor of English, in which work he continued until 1866, when 
he was transferred to the chair of logic and mental philosophy, which 
he held until his death. From 1858 to 1861 he was treasurer of the 
college. From 1861 to 1863 he was the secretary of the board of 
control. In 1863 he was chosen unanimously to the presidency of the 
college, which place had been left vacant by the resignation of the 
first president, Joseph R. Williams, in 1859. For more than twenty- 
five years, through the days when the college was poor, small, 
struggling, unknown; through the days when it began to have wealth 
and influence and success; until after many years it had fame and 
friends in many states and in foreign lands, he controlled its policy 
and guided its fortunes. 

His work at the college was always confining and severe. There 
was little rest from year's end to year's end. Sometimes his 
support, from those of whom support was most to be expected, was 
not hearty. As years went by the strain told on his health and spirits. 
In 1874 he took his family to Europe for a year's rest for his wife 
and himself, and to give his daughter and son the benefit of schools 
in Paris. But on returning the old steady grind settled down upon 
him. He worked under a pressure too severe, he carried a burden too 
heavy for any man to bear. Several times he sought release from the 
duties of the presidency, but each time it seemed impossible for his 
request to be granted, and so the weary work went on. At length, in 
1885, it became evident that he must stop. The board of agriculture 
acceded to his request and relieved him from the office of president, 
continuing his duty as professor of logic and mental philosophy. His 
family and friends hoped much from the change. For a short time 
his health and strength seemed improved. He taught with something 
of his old clearness and force; he went among his books with some- 
thing of the old interest. But the change had come too late. The 
brain, once so clear and alert, was too deeply affected. It a few 
months it began to be whispered that he would not be better so long 
as the diseased body should be the prison of the spirit. The predic- 
tion was only too true. Quietly, gently, without suffering the dissolution 
went on. Month by month, year by year, the body became more 
feeble, the brain became less able for its work. For six years his wife 


and daughter cared for him with all gentleness. Every want was 
attended to, every comfort was supplied. At length in the morning of 
Monday, November 7, 1892, his day of freedom came, 

Shrill November gave gloomy skies and bitter winds for the day of 
burial. Old friends and students assembled at the home in Lansing. 
Prayer was offered by Rev. C. H. Beale, of the Congregational church, 
then the body was borne to the church for a funeral service. Plants 
and flowers from the college greenhouses decked the pulpit and the 
coffin. Friends came from far and near. The faculty of the college 
had been so changed since his retirement from active work, that many 
of them had never met him, yet they gathered in sorrow at the grave 
of one who had done so much for the college which they served. 
Scarcely one of the present students had ever seen him, but they 
knew of the loyal devotion of those former generations of students, 
who were indebted to him so deeply, and they came to look upon the 
coffined body whence had fled the spirit that wrought so well for the 
development of the school that now trains them for life's work. Rev. 
C. H. Beale read from the Bible and led the hearts of all in prayer. 
The 'choir gave such music as lifts the thoughts to God. President O. 
Clute, a graduate of the college in the class of '62, spoke, alas, how 
inadequately, of the manly -qualities and the noble character of him 
whose happy release had come. Then the body was borne to the 
cemetery at Mount Hope. Ashes were returned to ashee, dust to dust. 
The spirit so true to all goodness, so faithful to all noblo work, so able 
in knowledge, in training, in grasp of thought, freed ]<ow from the 
feeble body and the clouded brain, had come to the day of its 

Agricultural College, May 16, 1893. 

The discourse given by Pres. Clute at the funeral service is printed 

"Ye shall know them by their fruits." Matt, v.i, 16. 

We have been drawn together today by a common appreciation of 
the noble friend whose emaciated body is in the casket before us, by 
a common sorrow for his loss. For years that loss has been slowly 
coming. The overworked brain gradually lost its powers; the clear 
thought faded, the bright eye dimmed, the friendly grasp relaxed. The 
dissolution, so long in progress, was completed two days ago. To him, 
whose once strong mind had been so long hampered by the imperfec- 
tions of the bodily machinery, the dissolution surely came as a happy 
release. Freed from the trammels of the flesh, he is now once more 

210 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

himself. Again he will rejoice in keen thought, in high purpose, in 
noble activity. Again will he take his place as the companion of great 
gouls in the divine works of God's many mansions. Those of us who 
knew him and loved him, when in strength he worked among us and 
for us, now bid him God speed in his onward journey, glad that from 
eclipse he has entered into that realm of being where his noble 
spiritual powers are freed from the bondage of the body, and may go 
forward into those paths of study, and thought, and work that gave 
him his chiefest pleasure here. 

We judge men by the difficulties which they surmount, by the work 
which they accomplish, by the friends whom they bind to their hearts 
with, hooks of steel, by the character, the inner life, which they attain. 
Dr. Abbot's busy life shows us the organizer, the teacher, the man. 
Let us consider him. for a few minutes in these three aspects. 

To organize a great enterprise requires the clear vision to see the 
completed work before that work has existence. The great organ- 
izer has a great imagination. We often wrongly think that it is only 
the poet, the artist, the orator who has this creative vision; but they 
share it with all great organizers, with all leaders of business and of men. 
The poet expresses this vision in rhythmic sweeps of song, the business 
man expresses it in his warehouses, the railroad manager in his mighty 
roads, the educator in his great school. Dr. Abbot saw the school he 
would create, while as yet the elements of that school were in chaos. 
He studied the methods by which that school could be created; he in 
great measure trained the men who were to aid him; and he educated 
the State which was to give him money to accomplish his work. The 
successful general knows clearly the forces which he must conquer. 
So Dr. Abbot knew well the difficulties which were in his way. When 
he came to the presidency of the Agricultural College the students 
were few, the faculty was small in numbers and entirely lacking in 
experience in such a school as was to be founded, the friends of the 
school had vague ideas of what they wanted and of the methods to be 
pursued; often these friends were divided in opinion and most impa- 
tient for speedy results. The whole income of the college depended 
upon legislative appropriations which were easily cut down by watchful 
opponents. The ready gibe was often hurled in the press or in public 
address against the "hayseed college." With few students, untrained 
faculty, small and uncertain income, impatient and divided friends, 
numerous and bitter enemies, he entered upon the work. To do so 
required the courage of a warrior. To win victory against such odds 
required a generalship not less able than that which conducts a great 


campaign. His invincible courage and his masterly generalship enabled 
him to hold his ground, and year by year to win points of vantage. 
His genial temper and honorable methods won the friendship of good 
men of all parties. Slowly the college buildings increased, the equip- 
ment improved, the faculty became permeated with a common idea and 
gave to that idea loyal devotion. Foes, convinced of his clearness of 
head and honesty of heart, became fast friends of his ideas and of 
himself. Before his failing health compelled him, in 1885, to resign 
the presidency, he saw the college established on sure foundations, 
with a large body of united and influential friends, with an increasing 
number of alumni and of those students who had not remained to 
graduate, and with an endowment from the national grant yielding a 
generous income. Surely the results of his many years of faithful 
service proved the clearness of his insight, the wisdom of his plans, 
the courage of his purposes, the force of his work. 

The teacher, like the poet, is born, not made. Perhaps the first 
requisite of the good teacher is keenness to see quickly. He must be 
alive to his subject, to his class, to his time. He must have, moreover, 
a perfectly clear understanding of what he teaches. He must have 
studied it from every aspect, so that it is to him as open as the sun. 
He must so have absorbed it that it is a part of himself. He must 
then insist on keenness, clearness, thoroughness from his pupils, 
having at the same time sympathy for the student's ignorance, and 
dullness, and difficulties, so that he may meet them and conquer them 
by rousing enthusiasm and attention. All these qualities Dr. Abbot 
possessed in an unusual degree. His manner in the class room was 
quiet. Not a shadow of fuss or bluster, never the slightest attempt at 
joke, or sarcasm, or brow-beating. But from the first hour the student 
felt that his professor was in earnest, that he understood the subject 
he was teaching, and that he expected earnestness and understanding 
from every student. As the weeks, and the months, and the years 
went by, the greater part of students found themselves in intellectual 
affiliation with their professor. They, too, became keen, clear, 
enthusiastic, faithful, thorough. 

Some of the " old boys " are now old in fact as well as in the 
familiar college speech, for they are grandfathers. They are scattered 
far and wide in. Michigan and in other states and in lands beyond the 
sea. Wherever you meet them they refer in terms of affectionate 
appreciation to the service rendered them by President Abbot in 
their student days. Successful and honorable men in nearly all walks 
of life they trace their success to their college training, and especially 

212 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

to the formative influence of President Abbot. Himself a teacher, 
many of his students have become teachers. Since his active work at 
the college ended, his influence planted in college work and spirit has 
gone on, and not a few of our recent students carry out thoughts and 
methods, which were his thoughts and methods, into professional work 
in other states and in distant lands. All are permeated by the spirit 
and strengthened by the training which he helped so much to incorpo- 
rate in our study and our work, all are carrying this thought and 
influence and character around the world. From mind to mind, from 
heart to heart, his power as & teacher and inspirer will be felt to far 
away ages. 

The idealist is never able to realize fully his ideal. The great 
business man does not get his business into such perfect shape as he 
dreams. The poet is never able to put into words the pulsing thought 
and music which his own ear catches. The orator's speech cannot 
fully glow with the fire that burns within. That is, the man is always 
more than appears in his works. Dr. Abbot's works were good; his 
ideal was nobler than his works; his life was noblest of all. Pure, 
simple, faithful, strong. He lived in the light. His reverent soul 
rejoiced in all truth and good. His faithful heart served loyally his 
God and his fellow man. 

His strong character is felt today in his work and in the men he 
trained. Yet all do but dimly show the force, the strength, the honor, 
the thought that everywhere gleamed through the gentleness which 
clothed him as a garment. 

Scarcely less noticeable than his gentleness was his unassuming 
estimate of himself. Some men pose constantly, anxious for admira- 
tion; or they go around with a nauseating strut, anxious to show their 
accomplishments, however small. Dr. Abbot lived in forgetfulness of 
himself. He thought not of winning applause, but of doing work that 
would count. He did not display himself; he displayed his college. 
He showed not his own attainments but the course of instruction 
which was gradually evolved under his guidance, the valuable equip- 
ment of the college collected in all departments, the spacious lawns, 
the beautiful groves, the wide fields, the noble buildings that grew 
under his thoughtful care; especially did he delight in the men whose 
training of brain and hand attained under his leadership made them 
powers for good wherever they found work to do. 

He lived in a time when burning questions were agitating the whole 
world; questions of human rights, politics, reform, literature, science, 
religion. For all these great themes he had warm sympathy. They 


touched in him responsive chords. They were founded in truth and 
goodness, and hence in time he knew they would prevail. But he had 
set himself to do a certain work, and to that work he gave his thought, 
his strength, his life. However important and interesting were these 
other themes, he could give to them only sympathy and good wishes. 
His theme was the college which he led. His work lay in advancing 
human happiness by creating a noble school. In the words of the 
great apostle he said, " this one thing I do." 

In him the old and the new mingled in harmony. He read with 
appreciation the great poetry of the ancients. Job and Homer, Virgil 
and Horace, came to him with revelations of love and beauty, of 
heroism and religion. When, in early manhood, he visited Europe, he 
was especially attracted by the scenes made famous in the works of 
Shakespeare, by the haunts of Burns, the home of Scott, the lake 
district where Wordsworth dreamed and sang. And the poets of today 
found him equally responsive to their songs, which deal with the new 
questions of the new time. In the old and in the new he felt the 
human struggle and aspiration. In the new as well as in the old he 
was thrilled with the presence and the struggles of the human spirit 
as moved by the Divine. Indeed, to his clear vision, there wag no old 
and no new, there was only the one humanity, then and now, groping 
upward to the light, in response to the same divine leading. 

He desired greater opportunity, better education, better wages, more 
of true liberty, greater measure of justice, a truer obedience to duty 
for every human being. As one of the most efficient means of securing 
these he looked to education, the rational training of all 'human powers 
and faculties. The new education had in him a faithful worker. By 
the new education he understood the training of men and women by 
the -best methods, in the most important knowledge, which" experience 
has discovered. In his mind the new education implied no severing of 
the present from the past, but a gradual growth from the past to the 
present, and from the present to the future, and an appropriation by 
the present of all the good the past has brought us. He believed that 
the new education would develop men rather than machines; that it 
would make not dreamers only, but workers; that it would so 
strengthen every faculty as to enable men to learn daily more and 
more of the secrets that are writ in the constitution of nature, and to 
become more able to use the powers of nature for the service of man. 
He made no public displays of enthusiasm for the new education, he 
had nothing of the eagerness of the young convert to magnify his new 
thought. But in careful ways he incorporated the new thought, the 

214 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

new methods, the new results into the courses at the Agricultural 
College. His successors have followed in the line he marked out. As 
a result there is, perhaps, no school where the course of instruction in 
all departments is based more fully on v modern knowledge and the 
modern spirit. 

Among the fruits of his life we find a home united and affectionate; 
friends made from youth to age among the pure and strong; a great 
school founded in the methods of the new education whose broad and 
constructive spirit is but just coming to be understood; students from 
that school planting its influence and that of its organizer and of its 
faculty in all the varied departments of human activity; a character in 
himself that was nobler than any work he did, more helpful than any 
organization that sprung from his clear and reverent mind. By these 
fruits we know him as one of the helpers of men, one of the servants 
of God. 



Francis E. Stebbins was born at Williamstown, Vermont, on the '26th 
of October, 1818. His father, Captain Bliss Stebbins, was born in 
Wilbraham, Massachusetts, December 12, 1777, and in 1805 settled in 
Williamstown, Vermont, where he resided until his death, March 10, 
1826. His ancestors were English. 

November 17, 1802, he married Miss Betsey Euth Cossitt, of Clare- 
mont, New Hampshire, by whom he had five children, Francis E. 
being the youngest. 

Mrs. Betsey Euth Stebbins was born in Claremont, N. H., April 21 r 
1783, and died in Adrian, Mich., February 21, 1870. She was of 
French descent. Francis E. took his name from an uncle (Frangois 
Een6 Cossitt). At the age of sixteen years he commenced to learn 
the cabinet makers trade, with his brother-in-law, Lyman Briggs, at 
Montpelier, Vermont, earning money enough to pay for several terms 


tuition at the Academy in Montpelier. In 1837, he came to Michigan, 
and joined his brother, C. B. Stebbins, who was carrying on the 
cabinet business at Palmyra, in Lenawee county (Palmyra then aspiring 
to become the future metropolis of the county). Here he remained 
for about two years, and then went to Buffalo, N. Y., in the employ 
of Cooley & Gralligan, cabinet makers. 

While at Palmyra he wrote articles for the Michigan Whig, little 
thinking that at some day he would be its editor. He also contributed 
to the Michigan Observer of Detroit, and to the emancipator of New 
York. While in Buffalo he wrote for the Buffalonian, the Commercial 
Advertiser, the Republican, and several other papers, and was finally 
given charge of the editorial work of the Morning Tattler, a society paper, 
with the understanding, however, that it should not interfere with his 
work as a cabinet maker. Alternating between Vermont, Buffalo and 
Palmyra, for a few years, he finally came to Adrian in the fall of 1841, 
and from that time until his death, which occurred on the 29th day of 
September, 1892, resided in that city. With the exception of a few 
months spent in the study of law, in the office of Baker, Harris & 
Millard, Mr. Stebbins, during the entire period of his residence in 
Adrian (comprising more than half a century of time), was continu- 
ously engaged in the business of which he had made himself master 
in his youth. Commencing in a small way, working at the bench 
himself, and always doing what he did in the best possible manner, 
he gradually built up one of the largest, best, and most successful 
factories and furniture stores in southern Michigan, 

A part of the time he was in partnership with his brother, C. B. 
Stebbins; a part of the time the two brothers carried on the same 
business, separately, side by side, and always in perfect harmony. 

In 1853 the brothers, in connection with S. P. and T. D. &ermain, 
built a four story brick block on east Maumee street in the city of 
Adrian then the only four story building in Lenawee county and in 
that portion of the block erected upon his land he continued in business 
until the day of his death. 

While Mr. Stebbins was thoroughly master of- his trade, and always 
prided himself in making and keeping for sale furniture made upon 
honor, and of the very best quality, and in so managing his shop and 
store as to keep them well in hand and completely under his control; 
yet his strong literary bias and the urgent solicitations of the propri- 
etors, induced him to assume the editorship of the weekly and tri-weekly 
Expositor, of Adrian, which position he held from 1850 to 1860; and 
so long as he lived he continued to write for the press. Few men 

216 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

have made more of their opportunities than did he. For nearly thirty 
years prior to his decease, he spent a portion of each year in travel, 
and while on these excursions wrote many interesting and instructive 
letters of travel, covering the country from Lake Superior, and the 
river and gulf of St. Lawrence to the gulf of Mexico. 

He was fond of what is termed "outing" had a cottage at Grand 
Lake, Presque Isle county, Michigan, and one at Sand Lake, Lenawee 
county, and as long as he lived spent a part of each summer at one 
or the other of these cottages; and, during the latter part of his life, 
a part of each winter in Florida, where he made very thorough 
explorations of Indian River. 

He was a lover of nature, and with a few congenial friends, derived 
the greatest possible pleasure from these annual excursions. 

Mr. Stebbins was a public spirited man and identified with the 
growth and prosperity of the city of Adrian and of the State of Mich- 
igan for more than half a century. He was a zealous and active 
member of the pioneer society of the county of Lenawee, and also of 
the State pioneer society, contributing during his membership interesting 
and valuable articles to each society. He served as alderman of his 
ward in the common council of the city of Adrian, also as a member of 
the public school board, where either as president or chairman of the 
building committee, he had the leading charge of the erection of the 
present central school building, the main features of the plan of 
which were furnished by him and adopted by the board. He served 
as a member of the old volunteer fire department of the city and had 
much to do with the erection of its buildings; was a member of the 
committee having charge of the erection of the soldiers' monument, 
furnishing the design which was adopted for the base; and, in short, 
has been directly or indirectly identified with almost every movement 
that has been made calculated to advance the best interests of the 
city, during his long residence therein. 

In politics Mr. Stebbins was a whig and cast his first vote in Buffalo 
for William Henry Harrison for president, and subsequently became 
identified with the republican party and did yoeman service therein so 
long as he lived. He was an active politician but never sought for 
any public office. He was a religious man in the best and broadest 
sense of the word, was liberal and catholic in his views, and a member 
of the Presbyterian church. It can be truly said of him, that he was 
an honest, conscientious, and good man. When it became apparent to 
him, as it did some little time before his death, that he had but a 
short time to live, he had no fear. For him death had no terrors. 


He had so lived that when his summons came he could "Wrap the 
drapery of his couch about him and lie down to pleasant dreams." 

Mr. Stebbins was twice married; his first wife being Miss Mary E. 
Meyer of Buffalo, N. Y., to whom he was married on the 3d of 
August, 1841, and by whom he had three- children, Francis G. Stebbins 
and Mary L. Colvin, who survive him, and Ellen C., who died in 
childhood. Mrs. Mary E. Stebbins was born in Coxsakie, N. Y., June 
15, 1820, and died in Adrian, April 16, 1852. He was again married 
October 24, 1853, to Migs Sarah Louise Briggs, of Claremont, New 
Hampshire, by whom he had three children, Lilla Louise, Fred B. and 
Edwin J. Mrs. Sarah Louise Stebbins was born at Charlestown, New 
Hampshire, February 25, 1833. She and her two sons, above named, 
survive her husband, and reside in the city of Adrian. Lilla Louise, 
the daughter, married Mr. Edwin J. Pierce and died in Hingham, 
Massachusetts, on the 27th day of September, 1890. 

The three eons, Francis G., Fred B. and Edwin J., who had long 
been in the employ of their father, continue the business, which he 
had spent over half a century in establishing on a firm basis. Mr. 
Stebbins will be greatly missed in the city, in the county and State, 
and in this Society. 

We can only add: "The end of a well spent life." 



No Michigan man has done more to preserve the records of leading 
pioneers, especially those of southwestern Michigan, than Anson De 
Peuy Van Buren. Of Dutch descent he was "the son of Ephriam and 
Olive (Jay) Van Buren, and was born April 22, 1822, at Kinderhook, 
Columbia county, N. Y. He was the youngest of nine children. The 
family, in 1826, removed to New York Mills, Oneida county, N. Y., 

218 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893, 

where Anson received such an education as the village schools of that 
day gave a boy of his years. And here, in his later boyhood, he had 
the rare opportunity of listening to the preaching, lectures, and public 
discussions of the foremost preachers, oratory, and reformers of that 
day. Here he heard the eloquent McDowell, of New York, on moral 
reform; Theodore Weld, on temperance; President Besiah Green, the 
powerful abolition advocate; Grerritt Smith, the anti-slavery reformer; 
Charles G. Finney, the revivalist; and that brilliant orator, the James 
Otis of his day, Alvan Stewart, on temperance and reform. And it 
was here, being thus early taught by such great masters, that the 
subject of this sketch imbibed those views of religion, temperance, and 
reform that governed his after life." The above are his own words, 
found on page 287, Vol. 14, Pioneer Collections. 

With his father's family he removed to Michigan, October 1, 1836. 
The trip was by canal to Buffalo, taking some weeks, thence by the 
steamer United States to Detroit. The son, then at the age of thirteen, 
retained vivid recollections of the long journey, and has recalled them 
in his "Pioneer Annals," Vol. 5, Pioneer Collections. From Detroit 
the family journeyed in a wagon drawn by two yoke of oxen to Battle 
Creek, and found a log cabin built on the claim, by older brothers. 
The son helped his father cut the first trees on the farm and was kept 
busy with the other boys at hard labor. The family had brought five 
hundred pounds of dried codfish from their old home, which was 
exchanged for pork with neighbors, then called "paying with dicker." 

The fact is placed on record that in the spring of 1837 "wheat was 
two dollars a bushel, corn and oats very high, when they could be 
bought at all, potatoes were ten shillings per bushel, and it was 
necessary to go to Prairie Bonde, a round trip of some sixty miles, to 
get them at that price. We gave thirteen dollars for a shoat of the 
wind-splitter breed, weighing probably sixty pounds dressed. It was so 
lean it would not fry itself. We had to boil it in half a dozen waters 
and then it would not pass as * legal tender' with anyone who knew 
what pork was." The cattle were kept through with a scarce supply 
of marsh grass and the buds and tender twigs of tree tops cut down 
for that purpose. He records as a tender remembrance of those days 
that after a year had gone by and they had not seen a person or thing 
they had known in New York, his mother found a house fly that had 
been caught and preserved between the leaves of a book and exclaimed: 
"Here is a fly from New York state! Now, children, don't touch it, 
let it remain in this book, just as it is, for it is a fly that once lived 
in our old home." 


Thus commenced his Michigan life. For the first few years he had 
no school advantages, but made the chimney corner his school room, 
and the elementary spelling book, the old English reader, Olney's 
geography, Daboll's arithmetic, and Kirkham's grammar his teachers. 
It was an evening school, kept mostly in the winter season, and all 
the light he had was that which came from the hickory bark thrown 
on the fire. There he studied, made himself master of the books 
named, and in the winter of 1838, at the age of sixteen, he received a 
certificate to teach the Goguac Prairie school. He continued to teach 
winters in Battle Creek until the spring of 1843, when he entered the 
branch of the Michigan University at Kalamazoo, remaining there 
three years. He entered the University at Ann Arbor in the summer 
of 1847, leaving in the fall to teach at Athens, Calhoun county. He 
taught in various places until the fall of 1857, when, with failing health, 
he went to Mississippi. There he soon took charge of an academy 
near Yazoo City, returning to Michigan after the lapse of a year, 
opening a select school at Battle Creek, and finally closed his long and 
successful career as teacher in the Climax high school. 

In the fall of 1859 he published his book entitled, "Jottings of a 
Year's Sojourn in the South," which was favorably received both north 
and south. This work is a volume of 320 pages and is a racy record 
of southern life in those days, and worthy of a choice place in every 
Michigan library. Among the reminiscences are graphic sketches of 
George M. Poindexter, Henry S. Foote, General Quitman, Joseph Holt, 
George D. Prentice, S. S. Prentiss, Colonel McClung, Jefferson Davis, 
and others. Never have we seen elsewhere so vivid and lifelike a 
sketch as that of the eloquent S. S. Prentiss given by him. He brings 
the matchless orator before you so that you see the man and almost 
hear the words that came from his lips and swayed the people like 
the touch of magic. 

In 1864 Mr. Van Buren engaged in life insurance, which became his 
occupation for the rest of his life. He married Miss Mary L. Gibson, 
November 14, 1866, and resided in Galesburgh, where he held various 
town offices. He died June 27, 1892, highly - esteemed by every one 
who ever knew him. His widow is still living in Galesburgh. 

Henry Bishop of Kalamazoo says of him: "He was a terse and 
vigorous writer on subjects congenial to him. No man furnished more 
interesting historical sketches of old pioneers for the different volumes, 
of the State pioneer history than Mr. Van Buren. He was an honest 
temperance worker, an earnest Bible student, a great aid to Sabbath 
schools, and a member of the Congregational church. The greater part 

220 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

of his life was spent in the school room, where he endeavored to teach 
true manhood by example as well as by precept." 

The counties of Calhoun and Kalamazoq are fortunate that he was a 
resident, first at Battle Creek, later at Galesburgh. As a writer of 
biography he has never been excelled by any resident of Michigan, 
and from his pen preserved in the Pioneer Collections, the names of 
many leading pioneers have been rescued from oblivion. With a 
thorough command of language, a remarkable memory, a humor that 
never exhausted itself, he gives in inimitable style the anecdotes of 
those hardy pioneers. These alone would form a volume of genuine 
humor, and this characteristic of the man ,was fresh and genial as ever 
up to the last hours of his life. While he did not become a member 
of the State Pioneer Society until 1883, many of his papers of previous 
years, written for the county pioneer societies of Calhoun and Kalama- 
zoo, have been preserved in the Pioneer Collections. Some years of 
his life must have been spent in writing these papers, and all are 
graphic and enjoyable in the highest degree. Neither time nor space 
would suffice to give even the titles of all his papers. Among the 
leading papers of the humorous character are "The Political Campaign 
of 1840," with incidents, anecdotes, and recollections of its distinguished 
editors and orators, north and south, in Volume 10, Pioneer Collections; 
and "That Glorious 5th, How it was Celebrated in 1845 at Kalamazoo," 
would shake the ribs of a misanthrope. Other valuable papers are 
"Temperance in Pioneer Days," "History. of the Old Branches of the 
Michigan University," and of " The Branch University at Kalamazoo," 
"Michigan in Pioneer and National Politics, and in the Campaign of 
1856," and a complete history of "The Temperance Conflict." 

But in " The Log School House Era," a paper of 120 pages, Volume 
14, Pioneer Collections, we get the key of his life and character. As 
a pioneer school master he devoted twenty-one years of his life to 
teaching, mostly country schools, for it was all country then, and gives 
his full experience as a teacher from the age of sixteen to thirty-six, 
commencing in 1838 and closing in 1859. He was the best type of the 
western pioneer schoolmaster. He had started with the determination 
to be a teacher, and after a first trial attended higher schools in 
summer to make up for defects he found. With the smallest of wages 
he persevered, and finally gained name and fame as a teacher. What 
his wages were the first school in 1838 is not recorded, but in 1842, 
we find him contracting to teach for eight dollars a month and 
"board around." In 1847 he had reached the figure of $14 a month, 
and later $18 per month; finally, in a higher grade of school, $75 per 


month. He knew only one common school teacher who was a college 
graduate, and he was not among the best teachers. 

Then "the school officers were the 'board of regents' and the school 
master played the part of president and professor in that rude seat 
of learning, the pioneer schoolhouse. His advanced students drove 
him beyond the 'three r's' into natural philosophy, algebra, and 
perhaps into botany and astronomy." The college bred student was 
"not so competent to teach a district school as the teacher who had 
been trained in the curriculum of that school." " When the school 
master of the old days stepped upon the floor of the log school house 
his foot was on his native heath, and he was at home amid his 

He vividly describes his first school house: "It was built of oak 
logs with 'cobbed up' corners. The roof was composed of shakes that 
were held in their places by long poles laid lengthwise over the lap 
of each course, and pinned down at each end. The floor was of 
puncheon. A fireplace with broad jams was surmounted with a stick 
chimney, which ran up on the outside and east end of the building. 
There was but one door and but one window, close beside it, on the 
south side. The door swung on oaken hinges, and was fastened by 
and answered to a wooden latch that was raised by the accustomed 
leather latch string. The logs were 'chinked and mudded up' and the 
building was considered fit for winter use. There was not a nail or a 
particle of iron about the house. The glass was secured in the sashes 
by little wooden pegs, and the cross-piece over the fire place was a wooden 
support. Our school room furniture, like the building, was of the 
most primitive kind. Holes were bored into the logs some three feet 
from the floor, on the sides and west end of the room, into which 
long pegs were driven; boards were secured on these pegs slanting 
inward for desks. Rough boards on wooden legs ran parallel to the 
desks for seats. Slabs with shorter legs constituted the seats for the 
smaller children. The schoolmaster's table was also of pioneer make." 
The teacher was without blackboard or bell, and called his school to 
order by rapping on the sash of the lone window with a book. His 
equipment was a cherry ruler, whip and penknife. Daily the pens were 
made for each scholar far enough advanced to write, but he seems to 
have used the whip but little, in spite of that remark of the many 
wived Solomon, "Spare the rod, spoil the child," which has cost the 
descendents of the Pilgrims so many million "lickings." 

With such a commencement Mr. Yan Buren perfected himself as a 
teacher, followed it many years at the lowest of wages, because he 

222 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

loved the profession on which he conferred signal honor. His vivid 
and thorough record of his long services as a teacher is of itself a 
monument of which any man might well feel proud. Teacher of the 
pioneers, thyself a pioneer, we salute thee in death! 

In person Mr. Yan Buren was tall and graceful, with a head and 
face that were a model for the sculptor. As a member of the State 
Pioneer Society from 1883 until his death, he stood very high in the 
estimation of his fellow members. Except for deafness he would have 
filled the position of president long before his death. For many years 
he was a member of the historical committee and his services were of 
great value in that capacity. His place no one else can fill. He has 
written much of value for the later writers of history and biography, 
and for himself has won fame that will inure with the name and fame 
of the State he loved and served so well. 



When one who for more than the average lifetime of man has 
filled a large space in the public eye, holding important positions, 
executing high trusts and wielding a commanding influence among his 
fellows, drops suddenly out of sight, almost without warning, the shock 
of the general loss is likely at first to be felt by us more than that 
which is personal, and we stand in the awful presence of death appalled 
chiefly by the great vacancy in the social and civil state which the 
blow has made. But ere long the tender chord of memory, responsive 
to recollections of early friendships, common enjoyments, common 
trials and common aspirations, make us sensible of the pain of 
sundered ties, and the sense of general loss gives place to the more 
exquisite sorrow of personal bereavement. 


Charles M. Croswell affords us one of those striking illustrations, of 
which the history of America is full, of boys without the help of 
fortune, or education, or influential friends, by the force of native 
energy and perseverance, raising themselves to positions of eminence 
and usefulness, and filling them with distinguished honor. He was an 
orphan at seven years of age, with the prospect before him of a 
laborious and inconspicuous life, with no adventitious circumstances 
whatever upon which he could rely for exceptional success. At the 
age of eighteen, when I first saw him, he was learning the trade of a 
carpenter. He had the industry and the energy which were the sure 
auguries of success, and had he continued in that occupation it is not 
to be doubted that he would in time have become a man of note in 
the community, if not a man of wealth. He had Franklin's love of 
books, and it was certain from the first that as he grew in years he 
would find a congenial sphere of action in which his self -acquired 
learning would be of special value, and would enable him to compete 
with others, more fortunate in their early advantages, for important 

It is difficult to speak of him fittingly without speaking also of 
myself, for .before he attained his majority we were thrown much 
together, and with his gifted cousin, George W. Hicks, constituted a 
trio of youth, all equally without the favors of fortune, equally 
dependent on individual exertions for all that should be attained or 
possessed, but with similar tastes, w,hich could only be gratified by 
hard labor and the strictest economy, and in the gratification of which 
we might be of mutual assistance. The untimely death of young Hicks 
had the effect to draw the survivors more closely together, and the 
intimacy grew and was unbroken until the time came when public 
affairs almost monopolized attention. 

I have spoken of him as having been without the advantages of 
education. His indebtedness to schools was but small and his upward 
path was made more difficult in consequence. But the consciousness of 
the disadvantage only operated as a spur to effort, and he came in 
time to be a well read man, with a large fund of useful knowledge 
which by diligence he had made the books impart to him. He was 
especially attracted by historical works; and few men so much absorbed 
by business and public avocations as he shortly became, were more 
familiar with the general facts of ancient and modern history, and 
especially with the history of his own country and of its leading 
public characters. He was fond of lighter literature also, and he 
studied rhetoric as art to the full extent that his circumstances enabled 


him to do. As a result his mind was not only well stored with useful 
information, bat what he knew he was prepared effectively to use; and 
though he was never a ready he was always a favorite speaker, since 
what he had to say was carefully studied and was delivered with grace 
and in accurate diction. 

When Mr. Croswell decided to study law he entered my office for 
the purpose, and when admitted to the bar he became my partner. 
But he had no fondness for the law and was preeminently a man of 
business. He filled with credit many local and county offices which I 
will not delay to enumerate, and in 1866 was chosen to the State 
senate. In that body, although it contained several older and more 
experienced lawyers, he was made chairman of the judiciary committee, 
a high compliment from the late governor, which was fully justified by 
the able and painstaking manner in which the duties were performed. 
The senate paid him a still higher compliment when by common 
consent it elected him president pro tempore, an office commonly 
conferred only on a member of considerable experience. But probably 
not one of his associates was so admirably fitted for the post as was 
he, for from the time of his election he had given special and careful 
attention to parliamentary law, and can be truthfully said to have made 
himself master of its peculiar and to some extent arbitrary rules. He 
held a seat in the senate for three successive terms, and long before 
he left it he was the acknowledged and trusted leader of his party in 
both houses. In 1867 he was chosen to a seat in the convention for 
revising the constitution of the State, a body to which the people had 
sent many of their ablest men and best trained intellects. And there 
again his thorough familiarity with parliamentary rules as well as his 
fairness was recognized, as they had been in the senate, by his being 
called to preside, and he did so to the entire satisfaction of all parties. 
Five years later he was a member of the popular house of the 
legislature and was made its speaker. In these several public positions 
as well as in those he held afterwards, his official papers and addresses 
were conspicuous for terseness and lucidity, and gave cogent' evidence 
that his self -training had been as accurate as it was laborious. 

In 1876 Mr. Crosswell was nominated by acclamation in the conven- 
tion of the dominant party in the State to the office of governor and 
was of course elected. In that high office he brought undoubted 
integrity, careful preparation, correct business habits and great industry. 
The State has never had a more painstaking executive, never a cleaner 
administration, never a firmer head to its affairs. He had not the 
faculty, if he had the taste, of impressing the general public by 


pageant and demonstration; but in his quiet, patient, indiistrious, and 
persistent way, be gave to the State a faithful and strong administra- 
tion, which was alike an honor to him and an honor to the common- 
wealth which he loved and was proud to preside over. Many a state, 
which has suffered in various ways from the want of careful business 
qualities in more brilliant, demonstrative and pretentious executives, 
might well have envied Michigan its careful, thoughtful, and untiring 
governor. And though without full knowledge upon that subject I 
speak with great confidence when I say that he left this high office 
with means diminished by his having held it. 

On retiring from the office of governor, he took up cheerfully the 
duties of a private citizen, and these were faithfully and diligently 
performed until the fatal illness overtook him. Public life with him 
had not as with so many others, destroyed his regular business habits, 
and he "had no wasteful or vicious tastes to sap his fortune or consti- 
tution, or to lead others to ruin. But it is as needless for me to enter 
upon his every day life as it would be to give in detail the list of his 
public employments. It is quite enough to say in this presence where 
he was so well known, that with him public office was always a sacred 
public trust and that he recognized in his capacity of private citizen, 
duties as imperative as any that could be conferred by the choice of his 
fellows. As we face any public building in the city, we are reminded 
of some important service performed or some worthy address delivered 
in it; as we enter any principal street we are met by recollection of 
something notable with which in the nearly fifty years of his residence 
among us he was prominently concerned. A great place was indeed 
left vacant when he passed away. 

Six days ago, on learning of his illness, I came to stand by his bed- 
side, and to say, if I might, a word of cheer. I knew that so well 
had his intellectual powers been preserved that he was still, as to them, 
in the prime of life and I hoped that the. physical disease was not 
serious. But I saw at once that death had marked him for its prey, 
and that the end was nigh. But his mind was not upon the brief tenure 
of existence; if he had any dread of what was immediately before him 
he did not express it. On the contrary he directed attention at once 
to his public life and the wish uppermost in his thoughts was, that 
when he had passed away it should be said of him in respect to his 
discharge of duties in his highest office, 

"He was faithful." 

Into the sanctities of private life we should in the presence of death 

226 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

be awed from intrusion; but I may be permitted to say how well I 
knew how the members of his family were held by that great heart of 
his in anxious but close and loving embrace. The curtain falls now 
between us and him; but just as the record of his public service will 
be imperishable, so also to us will be the remembrance of his private 

" Death cannot claim the immortal mind; 
Let earth close o'er its sacred trust, 
But goodness dies not in the dust." 

Hon. Charles M. Croswell was born October 31, 1825, at Newburgh, 
Orange county, N. Y., and was son of John and Lottie (Hicks) 
Croswell. His father was of Scotch-Irish extraction, was a paper 
maker, and carried on business in New York city. When the son was 
seven years of age his mother, a woman of superior ability and worth, 
and his only sister died, and but three months after the death of his 
mother his father was accidentally drowned in the Hudson river at New- 
burgh, leaving him the last of the family, without means of support. 
He found a friend in an uncle, James Berry, a house-builder and 
contractor, with whom he came to Adrian in 1837, where he resided 
until his death, which occurred suddenly there December 13, 1886. 




Iii undertaking to write an account of those men who have hereto- 
fore been members of the Bay county bar I have found myself so 
embarrassed by any attempt at discussion of the character of those 
members still living that I shallonly give some account of those who 
are dead. 

I settled in lower Saginaw (now Bay City) in March, 1857. When 


I arrived there I found that Messrs. C. H. Freeman, W. L. Sherman, 
and James Birney had preceded me, and they were all then actively 
engaged in the practice of the law. 


Hon. James Birney was born at Danville, Kentucky, in 1817. His 
father, James G. Birney, candidate for the liberty party for president 
in 1840 and 1844, resided in Lower Saginaw from 1840 until 1850. 
He was trustee of the old Saginaw Bay company, which owned the 
section of land on which the original plat of Lower Saginaw was first 
laid out, and no doubt the interests that he left in Bay City was the 
cause of the settlement of his son at that place. 

James Birney was educated at Center College, Ky., and at Miami 
University, Ohio, from which latter institution he was graduated in 1836. 
For the two years succeeding his graduation he occupied the position 
of professor of the Greek and * Latin languages at that institution. 
He afterward studied law at New Haven, Conn., and subsequently 
entered upon the practice of that profession at Cincinnati, Ohio. While 
at New Haven he married Miss Moulton, cousin of Commodore Isaac 
Hull who captured the Guerriere on the 19th day of August, 1812. In 
1856 Mr. Birney removed with his family to Lower Saginaw (now Bay 
City) and at once interested himself in the development of the place. 
From that time until his death Bay City was his home. 

Mr. Birney was a prominent republican in politics and in 1858 was 
elected to the State senate, and in this office he displayed both great 
capacity and great independence. In the year 1859 most of that great 
grant of swamp land which the general government had made to the 
State for the purpose of drainage and reclamation was appropriated by 
the State for the building of State roads and to the construction of 
drains and ditches. And here Mr. Birney rendered services to northern 
Michigan, for which its people for all time to come should be forever 
grateful. There was a strong body of men in the legislature that year, 
who were determined to ignore and neglect the conditions of the trust, 
and to sell the swamp lands and apply the proceeds of the sale to the 
school fund, thus leaving the northern portions of the State with its 
swamps and morasses to take care of themselves. And as the phrase 
went, let them get out of the woods as best they can. Mr. Birney 
overcame this faction and secured the legislation which has opened up 
northern Michigan through every portion of it with the State roads. 

So well did he perform his duty as senator as to attract general 
attention, and in 1860 he was elected lieutenant governor of the State. 

228 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

He was exceptionally well qualified for the office of president of the 
senate. He was careful, studious, and absolutely impartial and inde- 
pendent, and managed to perform his duties with a constant suavity 
and grace that caused the members of that body to be very proud of 
him, and justly too, for of all the men who have succeeded him in 
that office, none has reached that high standard attained by Judge 
Birney as a presiding officer. 

In the senate that year (1861) were Henry P. Baldwin, afterwards 
governor and senator, Byron G. Stout, afterwards a candidate of his 
party for governor and since a member of congress, and Solomon L. 
Withey, afterwards judge of the federal courts at Grand Rapids, and 
many other distinguished sons of Michigan. And it is safe to say 
that Judge Birney was the full equal of all these distinguished men. 
He had a natural aptness in the transaction * of public business. He 
frequently debated questions on the floor of the senate; always with 
sincerity and ability, and always with firmness and kindness. While 
he was ambitious he was totally above all the low schemes and prac- 
tices of modern politicians. 

In the spring of 1861 Governor Birney was appointed circuit judge 
of the eighteenth judicial circuit, then composed of the counties of Bay, 
losco, Alcona, and Alpena. He presided four years on the bench of 
that circuit. He was a dignified, prudent, and careful judge. His 
administration of justice was satisfactory. He was modest, kind, 
accommodating, fair and impartial, and generally right, but like all 
judges he made some mistakes. I remember once he intimated a 
decision against me. I mentioned to him that the supreme court had 
decided otherwise, and showed him the decision of Tannahill vs. Tuttle. 
He refused to modify his ruling and simply remarked " So much the 
worse for the supreme court." I cheerfully add that he was right, as 
Tannahill vs. Tuttle was afterwards overruled. He was not well 
adapted to a judicial position. While his mind was active and clear, 
he could not comprehend and would not follow many of the rules of 
law which to the general student appear unreasonable. 

After leaving the bench he resumed his practice of law in Bay City. 
In 1867 he was elected a member of the constitutional convention and 
actively participated in the proceedings of that body. He was very 
conservative, perhaps too much so, as the work of the convention was 
rejected by the people. 

In 1870 Mr. Birney established the Bay City Chronicle, a weekly 
newspaper, and in 1873 it was issued daily. It was published until 
after Mr. Birney's departure for the Hague, when it was merged into 


the Tribune. In 1872 he was appointed centennial commissioner for 
Michigan and as such was of considerable service to the State. He 
was noted as such for his affability and kindness. 

In 1872 he was appointed minister to the Netherlands. This was a 
position to which he was exceptionally wel] adapted. He held this 
office until 1882, when he returned to Bay City. His father was a 
graduate of Princeton, a man of fine taste and elegant accomplishments. 
He was simple and free in his manner, liberal in his views in every- 
thing except upon the subject of slavery, perfectly honest, and no 
doubt from him Judge Birney acquired those elegant manners for 
which he was noted. 

At the court of Holland, as a representative of the United States, he 
was highly distinguished, and it is probable that of all the representa- 
tives of the nations at that court he was the most respected and 
admired as a man. It is true the embassadors from Germany, France, 
and Russia with millions of armed men near at hand, and England 
with her tremendous navy, each able to crush Holland in a month, 
must be shown great consideration; but this was due to force and to 
the position of affairs, not to the representative or to the man who 
might happen to represent the nation. Judge Birney maintained a 
high position there, and did much to elevate the embassy and in the 
building up of friendly feelings towards the people of the United 
States. He died in May, 1888. 

Mr. Birney was a man of great public spirit and filled the many 
public offices, to which he was either elected or appointed, with ability 
and fidelity. He was devoted to the interests of Bay City and Bay 
county, and took an active part in promoting their growth and 

At the time of his death he was president of the board of education 
of Bay City, and in this office, as in all other positions of public trust 
occupied by him, he made his duty to the people of paramount 
importance. He was a man of sensative and refined feelings, firm in 
his convictions, of fine appearance, and eminently qualified by educa- 
tion and manners to shine in the higher walks of public life. 
Politicians accused him of being an aristocrat, but he was a true, 
loyal, tender hearted gentleman who could not play the demagogue. 


Although Judge Birney was self-possessed and circumspect in his 
conduct generally, one morning in the spring of 1859 he said to me, 

230 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

"I feel most devilishly ugly this morning." The next morning Z 
learned the occasion of his wrath. At this time there was not a rod of 
made road in Bay county. There was but one span of horses in town. 
People's cattle, cows, pigs and geese run everywhere at large on the 
property of every land owner with impunity. Judge Birney had 
cleared some blocks between Ninth and Tenth streets in Bay City, and 
had made some clearing where the family homestead now stands. He 
had cleared his lands, fenced it, and planted it. It so happened that 
this enclosure embraced a sand ridge over which the settlers' cows had 
passed out to the woods to graze. On each side of the judge's fences 
were swamps, so that when the cattle got beyond his enclosure they 
could not find their way home, and every night the settlers would pull 
down his fences and let the cattle through to their homes. Finally he 
laid in wait for them and one evening caught two old German settlers 
named Mikler and Steinbauer letting down his fences. It was past 
one o'clock in the morning. He at once woke up Squire Chilson, had 
both trespassers arrested, tried them before two o'clock in the morning 
and had them in jail punctually at three. 


Among the members of the bar who gained a special notoriety at an 1 
early age of his life was Theophilus C. Grier. His reputation was 
known all over the State as one of the rising lawyers of our country. 

Judge Grier was born at Ravenna, in the state of Ohio, on the 2d 
day of January, 1834, and was a descendent, on his mother's side, of 
Rev. John Cotton, of Pilgrim fame. His parents died while Mr. Grier 
was yet a mere lad, and he was taken and cared for during a short 
time by an uncle whose name was Carlton, and who was a minister of 
the Universalist denomination of more than ordinary reputation. At 
the age of fifteen young Grier became apprenticed as a printer to one 
Joel D. Brattels, who was' then editor of the Trumbull County 
Democrat. This training was subsequently of immense value to him as 
a writer. The young man's health became very delicate, and he was 
necessarily compelled to quit the printing business and cultivate his 
physical strength. After a short time he became strong enough to 
attend school and entered an educational institution at Marietta, Ohio. 
Subsequently he made up his mind to enter the legal profession, and 
to this end he became a student in the law office of Riddle & Hatha- 
way, of Chardon, Ohio. His circumstances were such that it was 
necessary for him to teach school during the winter season of the year 


and pursue his law studies during the summer, spending what he 
earned during the winter to enable him to prosecute his studies during 
the summer. While thus engaged and while yet a youth he became 
acquainted with Jennie Miller, whom he married in July, 1857. Three 
children were the fruits of this marriage, the oldest being Carlton 
Grier, who is now a resident of Spokane, Washington, the second, a 
daughter, who died in Bay City some years ago, and the third, Rev. 
A. Grier, who is now one of the most scholarly and eloquent ministers 
of the gospel of the state of Towa. 

Shortly after the marriage of Judge Grier, he was admitted to the 
bar in the state of Ohio, and moved with his wife to Pine Run, 
Michigan, where he commenced the practice of his profession. This 
practice for the first few years was confined chiefly to the justices' 
courts, as is the case with most of the lawyers of his training and 
advantages. In this field, however, Mr. Grier showed indications of 
his future merits and abilities. He soon sought a more extended 
opportunity in which to grow, however, and during the year 1859 he 
took up his residence in Bay City. Here he found remunerative calls 
for his services from the beginning. His great ability as a rising 
lawyer was at once recognized, and in the year 1860 he was elected 
prosecuting attorney and circuit court commissioner of Bay county. 
As a public prosecutor he was the dread and fear of criminals and at 
once came to the front as a trial lawyer. During the month of Sep- 
tember, 1861, he associated with him A. McDonell, now of Bay City,, 
and this firm, under the name of Grier & McDonell, controlled a very 
extensive and lucrative practice until Judge Grier was elected to the 
bench. They were engaged in the trial of as many as one hundred 
and ten issues of fact during one term of the Bay county 'circuit court. 
In 1865, Mr. Grier was appointed city attorney of Bay City. In 1867 
he was elected a member of the State legislature. In this body he 
commanded the respect of his colleagues, and the attention of the 
State, by his power as a ready debater, his eloquence, and his acute 
and discriminating mind, as well as his sharp and incisive logic. Few 
men of the day were equal to him in debate on the floor of the 
legislative hall. His industry as a committee man was also noticeable. 
He was called by the press of the State the " Ajax of the House. " 
Few men possessed the power of Mr. Grier before a miscellaneous 
audience. As a political speaker on the stump his influence was almost 
matchless, and during our political campaigns his services were in 
constant demand all over his State. In 1871 the territory of the tenth 
judicial circuit of Michigan was changed and the eighteenth circuit 


232 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

was organized, composed of Bay, losco, Alcona, and Alpena counties. 
Mr. Grier was elected judge of the new circuit as the unanimous choice 
of both political parties, he being a democrat. This position on the 
bench he held until his death, which occurred on the 5th day of June, 
1872. The decease of Judge Grier at this early day of his life, was 
sorrowfully and keenly felt by his many friends of the Saginaw Valley. 
It occurred at a period, as will be seen, when he was on the threshold 
of a brilliant and useful life. He was strictly a self made man, having 
no advantages except those given him by nature herself. The com- 
munity in which he lived during the last ten years of his life looked 
upon him as one of the most brilliant men of his age; his judgment 
on law questions was considered eminently accurate and sound; he 
seldom erred in matters of opinion, and his power as a public speaker 
and especially as a jury lawyer was almost dangerous, because under 
the excitement of his addresses he ignored everything but the success 
of his client. 


The late Judge Sidney T. Holmes was born at Skaneateles, N. Y., 
in August, 1815. His father, Judge Epenetus Holmes, was a promi- 
nent attorney at that place, but he removed to Morrisville, a thriving 
village and county seat of Madison county, N. Y., when the subject of 
our sketch was but four years old. Here the child attended the village 
school and graduated from the village academy, afterwards completing 
his education at the Waterville seminary. He then engaged in teach- 
ing and in the study of the law and civil engineering. He was 
appointed chief engineer of the Chenango and Black River canal, and 
afterwards was engaged on the New York and Erie railroad. In 1888 
he married and settled in Morrisville in the practice of the law, a pro- 
fession to which he became greatly attached and in time acquired a great 
and well earned reputation. In 1851 he was elected county judge, 
filling that position for twelve years, and in 1864 he was elected to 
congress from the twenty-second congressional district of New York, 
receiving the largest majority ever, given to any candidate up to that 
time. He served his term of two years in congress to the entire 
satisfaction of his constituents, but declined a renomination, preferring 
his profession to that of congressional life at Washington. Soon after 
his return home he became associated at Utica in the practice of the 
law with Hon. Boscoe Conklin, remaining in the firm three years, but 
their large practice devolving mostly upon the Judge, his health 
became impaired and he came to Bay City to recuperate his failing 


health, and to visit friends and relatives, and was so favorably 
impressed with the push and prospects of the place that he deter- 
mined to locate in Bay City. He returned to Utica and as soon as 
possible with so large a practice, dissolved his connection with the firm 
and removed with his family to Bay City, opened an office in the 
Watson block, with Mr. Haynes and J. L. Stoddard, a young attorney 
who had come with him from Utica. Mr. Haynes removing to the west 
the firm afterwards became Holmes, Collins & Stoddard. But for 
some years before his death the firm was Holmes & Collins. Judge 
Holmes' death occurred January 16, 1889. None stood higher in his 
profession or was better known throughout central New York than 
Judge S. T. Holmes. He was republican in politics and liberal in his 
religious belief. Honor and the strictest integrity gave him influence 
not only at the bar but among the citizens who knew him best. 

Judge Holmes was a great lawyer. This was true of him not only 
as counsel with parties about their business transactions, but also in 
the preparation and trial of causes. He was an all around lawyer. He 
had been an engineer in early life. Prior to his coming to Bay City, 
he had made political speeches from his early manhood all over the 
country. He was for twelve years surrogate judge of Madison county, 
New York. He acquired an intimate knowledge of the business affairs 
and details of the business life of the community in which he lived. 
He had a great knowledge of human nature. His knowledge of the 
law was profound. He studied hard, earnestly and deeply. His knowl- 
edge of New York case law and of the cases governing the general 
principles of the law was very great. He kept a large library well 
stocked with text books; kept up his reports and digests and kept 
abreast of the law as the decision came out. All of this combined, 
made him an able and wise counselor. When it came to advising 
about matters of law, particularly in connection- with business transac- 
tions, his advice and judgment were able and shrewd. Before litigation 
commenced he was in favor of exhausting all reasonable means to 
effect a settlement which would avoid litigation, but after litigation 
was commenced his watchword then was ''fight," and from the 
beginning to the end of litigation he was a zealous, earnest, and able 
combatant and advocate. 

His preparation of causes for trial was thorough and exhaustive. On 
trial of causes he was alert, vigilant and active. In the examina- 
tion and cross-examination of witnesses he was very able, and where 
there were any questions of fraud involved or any question where the 

234 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

motives of parties were in issue, his cross-examination was wonderfully 
ingenious and shrewd as well as combative and gome of the events in 
this class of cases are long to be remembered by those who witnessed 

His presentation of a case to the court was most able, and he 
analyzed and presented case law with great effect. In arguing cases to 
the jury he analyzed testimony closely. He argued strongly and made 
powerful and logical arguments, arguments that were homely and 
strong. And at the same time from his wide range of reading and 
study he had many apt illustrations and anecdotes at his command 
which he used with great effect to enforce his points. His antagonists 
and the witnesses whom he cross-examined very often thought he was 
entirely too severe and combative, but his own clients seldom have 
entertained that opinion. His repartee and hits on opposing counsel 
were sometimes quite caustic and in the heat of argument he was 
sometimes severe on opposing parties and witness and counsel; but 
he could take as well as give, and when the contest was over he 
carried no spite or ill feeling. 

In a trial of a cause he contested every inch of the ground and 
never willingly gave up the contest that was against him until the last 
decision of the highest court had settled the question beyond recall. 

To sum up in a few words, he was wise and able as a counselor in 
his office, as a trial lawyer he was shrewd, aggressive and strong 
before court or jury. 

And whether in his office or in litigation, he was both honest and 
honorable and had the strength that a reputation for honor and 
honesty gives. 

While Judge Holmes was a very great lawyer, careful, studious, and 
able, he was hampered by natural deficiencies of a very serious 
character. He was totally deficient of imagination. His speeches to 
court and jury were strong, direct, and logical, but he had not a trace 
of fancy. His earnestness lent some interest to his speeches, but he 
was not an orator, or even a good debater. While he showed greater 
familiarity with the New York reports than any man I ever saw, being 
able to turn to the book and page where almost any case was reported 
in an instant, he was totally unable to extract from the authorities the 
philosophical reasons on which they were founded. The case was 
presented by him to the court stripped of all interest, except the bare 
point of the decision. Here was a decision in his favor, and that was 
all there was of it. The reason or the rule laid down in the case 
seemed of no consequence to him. The .decisions and the facts on 


which they were founded were put fairly and fully before the court, 
and such reasoning as followed was from the decision as a point 
established and not to sustain the reason and principle of the case. 

These difficulties were apparent to those with whom he practiced 
law. He was conscious of them himself, but he overcame every 
obstacle by work. He supplied the place of qualities he lacked by 
work, work, work, till he became the great and learned lawyer that he 
was. Judge Holmes, outside of the contentions of the bar, was an 
amiable and sociable man, and the extent of his information about the 
public men of the country was astonishing. 

One fall I went hunting with him for about a week. In the evenings 
he used to tell anecdotes about nearly all of the public men of the 
country. Of Lincoln, Seward, Marsey, and about Kent, Walworth, and 
the other judges of the state of New York. Also about Seymour, 
Conklin, Tilden, and Charles O'Connor, and he had a marvelous 
amount of knowledge about them. His fund of anecdotes seemed 1 
inexhaustable. Besides this he had a great fund of knowledge of the 
inside or secret history of decisions of the courts and in regard to 
public measures. His mind was stored with this unwritten history 
more fully than any other man I ever met with the one exception of 
General Cass. 

To the young man aspiring to eminence at the bar no better example 
could be set before him than the achievements of Judge Holmes which 
show that careful and continued study will make the good lawyer and 
overcome all obstacles and personal deficiencies. 

In his manner, when out of the court room and out of his office, he 
was simple as a child. He was a man of simple truth. He had no 
vein for romance or exaggeration. His conversation was modest, chaste 
and delicate, yet highly interesting from the fullness of his store of 



Although still in the infancy of its development, Oceana county 
possesses many advantages and attractions not enjoyed by other 

236 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

counties in this great and growing State. It has passed from the 
critical lumber stage of its existence, and is now fairly entered upon a 
period of unsurpassed agricultural and horticultural prosperity. Washed 
by the waters of Lake Michigan, the heat of summer and the rigors of 
winter are modified, while the invigorating breezes from this great 
body of water, fan the villages and country, sweeping away the germs 
of malaria, making a climate delightful and healthy. 

The surface is high and rolling. The soil sand and heavy clay loam 
and light sand. The county is divided by a range of hills running 
from the southwest to the northeast, making two water basins. From 
the southeast the White river, fed by small -streams, takes its way to 
White lake, while the two branches of the Pentwater river flow through 
the northern and central portions of the county and empty into Pent- 
water lake. These streams have been used in the past for transporting 
millions of feet of logs from Oceana's grand forests to its great mills. 
These streams flowing into the main river find their source in springs 
which furnish waters favorable for the propagation of trout and other 
fish. The grayling, next to the trout, is the most highly prized, and is 
native to these waters. In 1878 some enterprising sportsman planted 
in several of these streams 2,000 brook trout. In 1880, 9,000 more, 
and in 1881, 75,000. The result of this has been astonishing. At the 
present time the streams of Oceana county furnish the most delightful 
fishing waters for sportsmen. Trout weighing from two to four and 
one-half pounds have been caught; and as many as fifty in a day by 
one person. The time is not far distant when these streams will have 
a national reputation for their fish. 

For agricultural purposes this county is adapted to the successful 
cultivation of hay. Corn, oats, wheat, rye, barley, and peas are as 
successfully raised as in many of the southern counties of the State. 
Potatoes and all kinds of vegetables are grown in perfection. 

It is perhaps the adaptability of soil and climate for fruit raising 
that has given this section its greatest reputation. The Michigan 
fruit belt, as it is called, is a strip of territory extending along the 
eastern shore of Lake Michigan from Benzie county on the north to 
Berrien county on the south, and being from ten to twenty miles in 
width. By an examination of the map of Michigan, it will be seen 
that Oceana county lies about midway between the northern and 
southern extremes, and it has the greatest projection into Lake Michi- 
gan of any portion of the State. 

The population of the county is 20,000. Its assessed valuation is 
about $4,000,000. It has eighty-six school districts employing teachers 


and four union schools. The school buildings as a general thing are 
new, commodious and furnished with modern appliances. There are 
twenty organizations having church edifices. There is invested in 
manufacturing enterprises over $1,000,000 capital. There are four banks, 
five flouring mills and five newspapers. The Chicago and West Michigan 
railway traverses the county from its southern boundary to Pentwater, 
its northern terminus. It has one lake harbor located at Pentwater, 
repaired and maintained by government appropriation. The United 
States also has a life saving station and lighthouse established at this 
point, and a lighthouse at Petite Pt. Au Sable. 

It has a fine large court house building located at Hart, the county 
seat, and a poor farm in the same township, well improved, under a 
good state of cultivation and with good commodious buildings. Stand- 
ing upon the threshold of a new era in its development, it presents 
three prominent characteristics that have attracted general attention 
and which will have great influence upon its future growth and 
prosperity. We here refer to its fish, fruit, and health. It has been 
known in the past principally for its lumber productions, but from 
this time it will be known as the center of Michigan's fruit belt, the 
healthiest location in the state and a favorite resort for sportsmen. 

In February. 1855, an act to provide for the organization of Oceana, 
Mason, and Manistee counties was passed by the legislature and the 
first election of county officers was held at Stony Creek (now Benona) 
on the first Monday of April following, and consisted of the following 
named persons: John Barr, sheriff; Amos R. Wheeler, treasurer; 
Harvey Tower, clerk and register of deeds. 

The act provided that when by a certain day named, the clerk 
and register and treasurer elect should file their oaths of office with 
each other, the official machinery of the county should begin to move, 
having a legal existence. 

On the last day of the time allowed for filing their oaths, the officers 
elect with other prominent citizens met to consider the question 
whether, after all, it was not better to remain attached to Ottawa for 
judicial purposes, as the taxes then were light, than to incur the much 
greater expense of supporting a separate county organization. But as 
the people had expressed a desire to organize by electing county officers, 
it was deemed best to perfect the organization. 

How the oath was to be administered was a question that seemed 
greatly to trouble some of the knowing ones. Anxious to avoid any 
error that would vitiate the proceedings, they insisted that the officers 
must be sworn in on the Bible; but to those upon whom devolved the 

238 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

duty of qualifying that day there was a matter of greater concern than 
the matter of administering the oath. The nearest officer qualified to 
do that resided at White River, fifteen miles distant, the only road 
being the sandy beach of Lake Michigan. Before a conclusion was 
reached the clock numbered 2 p. m., and it took another hour at least 
to obtain horses for the journey. About three o'clock Tower led oft* 
mounted on his elegant " Brutus," Wheeler closely following on his less 
showy, but more plucky, " Old Bob." Arriving at White River, after 
some delay, Justice J. D. Stebbins was found, who going immediately 
to his office administered the oath with great dignity. Meantime the 
horses had rested and the officers, full fledged, save filing their oaths 
of office, mounted their steeds for home, which they reached about ten 
minutes before the time expired. 

To say that the rain fell in torrents would give but a faint idea of 
that storm encountered on the home stretch. I doubt if it ever rained 
harder since the time of Noah. The clothing of the riders was wet 
through and the water ran down filling their boots and running over 
in streams. Arriving at Stony Creek we found the fire fair, blazing, 
and the vestment warm, and the new treasurer, after his first official 
act of filing the clerk's oath, came from an adjoining room with glass 
and decanter in hand, remarking as he appeared: "Tower, I don't 
believe a little good Bourbon would hurt either of us." What could 
poor Tower do but take a little? Ye teetotalers, say say, ye severest, 
what would ye have done? 

The first board of supervisors was composed of the following persons 
named: A. S. Anderson, of Claybanks, and Warren Wilder, of Stony 
Creek, with Harvey Tower county clerk. There were raised for county 
purposes three hundred dollars, and by a resolution established the 
county seat at Whisky Creek and adjourned. 

Claybanks was the first township organized by authority of an act of 
the legislature of February 13, 1855. The first election took place the 
2d day of April, 1855, supervisor, A. S. Anderson; clerk, Timothy 
Brigham, Stony Creek (now Benona). The first township meeting 
was held at the house of Amos R. Wheeler, April, 1855, with Harvey 
Tower chairman. Warren Wilder was elected supervisor, and Malcom 
Campbell clerk. Pentwater 'held its first town meeting at the house of 
Edwin R. Cobb, April 7, 1856; E. R. Cobb was elected supervisor, and 
James Dexter clerk. In 1858 Greenwood held its first town meeting at 
the house of Wm. R. Wilson and elected Oliver Swain supervisor, and 
Cyrus W. Bullen clerk. 1858 Eldridge (now Hart) held their first 


town meeting at the house of S. G. Rollins and elected S. G. Rollins 
supervisor and H. H. Fuller clerk. 


During the month of November, 1866, the Hon. A. B. Turner, then 
as now, editor and proprietor of the Grand Rapids Eagle, having a 
curiosity to learn something concerning the new territory north, made 
a trip through Oceana county in the United States mail stage. Being 
a gentleman of intelligent appearance, well dressed, and accompanying 
the mail, and making frequent inquiries of the settlers, he was taken 
to be a government officer and as such looked upon as an important 
personage. Writing of this trip he says: "We drew up at a postoffice. 
Here we are glad to get off and warm while the mail is changing. 
The contents of a large bag are emptied on the floor and the postmas- 
ter and his wife are down in the necessary posture assorting the 
packages. We are in Oceana county, from which we have not heard 
the result of the election, and we open a conversation thus: 

"'Are you the postmaster here?' 

" Receiving an affirmative reply we ask : 

" ' How are political matters with you ?' 

" Evidently understanding the question as referring only to himself 
and family, promptly answers: 

"'We are republicans, sir.' 

"'Don't you support President Johnson?' 

"'No, sir' (very curtly). 

"Assuming an air of as much solemnity as possible we remarked that 
'the president has a right to the support of the office-holders of the 
country and that support is expected.' The postmaster here raises 
himself to an erect position, full six feet high, and giving us a wither- 
ing look square in the face, emphatically says: 

" ' Sir, we don't keep principles for sale here, but you can have the 
office if you like.' 

" The wife keeps her recumbency but pauses in her work long enough 
to give us a searching look over her spectacles and ejaculates: 

" ' Guess you'll have hard work to find a Johnson man on this road 
to make a postmaster of.' 

" Our solemnity here gives out, but before an explanation can be 
made to satisfy our friends that we are not an agent of the president 
on a ' bread and butter ' mission we resume our seat in the stage and 
proceed northward." 

240 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

And no\s, brothers and sisters, fearing I have trespassed too long 
upon your time and patience, I will listen to the experience of others. 


Mr. President, Brother and Sister Pioneers: 

I am of the opinion that as time passes we are inclined to dwell too 
much upon the past. But today we are expected to recall some of 
our pioneer experience, and I will try to do my part as best I can. 

We started the first of May, 1857, from Erie county, N. Y., for 
western Michigan. We were the first to start from the home nest, and 
our parents thought we could hardly have made a poorer selection; we 
would have fever and ague and mosquitoes to contend with, besides 
other hardships too numerous to mention. This was the encouragement 
we had to commence with. 

However we (husband, myself, and two little boys, the oldest not 
quite four and baby sixteen months old) started Monday morning, after 
bidding parents, brothers, sisters, and friends a sad good by. By boat on 
lakes and rivers; by rail, stage, and private conveyance, we arrived 
at Nelson Green's, in Claybanks, the eleventh day from the time we 
left home, a distance we can now pass over in twenty-four hours. 

To me that journey was the most trying of my pioneer experience. 
Most of the petty trials I could laugh at, but not that. The hardest 
was by stage from St. Johns, the terminus by rail, to Lyons, eighteen 
miles, where we took a flat boat on Grand river. 

The stage was two lumber wagons; the women and children rode in 
one, the men and baggage in the other; so I had to carry the heavy 
baby alone. Mr. White had to walk a good part of the way and help 
to lift the wagons out of the mud. We were the best part of two 
days going that eighteen miles. But I will not go over that journey 

The third day after our arrival at Mr. Green's we took up our abode 
on the plains, where we stayed until the fifth day of July. There 
were seven miles of road to cut through an unbroken wilderness before 
we could reach our land. I have heard Mr. White say that was 
"quite a chore." He had no help to commence with but millions of 
mosquitoes. But Providence favored us, I think. About the third 
week after he commenced work, Mr. J. M. Wilson came from Lenawee 
county with his wife and three children. He had taken land just 
north of us and would help to cut the road. This was company we 

Our living while there was very plain. We had started some 


provisions around the lakes but they did not reach Grand Haven until 
late in June, owing to ice in the straits; then it took some time to get 
them hauled. 

I distinctly remember one incident that occurred while we were on 
the plains. It became necessary for us to have supplies from Mr. 
Green's so we wives prevailed upon our husbands to let us go for them 
while they took care of the babies. They said something about our 
not knowing enough to find our way there. I had been over the trail 
or wagon road twice, but it was covered with leaves. So we kissed the 
babies and started very early. Thought to be back by noon. We had 
a few rods to go before reaching the road, then we started in ,the 
opposite direction. This seems strange to me now, but I suppose we 
were so elated over the idea of seeing some neighbors, and perhaps 
hearing some news from outside, that we did not even look up. Well, 
we walked and walked until the thought occurred to us that we were 
lost. That we knew by the sun. But we were so turned we did not 
know the direction. Finally we retraced our steps for a time, but 
failed to find the path where we entered the road. So we turned again 
and kept straight ahead, and finally came out at Carl ton's mill. We 
got something to eat, had a good laugh over our shortsightedness, and 
started back, found the path that led to our shanty, stuck up a stick 
to mark the place if it was dark when we returned, and went on to 
Mr. Green's, got our provisions and started back in a hurry. We got 
home about dark, feeling less confidence than we started out with. 
We had walked about twenty miles, the men judged. We were very 
foot- sore for a number of days, but thankful we did not have to stay 
out over night. 

To go back, the third day of July the men said: " We will start a 
load of lumber for the woods tomorrow." "Could I go on the load?" 
I said, " Yes, it will save three dollars in gold*" So in the morning 
we started for our future home. It took some time to go over that 
seven miles. Mr. White was already there clearing off a place for our 
shanty. He had stayed the night before under some boughs. We were 
very hungry by the time we got there. We could not cook for the 
emergency as we now do, but I had some bread baked and we had 
some potatoes, for which we paid two dollars per bushel, some pork at 
fifty dollars per barrel, and we never knew, when we went to the barrel, 
what part of the hog we should find. Flour was twelve dollars per 
barrel, spring wheat, and poor quality at that. Those were the prices 
and kind of provisions furnished us in those days. This was under 

242 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

Buchanan's administration, with no protection. Well, they set the stove 
up on its legs, built a fire, and I proceeded to get some dinner. After 
it was nearly ready we happened to think we had nothing with 
which to eat our potatoe and gravy. Abel, our little boy, said, "I can 
whittle a paddle." And paddles it was. We did not eat many meals 
in this primitive way for we had some of the necessaries when our 
goods came. 

We soon had a roof over our heads; it did not shed rain, but it was 
tolerably comfortable. I wanted a door, but the lumber did not hold 
out so we substituted a blanket. There was no animal found its way 
in, but one night we were awakened by a hoarse grunt at the blanket. 
Mr. White got up and found an Indian. He said he wanted some 
water. We gatfe him a kettle full and he laid outside until the next 
day, when he was able to walk away. He came from the trading post. 
I do not think he was a prohibitionist. This made me a little timid 
for a time, but we never had another visit of that sort. I did not 
state we left Mrs. Wilson sick on the plains. In about two weeks she 
was brought up on a bed and for a long time we did not expect her 
to get well. The first of August Mr. White started in pursuit of a 
cow. He was gone just a week and drove home a cow and calf from 
Ionia, for which he paid forty dollars. As we remember, that was a 
long week. 

The llth day of August our house was raised; thirty-six years ago 
this coming August. There was not a man to help but came seven 
miles. The house still stands, a shelter for farming tools, and the roof 
still tight. Here we spent many happy days; yes, blissful days, with 
no serious interruptions as far as our own family was concerned. 

After we were fairly located we had a good many chances to enter- 
tain land-lookers. The first, I believe, was Mr. Lake, of Crystal Lake, 
and his father, then an old man, and I believe he has but recently 
passed away at a very advanced age. Such visits were always a treat 
as they helped to break the monotony of our shut-in life. They 
generally came hungry, but we always had enough to place before 
them, however frugal. 

One Monday night I recall, five men came in as we were about 
ready for bed. They came from the lake shore, where they had landed 
from a sail boat, and said they were almost starved. We soon had a 
fire and some potatoes and meat cooking. But I was without bread, 
having eaten the last for supper. The quickest way to supply the 
place was, I thought, to fry pancakes, so I stirred up a pan of batter 
and seating them at the table commenced to fry. I soon emptied the 


pan, and finally a second pan before their appetites were appeased. 
They had considerable fun over it, but I believe that was about where 
the fun carne in. However, I think most of them, if not all, located 
land near us. 

In 1863 was held our first school in Mr. Wilson's house, taught by 
Christie McArthur, a sister of Mrs. McNabb, for three dollars per 
week, with seven children. Our rate bill was thirteen dollars and a 
fraction for two scholars. About this time Elder Darling came with 
his young wife and baby girl. This was a joyful event. I recall with 
what pleasure we prepared our whole family for meeting. He worked 
hard and earnestly for our good, with but a small pittance with which 
to supply his temporal wants. I wish to speak of a contagious fever 
that broke out in the families of Messrs. Eagle, Hill and Wheeler, six 
miles east of us. 

This was a gloomy time; in the year 1865, I think. It raged all summer 
and until snow came in early winter. There were not enough well 
ones to take comfortable care of the sick. Mrs. Carpenter and myself 
walked that road over a good many times to help care for them as best 
we could. Doctors Jenks and Powers doctored them and preached 
their funeral sermons, for in that time seven were buried from our 
sight, three mothers, one father, and three children. Many more were 
sick, but they wore the disease out. I remember one morning Mr. 
Wilson came in very early, he said: " Well, White, can you find 
boards for another coffin." I listened with fear and trembling. 
"Mrs. Wheeler died last night," was what he said. Yes, they made 
the coffin in our shop, stained it with camwood, found something 
white to line it with, and it was a fit receptacle for Mrs. Wheeler. In 
August my dear friend, Mrs. Wilson, was taken from us, but she had 
set her house in order and was prepared. She was a good woman, 
beloved by all who knew her, especially the children. They loved her 
next to their own mothers. She never had -a morsel she would not 
divide with them. I believe she went to her reward. Mr. White went 
to White Hall and stayed for a coffin to be made for her. Mr. Pratt 
preached a good funeral sermon. 

We lived in the old log house until we outgrew it. The trundlebed 
still stands in the chamber, and the children cherish what was once 
their trundlebed. In the fall of 1873 we moved " out of the old house 
into the new." The children were much elated and their father 
thought I was unnecessarily long in making ready to move, but I fain 
would linger upon the threshold. Here our three little girls were born, 
and our three boys had grown almost to manhood. But I will not stop 

244 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

to moralize, but will say that, unlike our former move, we had prepared 
a good supper, and an extension table in the house around which our 
own family, eight in number, 'clustered for the first time with plenty 
of elbow room. 



Some time since, at the suggestion of Judge Miller, of Bay City, 
" That it was his belief missions had been planted by the French and 
that they nourished at a very early day on the banks of Saginaw river 
and its tributaries," the writer took occasion to investigate as to facts 
in history leading to a confirmation of his opinion. 

He finds that as early as 1540 Jacques Cartier, or Quartier, knew 
about the lower peninsular as the Sagihnaw region. Subsequently that 
Champlain in 1611 had described the safe harbor afforded by the 
Saginaw river from the stormy waters of a bay, which formed a part 
of a great inland body of water, connecting two larger bodies of fresh 
water which he denominated as " seas," and in his rough map, from 
which copies have been made and which is now in the office of the 
French Marine, he has delineated the mouth of that river as correctly 
as the maps of the present day. These facts would seem to warrant a 
full knowledge on the part of the French of that stream at a very 
early period. 

Faillon (French) in his history of Canada refers to the Sagihnaw 
country and to the salt springs at the junction of two large rivers, 
which were the resorts of the Indian tribes of all the region between 
Lakes Michigan and Huron. 

He farther says: "That in 1684 a large body of farmers and 
artisans came from France, that a portion were sent to the Sagihnaw 
country, that with them were five Jesuit fathers, who were instructed 
to found missions in all that country between St. Ignace and Lake 
Erie." From these statements we must infer that the region of the 


Saginaw valley would be an important point at which to establish a 
mission. In addition we know that in 1686 the Jesuits Engelrau and 
M. Perrott were exceedingly active in establishing missions and 
depots in all the country between the missions at Cheboygan and St. 
Ignace and the islands of Lake Erie, now known as "Put-in-Bay." and 
the query is, would they pass the valley which was resorted to by the 
Chippewas, Pottawatamies, Hurons, Ottawas, the Sacs of the upper 
peninsula, the Fox and Illinois Indian tribes, for the salt which that 
region was known to produce? 

But coming down to a later period, we find that when in 1819 
General Cass called the Chippewas and Pottawatamies together at 
Saginaw certain reservations were made, as follows: 

Treaty with the Chippewas at Saginaw, September 24, 1819. 


For use of John Riley, the son of Me-naw-cum-e-goqua, a Chippewa woman, 640 
acres of land, beginning at the head of the first marsh above the mouth of the 
Saginaw river on the east side thereof. 

For the use of Peter Riley, the son of Me-naw-cum-e-goqua, a Chippewa woman, 
640 acres of land, beginning above and adjoining the apple trees on the west side 
of the Saginaw river, and running up the same for the quantity. 

For the use of James Riley, son of the sacne Chippewa woman, 640 acres begin- 
ning on the east side of the Saginaw River, nearly opposite to Campau's trading 
house, and running up the river for quantity. 

For the use of Kaw-kaw-is-kon, or the Crow, 640 acres on the east side of Sag- 
igaw river at a place called Me-ni-te-gow and to include in said 640 acres the 
island opposite. 

Fort St. Joseph, at the head of St. Clair river, was built by Da Luth under the 
direction of Denouville in 1686. Two years prior there had arrived at Quebec a 
large number of immigrants who were farmers and artisans and a number of priests 
of the Jesuit order, and the Jesuit Engelrau was instructed to establish missions 
throughout the Saginaw region, which he did. Rev. Faillon's History of Canada 
and Prominent men. 

Iii the memoirs of Captain Whitmore Kaaggs, he states in respect 
to the reservations made to the Riley family: "That John was a man 
sixty years of age. Peter was at least fifty-eight. Both told him that 
the ' apple trees,' which formed a point in the boundaries of the lands 
which were reserved for them, bore apples when they were boys. That 
Kaw-kaw-is-kou, their chief, said they were grown or brought there by 
4 men who wore long black robes coming below the knees, white men, 
whom they knew as Onetia.' " 

Assuming that all tlie statements, in reference to those made by the 

246 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

biographer of "Quartier," "of Champlain," "of Engelrau," "Perrott,"and 
the history of Faillon to be well based, taken in connection with the 
physical facts, that the pear and " apple trees " found at the forks of 
the Tittabawassee, Flint, Shiawassee, and Saginaw by General Cass 
and Whitmore Knaggs, as early as 1819, must have been over sixty 
years of age, and the further fact that the existence of saline springs 
at these points was well known to the early white explorers and 
missionaries and was traditional with the Indians of- Illinois, and all 
the northwestern tribes, that for a long period prior to Du Luth's 
construction of Fort St. Joseph at the outlet of Lake Huron in 1786 r 
the Chippewas had their permanent villages on the banks of these 
streams, we must reach the conclusion that the Jesuit missionaries and 
the Recollet fathers would utilize this locality and make it important 
as a permanent stopping place between the upper and lower peninsulas. 




The legislature of this commonwealth did some strange things in the 
days long since gone by; in fact, even now we find those who, actuated, 
perhaps, by partisan prejudice, are ready to insinuate that wisdom has 
not altogether died with the legislatures of these latter .days. 

On July 30, A. D. 1880, the legislative council of the territory of 
Michigan, after mature deliberation and discussion, passed a law 
entitled, "An act authorizing the sheriff of Chippewa county to per- 
form certain duties therein mentioned." 

The constitutional lawyers throughout the State who are not criticis- 
ing, with technical zeal, the enactments of the legislature which 
recently adjourned, would no doubt take delight in urging that the 
object of the law was not clearly expressed in its title. This would 


seem to be true even to the casual reader; but the modest obscurity of 
the title is compensated by the specific provisions of the act itself. 

The law authorized the sheriff of Chippewa county to remove Martha 
Tanner, daughter of John Tanner, of Sault Ste. Marie, to some mis- 
sionary establishment, or such other place of safety as he may deem 
expedient, provided said Martha should consent; and in the second 
paragraph of the act, the said John Tanner was honored by what is 
probably the only law ever passed in America attaching criminal con- 
sequences to injuries to a single private person in the following 

" Sec. 2. That any threats of the said John Tanner to injure the 
said Martha Tanner, or any person or persons with whom she may be 
placed * * shall be deemed a misdemeanor, punishable by fine and 
imprisonment, at the discretion of the court." 

And so it came to pass, pursuant to the provisions of the statute in 
such case made and provided and in spite of any constitutional objec- 
tions which John may have argued, that Martha was taken by the 
sheriff to a certain missionary establishment, where she was cared for and 
educated. A half breed herself, she became a teacher in the Indian 
schpols of northern Michigan, lived a long and useful life, dying but a 
few years ago on Mackinaw Island, honored and respected; but, as Bud- 
yard Kipling delights to interject, that is another story. 

I propose to tell you a little of John Tanner, her father, and but a 
little of that which might be told. 

His story, more than once written, is fraught with all the fascinating 
details of captivity among the Indians, of savage warfare, of hunting 
and trapping, of long and adventurous journeys into the then far and 
unknown wilderness. You will find it in many books and parts of 
books, closely identified with the early history of Michigan, now mostly 
old, out of print and seldom read. 

Men, then of national reputation, who yet live in history, interested 
themselves in the strange career of this strange man. 

In this locality where he long lived and from which he mysteriously 
disappeared, many traditions of him yet linger with the older inhabitants. 

Let me give you the first and last chapters in his life, as they come 
to us through written history or from the lips of aged men who yet 
delight to dwell upon the exciting incidents of his story as known to 

It was shortly after the birth of this nation, over one hundred years 
ago, at a settlers' clearing on the then frontier in Kentucky, near the 
mouth of the Big Miami on the Ohio river, that a little boy, left at the 

248 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

irksome task of tending the baby, stole away from his parents' cabin to 
gather walnuts under a tree which stood in the edge of the woods at 
the side of the field. 

Indians were troublesome to the settlers in those times and some 
had been seen lurking around the clearings. The child had been 
instructed not to leave the house, but the sun was bright outside, the 
day warm and pleasant, the baby was cross, he wanted the walnuts and 
did not know that the Indians wanted him. He had partly filled his 
straw hat with the nuts he was gathering, when he was suddenly seized 
from behind by strong, savage hands, terrified into silence, and swiftly 
borne away into the thicket. His captors made rapid marches to the 
north and safely eluding pursuit, returned with the child to their own 
country. His absence was soon discovered, the little pile of nuts which 
fell from his hat under the tree were found, with moccasin tracks near 
by; it was readily understood that he was kidnapped by the Indians. 
The alarm was given, frontiersmen gathered, and the abductors were 
followed through the forest for several days, but all in vain. The 
parents of the boy never saw or heard of him again. The woods had 
swallowed him up and there the matter ended. Their distress was said 
to have been great. They long mourned him as one dead, and died 
sorrowing over the uncertainty of his taking off. 

The child was John Tanner, the subject of this sketch, son of the 
Rev. John Tanner, a clergyman from Virginia, who, under the impulse 
of western emigration, which followed the close of the revolutionary 
war, had crossed the mountains and settled in the fertile valley of the 

Over half a century later, on the 5th of July, 1846, the quiet little 
outpost of Sault Ste. Marie, situated at the outlet of Lake Superior, at 
the beautiful falls of the St. Mary's river, was thrown into a state of 
unusual excitement by the cold blooded murder of one of its leading 
citizens, named James Schoolcraft, a brother of the well known author, 
Henry R. Schoolcraft. 

He was walking from his residence down a path towards a field he 
had been clearing near by. Bushes fringed the way and the assassin 
fired from an ambush at close range, inflicting upon his victim a 
mortal wound in the side, close below the shoulder. An ounce ball 
and three buckshot passed nearly through his body. Schoolcraft was a 
strong, athletic man in the prime of life. He made one great leap 
forward and fell dead on his face. So violent was his last dying spring, 
made on receiving the unexpected shot, that a pair of light slippers 
which he wore were cleared from his feet and left sitting side by side 


where he stood when the shot was fired. No one witnessed the deed, 
but the gun had been heard and the body was shortly after discovered. 

Among others who gathered on the spot was Omer D. Conger, late 
senator from Michigan, then a young man connected with a surveying 
party on the lakes. He exercised his engineering skill by making a 
diagram of the scene of the murder. 

It was known that a bitter enmity existed between Schoolcraft and a 
Lieutenant Tilden, then serving at Fort Brady. They had been 
involved in jealousies over some woman. The buck and ball cartridge 
was then used in the army and it appeared that the killing was done 
by a government cartridge fired from an army musket. At first in the 
minds of some a slight suspicion rested on the officer. 

But it was also known that a former government interpreter, named 
John Tanner, called the " White Indian," bore some grudge against the 
Schoolcraft family. Suspicion was easily diverted to him. 

He was a strange, mysterious, unsocial character, who had lived in arid 
around the place for many years. Though a white man he shunned 
the whites. His habits and characteristics were those of an Indian. 
He spoke their tongue fluently, possessed all the arts of hunting, fish- 
ing, camping, and general woodcraft belonging to the most skillful 
savage and excelled them in their own pursuits. Zet he despised 
Indians and would not associate with them. He then had no family 
and lived alone in a small house below the town, near the little rapids. 
An investigation disclosed that his house had been burned the day 
before and he could not be found. This was taken as conclusive proof 
'.that he had committed the murder. A vigorous search was at once 
instituted for him. Everyone armed and went out; the country was 
scoured in search of him; the soldiers from Fort Brady were turned out 
under Lieutenant Tilden, who enthusiastically led in the hunt. Some 
western Indians returning to their own country from Georgian Bay, 
where they had been visiting, were then passing. They were known 
as skillful hunters and great warriors; their services were enlisted in 
the pursuit. The search carried on by skillful hunters both white and 
red, is said to have been far reaching and long, continued, but in vain. 
From that day to .this no man ever saw John Tanner. Where he went, 
or where, or when, or how he died, or his final resting place no man 
knows of a certainty. 

His last disappearance was, to those who knew him here, as profound 
a mystery as was his first to his sorrowing parents, when as a child he 
left them in their cabin home in Kentucky. 

250 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893, 


It is true that many rumors were in the air of his having been seen 
and heard. . 

A squaw gathering moss in the thicket near the town a few days 
after the murder came home in terror and reported seeing him skulk- 
ing away with dead grass and bushes tied around him, in a manner he 
often practiced when hunting, so that he was scarcely to be discerned 
from the surrounding vegetation. 

Some belated Indians coming along the shore from Lake Superior in 
their canoes after night, reported seeing his camp fire shine through 
the trees and hearing him singing Indian songs. Rumors came that 
he had made his way back to the northwest and been seen among 
the Indians in the Hudson Bay territory; but all attempts to follow 
up and verify those clews resulted in nothing. 

Many years later a Frenchman named Gurnoe. while searching in 
the woods above the town for a lost pony, found a skeleton with two 
gun barrels, some coins, a flint and steel, and other trinkets near it. 
Fire had long ago passed over the spot, destroying the gun stocks and 
other articles which would burn. 

Some parties claimed to identify the effects found as those of Tanner. 
Others maintain to the contrary and the mystery yet remains without 
definite solution. 

Strangest of all, Lieutenant Tilden, shortly after ordered to the 
southwest to join in the Mexican war, confessed upon his death-bed 
that it was he who assassinated Schoolcraft. 

Such are the first and last chapters in the career of one of the most 
peculiar characters ever identified with the history of Michigan. 

The Indians who stole Tanner were Michigan Chippewas, from the 
Saginaw river. The leader of the party desired to secure a white child 
for his wife, to take the place of a son who had recently died. They 
fled with him back to Michigan and he was adopted by the woman, 
who seemed delighted to receive a boy so near the same age as the 
one she had lost. She endeavored to treat him kindly, but he wa& 
starved, beaten, overworked, and otherwise cruelly treated by the male 
members of the family. At one time the man, who had stolen him, cut 
him down with his tomahawk in a fit of anger and left him for dead. 
To the treatment he received while with those Indians has been 
ascribed the suspicious, sullen and morose temperament which he at 
times manifested. 

With those people he wandered up and down through Michigan for 
several years, learning their language and mode of life. He was finally 
purchased from them by a prominent Ottawa woman, who lived near 


where Petoskey now stands. She paid for him a ten gallon keg of 
rum and some other small articles of barter. She treated him kindly 
and he remained with her as long as she lived. With her and some 
of her peoplj of the Traverse region, he emigrated to the Red River 
country. He married an Indian girl and had several children, one of 
whom was the Martha already mentioned. He had at least two sons; 1 
one became a missionary among the Red River Indians, and one, 
also named John Tanner, enlisted at Sault Ste. Marie during the late 
rebellion and was killed in the second battle of Bull Run. 

One of the Indians he met and with whom he hunted in the North- 
west was a chief named Pe-shaw-ba, from Traverse Bay. His name 
yet lives in that region. 

In 1816 he rendered valuable services to Lord Selkirk in guiding 
reinforcements through the wilderness to the Red River settlements 
and in recapturing Fort Douglass, then held by the Northwestern Fur 
company, with which Selkirk was at war. Selkirk became interested 
in him and obtained sufficient data from which to institute a search 
for Tanner's people. 

Selkirk visited Kentucky, published a circular in western papers, dis- 
covered the living members of the family and sent Tanner to them. 
He was then so thorough an Indian and _ enured to savage life that 
he was not long content to stay with his people. He soon returned to 
the Indian country in the wild regions of northern Michigan. 

General Cass and other prominent men, became interested in him. 
He was at different times in the service of the government as an inter- 
preter, and also acted in that capacity for various missionaries. He was 
at times employed by the fur companies and Indian traders. He made 
his home at Sault Ste. Marie and while there married a white wife, 
with whom he lived but a short time. 

Much interest was taken in his story and he became a fruitful topic 
for the paragraphers of the day. 

In 1830 Dr. Edward James, post surgeon at Fort Mackinac, pub- 
lished a " Narrative of the captivity and adventures of John Tanner," 
as related to him by Tanner. The work contains Tanner's portrait, 
and the incidents of his life, together with lengthy disquisitions upon 
the history, habits, traditions, languages, political organizations, etc., of 
the various Indian tribes. 

In 1883, this work was re-written by Dr. James McCauley, modern- 
ized and popularized, into a genuine Indian story of the day for boys. 
It was put forth in a flaming binding of green and gold, under the taking 
title of, "Grey Hawk; Life and Adventures among the Red Indians.'* 

252 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

It is a source of congratulation that the author kindly informs the 
reader what color the Indians were. It was evidently his design to 
work as much crimson into the book as possible. 

Among those who met and wrote of Tanner, a great diversity of 
opinion prevails as to his character. Some regarded him as a treacherous, 
dishonest, dangerous savage of the basest sort; others ascribe to him 
every noble and generous quality. 

The first writer who seems to have noticed and mentioned him was 
Daniel W. Harmon, a fur trader, who lived many years in the North- 
west, and made many extensive journeys to distant tribes, in pursuit of 
his calling. His journal was published in 1820. He met Tanner on 
the upper Assiniboine river in 1801, and recorded in his diary as 
follows : 

" This day, there came here an American, that, when a small child, 
was taken from his parents, who then resided in the Illinois country. 
He was kidnapped by the Santeaux with whom he has resided ever 
since, he speaks no other language except theirs. He is now about 
twenty years of age, and is regarded as chief among the tribe. He 
dislikes to hear people speak to him respecting his white relations, and 
in every respect but color he resembles the savages with whom he 
resides. He is said to be an excellent hunter. He remains with an 
old woman, who, soon after he was taken from his relations adopted 
him into her family; and they appear to be mutually as fond of each 
other, as if they were actually mother and son." 

In 1824 Professor Keating published a narrative of the second 
expedition of Major Long (made the year previous by order of John 
C. Calhoun, secretary of war), to the source of the St. Peters river, 
Lake Winnepeek, Lake of the Woods, etc. 

The party met Tanner at Rainy Lake, where he was recovering from 
a gun shot wound, inflicted in his arm by an Indian, said to have been 
instigated by Tanner's wife. The author devotes considerable space to 
a sketch of his life. He says: ** At Rainy Lake we met wi.h a man 
whose interesting adventures deserve to be made known to the public. 
We had heard at various places of a citizen of the United States who 
had been at an early age taken prisoner by a party of Indians, and 
who, having been educated among them, had acquired their language, 
habits and manners to the exclusion of those of his own country." 

Professor Keating seems to have formed a high opinion of his 
character, he says: 

" He never had been seen to taste of ardent spirits, or to smoke a 
pipe. Instead of purchasing trifles and gewgaws as is customary with 


Indians, he devoted the products of his hunts, which were always 
successful, to the acquisition of articles of clothing useful to himself, 
to his adopted mother and to his relations. In his intercourse with 
traders he appears to have been honorable, and this reflects more credit 
upon him as it was at a time when an active competition between rival 
traders frequently induced them to stimulate the Indians to frauds 
which affected their opponents. Of his attachment to his children he 
gave strong proof. There is a feature in his character which we have 
not alluded to, and as it is honorable to him we should be loath to 
omit it. We allude to his warm gratitude for all those who have 
at various times manifested kindness to him. His affection for his 
Indian mother and for her family was great. Of Lord Selkirk he 
always spoke with much feeling. To Dr. McLaughlin he appeared 
sincerely attached." 

And so that author goes on, ascribing to him all the cardinal virtues. 
Dr. James and other authors have written of him in the same vein. 

But it so happens that the opinions of the critics waver somewhat 
upon that point, and plenty of authority can be found to the contrary. 

Henry R. Schoolcraft, the Indian historian, died in the belief that 
Tanner killed his brother. He naturally entertained great bitterness 
towards him, and in his book of personal memoirs, entitled "Thirty 
Years With the Indian Tribes," he thus takes the romance out of 
Tanner's history: "He is now a grey-headed, hard featured, old man, 
whose fWlings are at war with everyone on earth, white or red. Every 
attempt to meliorate his manners and Indian notions has failed. He 
has invariably misapprehended them, and is more suspicious, revengeful 
and bad tempered than any Indian I ever knew. Dr. James, who 
made, by the way, a mere pack horse of Indian opinions of him, did 
not suspect his fidelity, and put many things in his narrative which 
made the whites about St. Mary's call him an old liar. This enraged 
him against the doctor, whom he threatened to kill. He had served 
me awhile as an interpreter, and while thus employed he went to 
Detroit, and was pleased with a country girl, who was a chamber ,maid 
at old Ben. Woodworth's hotel. He married her, but after having one 
child, and living with him a year she was glad to escape with life, and 
under plea of a visit, made some arrangement with the ladies of Fort 
Brady to slip off on board of a vessel and so eluded him. The legis- 
lature afterwards granted her a divorce. He blamed me for the escape 
though I was entirely ignorant of its execution. Eight years afterwards, 
in July, 1816, this lawless vagabond waylaid and shot my brother 
James, having concealed himself in a cedar thicket." 

254 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

This view of the case seems to be presented with a tincture of 
acrimony, but if it was not true, Tanner certainly had an invincible 
case of libel for heavy damages, for defamation of character, against 
the renowned author. 

The weight of oral tradition in this locality seems, though not 
unanimous, to rather sustain Schoolcraft's theory. It may perhaps be 
illustrated, if not summed up, in the answer, more pointed than polite, 
given me by a back-woods philosopher, who knew Tanner personally. 
"Tanner," he said, after some reflection, "was a regular Injun; more of 
an Injun than any of the Injuns, and a d d mean Injun too." 

This same philosopher, I regret to state, did not take an optimistic 
view of the Indian question. He concluded his reminiscences of Tan- 
ner with a generality, worthy of the consideration of those who have 
to do with the Indian problem, and which, shorn of certain improper 
adjectives, was to the effect, that it is a very easy, short job to make 
an Indian of a white man; but when you try to make a white man of 
an Indian that is a different thing. 

The many interesting details and incidents of adventure in Tanner's 
story, are beyond the scope of this article. Those curious enough to 
inquire further, will find them in abundance in the works already 
referred to, in "Neil's History of Minnesota," "Campbell's Political 
History of Michigan," "The History of the Upper Peninsula of Mich- 
igan," Yols. 2 and 4 of the "Michigan Pioneer Collections," Dr. Bryce's 
"Sketch of Tanner," Lanman's "In the Wilderness," "Life on the 
Lakes" by the author of "Legends of a Log Cabin," and in the secular 
press of July, 1846. 

As the stories run, I take it, Tanner's last days were his worst days. 
He viewed the issues of life from the Indian standpoint. A veritable 
savage in all his thoughts and habits, association with the border whites, 
after he had grown to manhood, worked in him those results we so 
often see in like cases. He lost many of the virtues of the race with 
which he was reared and, unfortunately, acquired only the vices of the 
whites. Measured by the standard of the savage he excelled in the 
qualities they admired. To civilized and refined sensibilities there was 
little of the noble or heroic in him. 

To the curious, seeking but entertainment in the marvelous, the 
striking and unusual incidents of his life are well fitted to "adorn a 
tale;" to the thoughtful and studious they "point a moral'' in many 




[Poem written for the Farmers' Institute at Berrien Springs, February 9-11, 1893.] 

Things are not now as they used to be 
For progress is making us wise, you see, 
For a day of progress is over the land 
And we see its results on every hand. 

Yes, the things of our youth have passed away, 
For "Every dog must have his day." 
So the tallow dip has yielded to gas, 
And that old fire-place has gone, alas! 

The "old oaken bucket" and well sweep, too, 
At the old red farmhouse no more we view, 
That threshing machine that piled the chaff 
Today would make all the people laugh, 

For a traction engine has come this way 
That knocks out two thousand bushels a day. 
And a sulky plow on which to ride, 
On all modern farms is the farmer's pride. 

And a hot weather stove that runs by gas, 
A mighty fine thing for the cooking class. 
The old stage coach with its horses four, 
That rattled along in the days of yore, 
The linchpin wagon of days gone by . 
On the farms of progress no more we spy, 

For we speed along without "if" or "but," 
And all of us try to get out of the "rut," 
To find by progression a better way, 
And that's what brings us all here today. 

256 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

But in days gone by we never had need 

Of a "farmers' institute," indeed, 

They never considered a change of thought, 

And such a convention they could not have brought. 

For men couldn't think as men do now, 

And the women, to stay at home, knew how. 

To speak in meeting, they mustn't, oh my! 
The girls were too modest, the matrons too shy; 
In the doctrines of Paul they firmly believed, 
"Be silent," "heads covered," let none be aggrieved. 

So the women kept still in that primitive day 
And the men in their meetings had little to say, 
For their means of progression were simple and few, 
They found out by the hardest what little they knew. 

No railroads, no telegraph lightning dispatch, 
No news from a distance which quickly we catch, 
No traveling by steamers, no sailing away 
To visit far countries, as we do today, 
No longing desire to journey or roam, 
But all were contented to labor at home; 
From sun in the morning till darkness at eve, 
The chopping or plowing they never would leave. 

But when the day had waned apace, 

They gathered around the fireplace, 

With its cheerful blaze so cozy and warm 

And the family all, a household swarm, 

Not one or two as they now think best, 

But girls and boys " till you couldn't rest." 

For this scripture then they bore in mind, 

"Replenish the earth with your own mankind." 

And one of our number read aloud 

From a book or paper, to all that crowd; 

For times weren't then as they are today, 

When a dozen papers find their way 

To the farmers' homes in all this land, 

And there's one for each of the household band. 


Of a book or paper we all were proud, 

So a sweet voiced sister read aloud 

And the rest all listened with eager ear 

For that much prized story they wanted to hear, 

While dear old grandmother knitted away 

Through the long winter evening 'that closed the day. 

And when it was time for all to retire 

The last thing to do was to cover the fire, 

For matches were dear then, not plenty and cheap, 

So we covered the fire that through night it would keep 

And I well remember how neighbors would come 

To borrow some fire, when they had none at home, 

And that was the way things used to go 

When I was a boy with a head like tow. 

And I went off to school in that old log house, 
All day I was silent, as still as a mouse, 
For the master was cruel, a grim old c s, 
And I didn't dare make a bit of a fuss, 
As I sat on a bench that was made of a slab 
And never from me came a word of gab. 
So I sat in silence as still as a rat, 
Not even daring my eyes to bat, 
And my roost on that perch I dare not leave 
From nine o'clock till four at eve, 
But twice each day he said to me, 
'* Come here, sir," and stand beside my knee. 
Now watch while I point to these letters here, 
And speak out their names, now, loud and clear. 
I trembled in fear while standing there, 
As afraid of him as I was of a bear, 
And I said as he pointed, a, b, c, 
And clear down the line to x, y, z. 
And it took a whole year to firmly fix 
In my little noddle those twenty- six. 
Then the big boys read of that boy in the tree, 
And " Old Tray " that got caught in bad company. 
And we all remember that blue beech gad 
That he plied on our backs, if the least bit bad, 

258 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

And we held out our hands for that hickory rule 
Or sat in disgrace on the dunce's stool. 
And that was the way things used to go 
When I was a boy with a head like tow. 

And that team of oxen, old "Buck and Bright," 

And that old ox cart, a novel sight, 

With its big linchpin and butterflies 

For a load of hay of monstrous size, 

So one yoke of oxen was chained behind 

To hold back down hill, which was rather unkind. 

Then we sowed our wheat from a homespun bag 

And harrowed it in with an old crotch drag, 

And we cut our grain with a " turkey wing," 

For a reaper, then, was an unknown thing, 

And we threshed it out in that tedious way 

With the swinging flail in that bygone day. 

Then the / mowers kept stroke with the swinging blade, 

And we ate our lunch in the generous shade. 

There was no such thing as a horse rake then 

So the hay was all raked by sturdy men, 

And I raked after the loading cart 

To gather up locks that fell apart. 

And I rode a horse to plow the corn 

Till I wished in my heart I never was born, 

From morn till night, day after day, 

Till in certain parts I was worn away. 

And that was the way things used to go 

When I was a boy with a head of tow. 

And^we sheared the sheep and carded the wool, 

And the field of flax we had to pull, 

And break it, and hatchel, and comb, and spin, 

And weave into cloth that was kind o' thin, 

Of a brownish gray, but 'twas good and stout 

And it took a long time to wear it out, 

And when it was worn at the knees or seat, 

Why, mother would patch it so nice and neat, 

That what Bobby Burns said, really was true, 

That " Auld clothes were e'en-a'-most good as the new. 


And this kind of clothing the men and boys wore 
Through the summer months, as I said before, 
Both pants and shirts, and the women, too, 
Wore this for garments hid from view. 
In winter 'twas linsy the women all wore 
And they never once thought of goods from the store, 
And the men wore "jeans," half cotton and half wool, 
For store cloths cost, and the purse wasn't full. 
Then sweet honey we had from industrious bees 
And our sugar was made from the sap giving trees, 
But all were contented and happy and strong 
And each helped the other on life's way along. 
And that was the way things used to go 
When I was a boy with a head of tow. 

Then we went to church in that good old way, 

And heard two sermons every day. 

The minister stood in a pulpit high, 

And the singers all sat in the gallery, 

And he always talked of the wrath of God, 

And his face was as long as a mortar hod. 

He said we must flee from the wrath of sin 

Or the old Satan would surely gather us in. 

He said we would burn in a liquid fire 

Where the flames forever rose higher and higher, 

That the Devil stood on the caldron's edge 

A constant war with his victims to wage, 

And when they would swim to either side, 

Old nick would fork them back into the tide; 

But never a lisp of that sweet word love, 

But wrath, all was wrath from the Father above, 

And that was the way things used to go 

When I was a boy with a head like tow. 

But the work of Christ is a work of love 

And that long faced preacher has gone up above, 

So today the minister shakes our hand, 

And his sermon cheers, and his smile is bland, 

And he preaches to us some common sense 

For the love of God he is called to dispense. 

260 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

Love lies at the bottom of all God's ways, 
And preachers have learned that it always pays 
To preach of God's love, and not of his hate, 
For love is the greatest of the great, 
And earth might be like that world above 
If all mankind was taught to love. 

In the rushing path of progress we go 

And the world is improving as all well know, 

For the primitive things of days gone by 

We never should grieve, we never should sigh, 

But keep in the drift, keep up with the times 

In methods of labor or methods of rhymes. 

To the singing school we used to go 
Over the glistening track of snow, 
All loaded into the big farm sleigh 
With jingling bells we sped away. 
And a merry song we sung, for we 
Were happy as girls and boys could be. 
And the teacher came with his tuning fork 
And he walked around like a crane or stork, 
He would sing awhile and then he would talk r 
Or write on the board with a lump of chalk. 

So we sang for an hour, and at recess, 
They gave to their sweet one a sly caress, 
And then for an hour we sang away 
And all went home in that good old sleigh. 
Oh, the singing school, thy joys serene 
Will ever remain in our memory green, 
And memory now those joys will bring 
As we think of the songs we used to sing. 
And that was the way things used to go 
When I was a boy with a head like tow. 

And paring bees then were a common thing, 
When all would pare, or core, or string, 
Core to core, and back to back, 
Was the way we fixed them upon the rack, 


And when we had emptied the basket's store, 

We swept up the litter and cleared the floor 

And joined our hands to form a ring, 

And merrily, then, began to sing, "Sailing on the wave." 

And that was the way things used to go 

When I was a boy with a head like tow. 

And those husking bees, in the autumn days, 
To k ' shuck " out the golden ears of maize, 
And the lucky one, who a red ear found, 
Had a right to kiss the girls all round; 
So the way we managed was very queer 
To find, as by chance, that bright red ear. 
And that was the way things used to go 
When I was a boy with a head like tow. 

And the chopping bees, and the logging bees, 

And the raising of barns and things like these, 

Where the men and the boys and everyone went 

To handle a pike and lift on a bent, 

When the carpenter stood a short way out 

And sang to the men in a lusty shout, 

" Now set her right up, my boys, just so 

When I give you the word, ' He O,' ' He O,' 

'He, O heave,' 'He, O heave,' 'He, O heave," He O,' 

Set her up, my boys, now steady and slow," 

And everyone lifted till he saw stars 

To get up those monstrous beams and bars, 

But the will was good and the muscles stout, 

And w % e lifted in time with the boss's shout, 

And when it was up, a feast was spread 

Of pumpkin pies and gingerbread, 

Friedcakes and cookies, and farmer's cheese, 

And we ate with a relish of things like these. 

And that was the way things used to -go 

When I was a boy with a head like tow. 

But the age of progress is with us, I wean, 
And the things of yore no more are seen; 
That cheerful fire of beechen logs 
That was built on those iron fire dogs, 

262 . ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

The swinging crane and the pot hook too, 
The skillet and lid no more we view, 
And the tallow dip that we used to snuff, 
With that little tow wheel and all such stuff, 
The linsy dress and the shirt of tow, 
Those rolls of wool that we used to know, 
And the a, b, c, for the little kid, 
By "Webb's Word Method " now are hid. 
Now we never hear tell of a lump of chalk, 
For the crayon today does blackboard talk. 
The master, too, that we used to fear, 
With that goose quill pen behind his ear, 
And that old slab seat has gone at last 
On which we sat till we grew a' most fast, 
The old grain cradle and big ox cart, 
That "old oaken bucket," so dear to the heart, 
The pulpit high and the sermon of wrath, 
Have all stepped aside from progress' path, 
And things don't run as they used to go 
When, I was a boy with a head like tow. 




Pioneers of Michigan, I come before you with feelings of profound 
respect, to recall again the old, old story and the incidents familiar 
now to but few of the millions of people of our great country. 

You have seen this fair land before, the hand of man had destroyed 
nature's perfect harmony. Your eyes have seen what no other eyes 
can see again; the transformation from a wilderness to a country 


covered with farms, dotted with cities and villages, ribboned with roads, 
and girdled by railroads, telegraph and telephone lines. 

Never again will the vast succession of coming people know how 
beautiful this land was in nature. No pen picture can describe the 
park-like plains and rolling openings or the solemn grandeur of the 
timber lands. No ear will again hear the howl of the wolf or the 
scream of the panther. Lost to all coming people is the spring-time 
bell-toned note of the prairie hen and the chant of tfye sandhill crane 
and wild turkey. No more forever will the rush of millions of migra- 
tory birds darken the sun in their nights to and from their northern 
nesting places. 

How beautiful and dear to our memories are those days of our own 

My father, mother, brother and three sisters left Keene, New Hamp- 
shire (I being the youngest of the family) for Michigan on the 9th of 
April, 1834. My father had purchased ten lots of land in Jackson 
county (T. 4 S., B. 2 E. on Sees. 13 and 24) the year previous. Hired 
teams conveyed us to Albany, New York, where we embarked on the 
Erie canal for Buffalo, thence by steamboat to Detroit where two days 
were spent in procuring our outfit and supplies, a " breaking-up " team 
of four yoke of oxen, "breaking-up plow," and two wagons, on which 
were loaded our belongings. Two yokes of oxen were hitched to each 
wagon and with these, together with a horse and light wagon brought 
from New Hampshire, we started for our unknown home in the wilder- 
ness. We were six days on the road from Detroit to what is now 
Fairview Farm, a distance of 59 miles. Now from Watkins' Station, on 
the farm, we go to Detroit in ninety minutes. Our arrival was on the 
10th of May, 1834, just one month from the day of our departure from 
New Hampshire. 

Our nearest neighbors were on the west, seven miles; north, four 
miles; east, four miles; and south, six miles. Thus we were nearly in 
the center of a wilderness about ten miles in diameter, on which no 
white man had ever made a mark since the government survey. This 
tract of land was exactly on the center of the divide between the great 
coal and salt basins of Michigan on the north, and the coal, oil and 
gas deposits of Ohio and Indiana, on the south. This divide, run- 
ning west by south, is remarkable for its varied surface and soil 
formations. The surface is a constant succession of plain, undu- 
lating and hilly lands with marshes and small areas of heavy timbered 
land. The soil is quite as varied; tenacious clay, sand, gravel and 
marsh can be found on a single farm. 

264 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

The most remarkable feature of this part of the State (a tract 12 
by 34 miles) is the great number of its deep, pure water lakes. To 
illustrate: Within five miles of my home are thirty-seven lakes, some 
of them quite large. All discharge water freely, forming the sources 
of five of the largest rivers in southern Michigan. In two hours I 
can drive you across the Raisin, Huron, Grand, Kalamazoo and St. 
Joseph rivers. 

To summarize; This divide was a constant succession of plains, oak 
openings, marshes, lakes and rivers. The upland was covered with 
luxuriant grass and was the natural home of the deer, bear, wolf, 
panther, lynx and wildcat. The deer and wolves were in great num- 
bers. The rich pastures of the openings, with convenient lakes in 
which to escape when pursued by wolves, made this section a paradise 
for deer. Beaver dams in earlier times had caused the overflow of 
fully one-third of the country. These dams were the origin of our 
marshes. These marshes at the time of pioneer settlement were the 
only source of winter feed for stock. The heavy growth sedge and coarse 
grass (marsh hay) made a good substitute for better hay before grass 
could be cultivated. 

The flora and silva of this section is as varied as the soil and 
surface. Trees and flowers not common to this latitude were found in 
great numbers. On the openings, the principal timber trees were 
white, red, yellow pine, and burr oak, hickory and a few scrub oaks 
on the sand hills. On the border of streams, on the bluffs, and on 
the north side of lakes we found a great many trees that in the 
regular order of distribution would be far to the north or south of us. 
These strangers form, with our indigenous forests, a regular conglom- 
erate of the forests of three sections each with its peculiar forest 
grove. From the southward we have the Buckeye, White Wood, 
Honey Locust, Kentucky Coffee-tree, Mulberry, Black Haw and many 
others. From the north came Hemlock, Pine and Spruce. The same 
is true of the admixture of trees and plants, local on the east and 
west borders of the State. These strangers are not of common distribu- 
tion, but are generally found in small isolated groups. I believe that 
the only hemlocks in southern Michigan were on the east shore of 
Wampler's lake (T. 4 S., E 2 E.), and they were cut down for fence 
posts by vandals who supposed them to be cedars. One great sur- 
prise to all observers of the silva of this region, is the total absence 
of many kinds of trees for which the soil and climate are perfectly 
suited, as is proved by planting in after years. Such as beech, maple, 
bass wood, elm, tulip-tree and others, which are common along streams 


and in groups all through this section, but are not generally distributed 
among other trees in the upland timber. Perhaps the great annual 
fires that swept this opening and plain land, destroyed all trees which 
had thin, tender bark or that did not reproduce themselves by sprouts 
from about the stump when the top was killed by fire. 

The pioneer found that kind nature had anticipated his wants in an 
abundant supply of wild fruits and nuts. In succession came the 
delicious wild strawberry, blackberry, huckleberry, red and black rasp- 
berry, blue berry, grapes, plums and cranberries. Nuts were abundant; 
hickory, black walnut, butternut and hazelnut were abundant and were 
gathered and stored away for the evening gatherings of young and old 
around the broad fireplace and stick chimney on the long winter 
evenings. Of snakes there were an abundance, but only one was really 
dangerous, the massasaugas, and they were mostly confined to the swamps 
and marshes. The blow snake was still more feared (they are now 
extinct); their habit of inhaling air until greatly extended, and then 
exhaling a sickening breath caused all to fear them, but they were 
comparatively harmless, as were also the great blue racer, our most 
beautiful snake, and the black and spotted water snakes. Our lakes 
were well stocked with excellent fish; bass, pike, pickerel, perch, sun- 
fish and bluegills were the most common and were easily taken, as 
were also the deer and wild fowl. Thus did nature furnish the 
pioneer with fish, flesh, fowl, and fruit in the greatest abundance. 

There is to the pioneer no more pleasant recollections of these early 
days than that of the wild flowers. First to greet the homesick 
stranger was hepatica, she seemed to open her sunny fragrant bloom 
on purpose to give cheer and comfort. But hepatica was only the 
herald of coming beauties. One wave of her blue bonnet as she left 
us, and there commenced a succession of flowers seldom found in any 
other country. Maples, birches and alders spring into life. The little 
kittens of the willow begin to show their furry coats. A bloom seems 
to be gathering along the tree tops of the water courses; our two elms 
and the red elm file into line flanked by the red maple; cowslips and 
skunk cabbage meet you on the wet, springy borders of marshes and 
springs; the buds of oak, hickory and sassafras are striving to out- 
grow each other; trilliums, violets in all kinds of soils, except the 
birdfoot violet, which is found on light sands only. Now comes the 
June berry (three kinds) with its cloud of white in perfect contrast 
with the surroundings of green and brown. April, says Dr. Beal, 
should give us fifty plants and trees in bloom and in May more than 

266 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

one hundred. In June our woods and plains were covered with 
flowers, some of which are now nearly extinct. Painted cup, lady 
slippers, phlox, mandrakes, rosin weed, lillies, roses, closed gentians and 
golden rods. Finally, when the frosts and north winds come, we have 
only the fringed gentian in its robe of blue and purple, and the witch 
hazel with petals of gold, to close the gateway of summer. 

" These beautiful children of glen and dell, 
The dingle deep, the woodland stretching wide, 

and of the mossy fountain side. 
Ye on my heart have thrown a lovesome spell, 
And though the worldlings' scorning may deride, 

I love ye all." 



In the month of May, 1841, I was licensed to preach, and by the 
same body that gave me my license, I was recommended to the Michi- 
gan annual conference as a suitable person for admission on trial in 
said conference. The body which gave me my license and this recom- 
mendation was the quarterly conference, of Pontiac circuit, with Rev. 
George Smith as presiding elder, and Revs. James Shaw and Francis 
B. Bangs, as circuit preachers. The balance of the conference consisted 
of solid laymen from different parts of the circuit, such as Birmingham, 
Royal Oak, Bloomfield Centre, Donation Chapel, and Auburn; at all of 
which places I had been and held services, as an exhorter, several 
times during the preceding year, and the people had come to know me 
pretty well, or they thought they did. The quarterly conference was 
held in the court house, as were all of the services. All of the men com- 
posing that quarterly conference, except myself and the Rev. James 
Shaw, are on the other side of the boundary line. He is a superannuate 


of the Kansas conference, in his 86th year and lives at Atchison with 
his oldest daughter, Lucy, widow of the Rev. L. D. Price, once a 
member of Michigan conference; and he says in a letter he sent me, 
"I am trying to keep sweet in my old age." 

On Sabbath afternoon of our quarterly meeting I preached my first 
sermon, or took a text and exhorted in a school house at Bloomfield 
Centre, five miles southeast from Pontiac, where I had been holding 
services during the spring. The house was crowded with my friends, 
who were bent on hearing my first sermon; and we had, what we used 
to call "The shout of the King in the camp;" but my father used to 
call it a "Methodist pow ivow" Father was brought up an Episcopa- 
lian and did not take any stock in a noisy kind of religion; but let him 
go to a barn raising, a logging bee or a general training and no man 
in Oakland county could beat him on making a noise. Dear old man, 
I believe he is in heaven now, where I hope to meet him when I cross 
the line. 

Well, the Michigan conference held its session at White Pigeon, in 
September of that year, Bishop Roberts presiding; I was admitted on 
trial, and appointed as junior preacher on Palmer circuit, with Lovell 
F. Harris, as preacher in charge. My father gave me a splendid saddle 
horse, my uncle loaned me a saddle and bridle, and Dr. Ezra S. Parke 
gave me a pair of portmanteaus large enough to hold all of my worldly 
goods, and thus equipped I pulled out for my first circuit, which 
embraced all of the country bordering on St. Clair river and twenty-five 
miles on the shore of Lake Huron and reaching inland from five to fifteen 
miles. We had eighteen preaching places, some of them we visited on 
the work days of the week. At Port Huron, St. Clair, Newport, now 
Marine City, and Algonac, we preached on Sabbath mornings and 
visited some country school house in the afternoon and evening same 
day. The discipline of our church fixed my salary at $100 beside travel- 
ing and table expenses, but the stewards made no estimate of my table 
expenses, but said I must do as the country school master did, board 
around; and you may rest assured I did as they suggested, and by this 
means I secured the full amount of my table, expenses if I did fall 
short $40 on my salary. In my boarding around I found some very 
good boarding places. One of which I wish to make special mention. 
The head of the family was a widow and she had three sons, Tif, 
George and David. Tif was about my age, George was next, and then 
came David. They all thought a great deal of my Billy horse, and 
David would always insist on bringing him out fully equipped for my 
service, when it came time for me to leave for my ride of fifteen mile& 

268 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

down Bell river to Newport, my next place for stopping, and when 
that same David was our governor, he used to refer me to the time 
when he was my hostler, and used to lead my Billy out of the little 
log stable, all saddled and bridled ready for me to mount. The home 
of this Jerome family was at that time about three miles east of the 
Gratiot turnpike where it crosses Bell river. I don't think David, at 
that time, had any aspirations for the office he has since held; and I 
don't think George had any thought of becoming the attorney of the 
Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee railroad. But such is life, and 
that grand old mother of theirs little thought what those boys were 
destined to become and do after she should depart and join their 
father on the other shore. 

At that time Capt. Ward had his home at Newport and was known 
through the state as Uncle Sam, the steamboat king. Captain Eber, 
his nephew, was at that time captain of one of his boats, the Sam 
Ward, making daily trips between Detroit and Port Huron. Captain 
Eber died in* Detroit a few years ago, reputed to be worth in the neighbor- 
hood of $5,000,000. I think the last steamboat Uncle Sam built was the 
Atlantic, which ran from Detroit to Buffalo, with the Mayflower, in 
connection with the Michigan Central railroad, carrying its passengers 
between the two cities just named. Her last trip came to a sudden 
ending on her way from Detroit to Buffalo. When but a short distance 
from Long Point she collided with one of the propellers of the Northern 
Transportation Go's line and went to the bottom of Lake Erie, the passengers 
all being saved. She was a magnificent steamboat and one of the fastest 
sailers at that time on the Jakes. But I am spending too much time 
on my first years' itinerancy, and while there are many others of whom 
I would like to make mention, but I dare not for fear of prolixity, I 
will therefore merely mention the names of Judge Bunce, the two San- 
borns, -Ralph Wadams, Esq. Smith, Senator Conger, Judge Mitchell, 
John Beard, and Esq. Ira Porter, all of whom afforded me excellent 
boarding places as I went around; but my chief or head quarters for 
good living was with Tucker and Daniels at Algonac. In the month 
of June I took to myself a wife, in accord with a previous engagement, 
but did not consider it good economy to ask her to go boarding around 
with me during the balance of that conference year, so she remained 
at her father's until I entered upon my second year in the conference, 
when we commenced boarding ourselves. 

My second circuit was Richmond, embracing a small portion of St. 
Clair county and two townships in Macomb county in the northeast 
corner of said county. I had full swing here, being the only preacher 


on the circuit, and I made the round once in two weeks, preaching three 
times each Sabbath, at six different places, and riding each Sabbath 
about twelve miles. Oar churches were all district school houses and not 
very large at that, but I doubt if Talmadge's tabernacle is more densely 
packed from Sabbath to Sabbath than were these tabernacles, which I 
occupied during that year. Being now a married man, I was entitled 
according to discipline to $200 beside my traveling and table expenses, all 
of which I received except regular salary, on which I fell short $50. 
The winter of that year was called our hard winter and we had good 
sleighing from November 25 until after town meeting in April. 

My third and fourth years were upon Shiawassee circuit, as preacher 
in charge, with W. F. Cowles for my colleague the first year, and F. 

A. Blades for colleague the second year. We made the round of this 
circuit once in four weeks, and had eighteen regular preaching places, 
Owosso. Corunna, Shiawasseetown and Byron were included, being the 
only cities of importance then existing in Shiawaseee county. Here 
I first became acquainted with our pioneer friend, of precious memory, 

B. O. Williams, and his brother Alfred. The house we lived in at 
Shiawasseetown was built for a hotel of vast proportions, and with the 
expectation of a large city in the near future, provisions were made 
for the accommodation of a great number of guests. But for some 
reason the big city did not get there, and the multitude of guests did 
not come, and the big hotel, only finished in part, was converted into 
residences for poor families, like us methodist preachers, who were not 
able to pay extravagant rents. We occupied the large ball room, which 
was lathed but not plastered. With boards unplaned we made a parti- 
tion across the hall, so as to give us two rooms; one for a guest cham- 
ber and pastor's study, and the other and larger one served for kitchen, 
dining room, sitting room and parlor with our family bed in the 
northeast corner of the big room. My colleague, Bro. Blades, had his 
home with us, he being a single man and was obliged to board around. 
Our receipts upon this charge compared favorably with previous ones. 

Our next circuit was Livingston, with David A. Curtis as my 
colleague. The circuit embraced the most of Livingston county, and 
we made the round once in four weeks. Howell, Milan and Pinckney 
were the only cities of importance, and the rest of our preaching 
places were in country school houses. At Howell the Congregationalists 
had a small chapel, which we occupied once in two weeks; and a Con- 
gregational minister by the name of Root occupied it each alternate 
Sabbath, which gave them preaching every Sabbath; the congregation 
being composed of Methodists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Bap- 

270 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

tists, Episcopalians, and a large proportion of persons not members 
of any church. Sectarianism did not exhibit its hydra head to annoy 
us in a single instance. At Milan the Presbyterians had a comfortable 
brick church, which they kindly opened for our use each alternate 
Sabbath; and our congregation was much like the one at Howell. At 
Pinckney we had no church building and all worshiped together in a 
school house, the same harmony prevailing as at the two places 
previously mentioned. On this circuit I made the acquaintance of 
Hon. Charles P. Bush, one of Michigan's brightest citizens, and one of 
the shrewdest politicians the democratic party has ever placed in office 
in this State. He and his family became my fast friends and remained 
so, notwithstanding our difference in politics. He died comparatively 
a young man and his death was a great loss to Michigan, and still 
greater to the democratic party, of which he was a leader in the fullest 
sense. At that time he carried on farming, his large and splendid 
farm being located about three miles southeast from Howell, on the 
Detroit and Grand Kiver turnpike. I suppose the farm lies there still, 
but Charles P. Bush does not own it now and will not come to 
cultivate its fertile soil any more. He was a member of the legislature 
that located the capitol where we are now gathered, and afterward 
became a resident of Lansing, where he was living when death summoned 
him away. I am not certain but I think some of his family are living 
here at this time. Peace to his ashes. I love to think of him as I 
used to see his manly form in my congregation with his keen eyes 
fixed upon me as I tried, to the best of my ability, to send the truth 
into his heart. There were other men in that section. I love to remem- 
ber, such as Ely and Pardon Barnard, Elias Steadmau, Judge 
Stansbury, Deacon Noble and Deacon Gay, Lawyer Whipple, Frank 
Bush (brother of Charles P.), George Lee and his brother Fred, E. F. 
Burt, the McPherson family, N. G. Isbell, and some others, I'll not 
stop to name; while nearly every one named have gone to join the 
great majority over on the other shore, I hope to meet them when I 
cross the river, in whose waters my feet have been resting much of 
the time during the past two years and some of the time it has seemed 
I should never return, but I am here. 

Our next" charge was Almont, embracing the village of Almont, in 
Lapeer county, and three appointments in the surrounding country. At 
Almont we had a chapel of our own and, as I only preached once in 
two weeks, our Congregational friends occupied the chapel each alter- 
nate Sabbath, and thus services were held every Sabbath; and we 
worshiped as one family and had no family brawls while I was there. 


This charge had no aspirants for national honors, but a host of solid 
men for all work but whose names have not been very extensively cir- 
culated, and probably you would not remember having heard of them if I 
should repeat them, and as nothing of importance occurred out of the 
ordinary course of events, I will ask you to take a trip with me to 
Port Huron, where my next appointment occurred, and here you will 
discover quite a change since my first appointment to Palmer circuit 
in 1841. We had a comfortable house of worship on the south side of 
Black river and this was well filled every Sabbath, as I and my 
colleague occupied the pulpit each alternate Sabbath. The circuit was 
changed only in name and the transfer of all territory north of Port 
Huron to Lexington circuit, so that we preached at St. Glair, Newport 
{now Marine City), and Algonac once each Sabbath, same as when I 
first traveled the circuit. The two years term was spent pleasantly 
and I received my full salary of two hundred dollars per year and 
table expenses without being compelled to board around, as I did 
during my first year's experience. Some new comers had appeared 
while some of the first residents had disappeared. One of the new 
comers was William L. Bancroft, quite a politician of the democratic 
school, and was at the time publishing a newspaper, himself proprietor 
and editor. He became my warm friend, notwithstanding our differ- 
ence of opinion on political issues, and our friendship remained 
unbroken while our acquaintance continued. It is a long time since 
we have met and I presume he looks more like an old man than he 
did in 1847 and '48. At that time L. M. Mason, Esq., was practicing 
law in Port Huron, and during the trial of an important suit, in which 
Major Thorn, a man of large physical proportions, was an interested 
party, Mason, being counsel for the other side, was making his plea, 
Major Thorn sitting quite near him, and as he was laying down the 
points of law some remark dropped on the major's ear that did not 
please the old man and he belched forth the sentence, " You are a liar," 
and in a second the old man was stretched on the floor, the blood 
flowing freely from his mouth and nose. Mason apologized to the court 
saying he had no idea his arm was so long or he would have been 
more careful how he swung it when making his gestures. I don't 
think the major ever accused him of lying after that wonderful 
gesture was made. 

I had a colleague upon this charge and he was of small proportions, 
always fearful I would be more popular with the people than himself 
unless he could in some safe way make the impression that I was not 
as pious as they took me to be. I was the owner of a very fine brown 

272 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

mare, and she was fat as a seal, and everyone was speaking of her 
beauty and fine qualities. My colleague brought with him to the 
charge, a young mare of good proportions, but, as he was not much of 
a horseman, he got nervous in handling her, and an old jockey took 
advantage of his weakness and traded him an old mare, that in the 
matter of flesh resembled one of Pharaoh's cows, and she was afflicted 
with poor teeth so it was impossible to get any flesh on her skeleton. 
On one occasion, where were present several of our leading members, 
some one made some remark expressive of his admiration of my mare. 
The remark hurt the little fellow so much that he had to make a 
thrust at me and he said " I am afraid Bro. Crawford's mare gets into 
the pulpit with him." My Irish wit came quick for once and I replied 
" Not a bit of it, sir; but if I could count her ribs as far as I could 
see her carcass, she would be on my back every time I tried to preach." 
I heard no more of it. Well, we next turn up at Lapeer county seat, 
where I formed the acquaintance of Hon. A. N. Hart, of precious 
memory, three brothers by the name of White, two brothers by the 
name of Terrell, and several other 'solid men, whose friendship I have 
always prized, and with satisfaction cherish their memory now that 
t4iey are all on the other side of the river which forms the boundary 
line between our world and the great future. Father Clark, the old 
English pioneer, was on his farm five miles southeast of the village. 
The old man's welcome to me, as his pastor, was on this wise. At my 
first appointment in his neighborhood, after I had preached, I held 
class meeting and calling on Father Clark for his testimony, he pro- 
ceeded " Well Crawford, I am glad you've coomed, I axed Shaw for 
you." Shaw was our presiding elder. That same fall t}ie old man 
took a pair of beautiful male calves to the State fair in Detroit, and on 
his return had to tell me of his trials on his way to Detroit. He said 
" ivery body I met axed me about my calves and I got oot of all man- 
ner of patience, and I wouldn't talk wi' 'em at all. But jist before I 
got to Pontiac a fine looking gentleman drove by me and he was in a 
fine carriage and had a fine team, and he looked as though he might know 
some'ut. He axed me how old my calves were? and I towld him one of 
them was six months and the other was six months and two weeks. 
And he axed me if they were twins, and I laughed him in his face." 
Father Clark was a man of wonderful natural endowments with no 
education in the schools, but he was regarded as one of the shrewdest 
business men of Lapeer county. He had such eccentricities as afforded 
me, at times, an occasion for a right hearty laugh at his expense. I 
will mention one instance which must suffice. His wife's brother in 


England, having died, left about $2,000 to be divided among his sister's 
children, and they all thinking it would be so long coming, they had bet- 
ter sell out to their father, providing he would buy; and the old man 
jumped at the chance, as they offered to sell at fifty cents on the dol- 
lar, he being sharp enough to know it would not take many months to 
bring the money from England. He placed it in the hands of C. C. 
Trowbridge, of Detroit, and during my pastorate, he came up to the 
village one day, and found a letter in the postofiice from Mr. Trow- 
bridge, and hastened to the parsonage for me to read it for him, as he 
could not read his correspondence. The letter informed him his money 
was ready for him. The old man looked at me, and smiling, said, "Now 
Crawford, let me say, first of all, glory to God, its coomed; now I'm 
rich, Lord keep me rich." 

We will now come to our next circuit, which was Utica, in Macomb 
county, embracing the towns of Washington and Macomb as well as 
Shelby, in which the village of Utica was located. My wife's parents 
resided within the bounds of this charge, and insisted on our making 
our home with them while on this charge, which we gladly did, and 
spent the time very pleasantly. On this circuit I found the Davises, 
the Chapels (Charles and Frank), the Leaches, the Somers, and many 
other solid men, all of whom became my fast friends. One incident 
occurred, while I was on this circuit, that afforded some amusement, 
and even to this date causes me to smile when I think how the young 
men looked as they came marching into the church just before I 
commenced the service. Some of the prominent women of Utica had 
adopted the bloomer costume and were quite conspicuous on the streets 
with their short dresses and pantalets. Four of the young men of the 
village, all very respectable, came to me and expressed a desire to 
attend service on the Sabbath dressed in uniform, calculated to strike 
a death blow to the bloomer craze among the women. I cheerfully 
consented, and after the congregation was mostly in their seats, in came 
the young dudes in their newly made costumes, and took their seats in 
the amen corner of the church, looking as dignified and behaving 
themselves as becomingly as any Presbyterian deacons ever did. They 
wore white cambric pantaloons, made very large" from the waistbands to 
the ankles and drawn tight around the ankles by means of cord. The 
rest of their apparel corresponded with their pants; when, at the close 
of service, they marched deliberately out and went quietly home, and 
thus ended the bloomer craze in Utica. 

My next charge was Birmingham, where my cousin, Poppleton, lived 

274 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

and was running a general store. Many of my old friends and several 
of my kindred, such as uncles, aunts, and cousins, were members of 
my congregation, and all seemed very much pleased with the appoint- 
ment, and did not seem to tire of my preaching, even though I was 
a prophet in my own country and among my own kindred. The farm 
upon which I was raised lay within three miles of the village, and the 
entire circuit covered territory with which I had been familiar since I 
was eight years of age, and I had known many of my parishioners during 
all of those intervening years. We had no very great men on this charge, 
nor men who aspired to become great. We were so near Detroit on 
the one side, and Pontiac on the other, that our great men, as well as 
the ambitious ones, gave us the go by and settled in one of those 
thriving cities. My next charge was Detroit city mission and my 
appointments were all suburban, and in making my rounds I encircled 
the city, which at that time was a trifle smaller than it is today. City 
missionary as I was, I had the pleasure of forming an acquaintance 
with such men as J. C. Holmes, C. I. Walker, Philo Parsons, John 
Owen, Judge Koss Wilkins, Bela Hubbard, Thomas W. Palmer, and 
Dr. Duffield, who for a number of years was the successful pastor of 
the First Presbyterian church in that city, and who finally received a 
sudden call from pulpit to the church of the first born, which is with- 
out spot or wrinkle, before the throne of God. He was a grand man, 
and lives in my memory as he does in the memory of many others, 
who knew him but to love him, in the days of his prosperity as a 
faithful minister of the gospel of Christ. 

My next move was to Battle Creek, where I spent two of the 
pleasantest years of my itinerant life. Here I made the acquaintance 
of Erastus Hussey, Victor P. Collier, John and Benjamin F. Hinman, 
and E. C. Manchester. I also made the acquaintance of Dr. O. C. 
Comstock and A. O. Hyde, of Marshall. Battle Creek has always been 
a very dear spot to me, since the fall of 1855, when I left there and took 
my next appointment to Jackson, where I served as pastor of the church 
one year and was then appointed by the board of prison inspectors as 
chaplain at the prison, where I remained for three years and preached 
to the men in stripes. Kinsley S. Bingham was our governor, and 
William Hammond was agent of the prison, now called " warden." At 
Jackson I made the acquaintance of Hon. Austin Blair, Judge Gridley, 
Judge David Johnson, Col. Michael Shoemaker and his brother Joseph, 
Peter B. Loomis, Fidus Livermore, and many other solid men includ- 
ing lawyers, doctors, merchants, and ministers of the several denomina- 
tions of Christians, including Mr. Grinnel of the Episcopal church, and 


Dr. Asa Mahan of the Congregational church; both grand men, and I 
shall never forget their kindness to me and the help they gave me in 
my work at the prison. Gov. Bingham was a man with a large heart, 
and he was full of sympathy for the friends of convicts, who were 
constantly pleading for pardon for their friends. But he had good 
judgment and exercised his pardoning power with extreme caution, with 
one single exception, and that was a peculiar case and I did not 
censure him for doing as he did in that peculiar case, but I did have 
some sport with him, which he enjoyed as well as myself and others. 
An old lady came all the way from the state of New York to plead for 
her only boy who had been sentenced for five years for larceny. She 
went to see the governor several times at his home in Kensington, and 
he invariably promised her he would pardon her boy if she would 
bring a recommend for his pardon from the warden and chaplain. 
But this she failed to get every time. After letting matters rest for a 
few weeks she put out for another interview with the governor. Going 
to Ann Arbor on the afternoon train, she footed it from Ann Arbor to 
Kensington, reaching the governor's home about eleven o'clock. She 
rang the bell and the governor responded with a light in his hand, and 
he at once recognized the familiar face of Mother McAllister, and the 
poor, tired old woman, after a walk of seventeen miles, burst into 
tears and said: "Governor, I've come after my boy, can I have him?" 
" Well," said he, " you go to bed and rest you the balance of the night 
and we'll see about it in the morning," and in the morning after 
breakfast he made out the papers and mailed them to the Secretary of 
State at Lansing, and sent her away happy in the prospect that, as 
soon as the papers could get around to Jackson, she would take her 
darling and hie away with him back to her home in the state of New 
York. The day after she returned from Kensington, she took her way- 
ward son and departed, and that was the last we knew of them. A 
few days after her departure, the Governor came to visit us, and he was 
sitting in the agent's office talking with Mr. Hammond as I entered 
the office on my return from dinner. He looked at me as much as to 
say, I wonder what he has in store for me? He met me with a hearty 
hand shake, as he always did, and after the usual salutation, I said to 
him, "Well, Governor, you have given me an insight into one passage 
of scripture that I never fully comprehended until now. 'Lest by her 
continued coming she weary me, I'll revenge her of her adversary.' ' 
His reply was, " Well, chaplain, I guess if she had called you up at 
eleven o'clock at night after a walk of seventeen miles in the dark, and 
your wife had joined in her plea, as mine did, you would have yielded," 

276 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

and I said, "Amen, God bless you, Governor," and the agent responded, 

At the close of three years, I retired from the chaplaincy of the 
prison and was stationed at Niles, where I stayed but one year, for 
reasons I will not stop to explain, except to say, , that the people of 
Ionia asked the bishop for my appointment to their charge, and he 
said he would grant their request if I would consent to the change, and 
I did so, greatly to the annoyance and grievance of the most of my 
congregation at Niles; and while I had a warm reception and a pleas- 
ant pastorate of two years at Ionia, I have always regretted that I 
consented to the change. We had one of the most gracious revivals in 
Niles of any one year of my ministry, and the converts were all well 
cared for by my successor, Rev. Hiram Law. While at Niles, I made 
the acquaintance of Hon. Schuyler Colfax, of South Bend, Indiana, a 
village about ten miles south of Niles. Our acquaintance soon ripened 
into a friendship as lasting as life, and no one, outside of his own 
immediate kindred, could have felt his sudden death, while in his vigor- 
ous manhood, more deeply than I did. At Ionia I formed the acquaint- 
ance of Hons. Hampton Rich, Sandford Yeomans, George and Jack 
Webber, Hon. Albert Williams, John C. Blanchard, Esq., and W. W. 
Mitchell, Esq.; John 0. and I could agree in our religious views but in 
politics we had several tilts. It was during my first year's pastorate at 
Ionia that the rebellion was inaugurated, and when the news reached us 
of the attack upon Sumpter, John C. came to me, with blood in his eye, 
and charged me with having a hand in dividing the Union, as I had 
been somewhat outspoken against the abominable system of slavery. 
But I told him the Union was not divided and would not be, but that 
slavery was now doomed to die, and the slaveholders had themselves 
inaugurated the measures that were destined to do the work of its 
destruction, and I hoped he and I might live to see the work com- 
pleted, and we did. Was I a true prophet? John C. was an official 
member of my church and gave me his hearty support, and before the 
year was ended was making war speeches, and aiding to raise volunteers, 
and finally went himself as a sutler in one of the regiments, and on 
his first visit home, declared if he had the matter in hand he would 
raise an army of 3,000,000 and drive the whole southern confederacy 
into the Gulf of Mexico. But after the war closed he sort of cooled 
off, and since then it is hard telling what his politics have been. My 
next appointment was Kalamazoo, where I first met Judge Hezekiah 
G. Wells, of precious memory; also Hon. Charles E. Stewart, General 
Dwight May, Lieut. Gov. Charles May, Dr. Jas. A. B. Stone, William 


A. Wood, N. A. Balch, Thos. C. Brownell, and Henry Gilbert. My 
next appointment was Albion, the home for many years of Rev. W. H. 
Brockway, who had his last meeting with us two years ago this month 
and was obliged to leave before our final adjournment. Perhaps some 
of you remember how gracefully he took his leave as he retired never 
to meet with us again. We miss him as we do some others who were 
with us at that reunion, for instance, Dr. Shepard, Hon. O. Poppleton, 
and A. D. P. Van Buren. At the end of one year I was appointed 
presiding elder of Cold water district and moved to Coldwater, where I 
had a pleasant home for four years. The district extended from White 
Pigeon on the west to the meridian line of the State on the east, the 
eastern boundary of our conference, and embraced the counties of 
Hillsdale, Branch, and the largest part of St. Joseph; and took in 
White Pigeon, Mottville, Centreville, Constantine, Sturgis, Burr Oak, 
Bronson, Coldwater, Girard, Quincy, Allen, Jonesville, Hillsdale, Osseo, 
North Adams and Pittsford, Beading and Cambria; so you see my 
chances for extending my acquaintance were greatly enlarged, and well 
improved. I will mention but few of the many I met for the first time as 
I took the rounds of my district. Hon. Charles Upson, Hon. Caleb D. 
Randall, Harvey Haynes, Ex-Gov. Cyrus G. Luce, S. C. Coffinberry, Esq., 
Henry H. Riley, Esq., Witter J. Baxter, E. O. Grosvenor, Judge East- 
man Johnson, Harvey Warner, Esq., Jonn Wolf, Wm. Allman, and 
Comfort Tyler. At the end of my four years term as presiding elder, 
I was appointed pastor at Centreville, where I had already become 
acquainted with nearly everybody residing within the bounds of this 
charge, and where resided some whose names I have already mentioned, 
therefore I will only ask you to remain here one year, and then 
take you, with me, back to Jackson prison, where I was appointed chap- 
lain by the board of inspectors, and here I spend another three years, 
under the administration of Gov. Baldwin, with Henry E. Bingham as 
a^ent, he having acted as clerk of the prison during the time of my 
former chaplaincy; and I think if Latimer had been an inmate at that 
time he would not have succeeded in getting that clerk to bring him 
prussic acid, not knowing whether it was poison or something good, 
with which to flavor his lemonade and render it' more palatable, as was 
the case with clerk Tabor, recently. We had prison discipline when he 
was clerk, and prison discipline when he was agent. He resigned while 
I was serving as chaplain, and John Morris of Charlotte was appointed 
to succeed him, who still held the office when I resigned. During this 
term, clerk Hulin, a man in whom we all placed confidence, was 
detected in th'e embezzlement of a large amount of the money belonging 

278 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 


to the State, and, after trial and conviction, was sentenced for five 
years penal servitude. I had known him since my first pastorate in 
the church in Jackson. His wife was an honored member of my church, 
and he was a regular attendant on the services and contributed as 
largely toward my support as any member of the church, being at the 
time a hardware merchant and having a good trade. He afterwards 
failed in business, then was elected justice of the peace, and when Mr. 
Bingham was made agent of the prison he recommended him to the 
board of inspectors for the clerkship of the prison, and he was appointed, 
and still held the office under Mr. Morris at the time of his detection. 
A careful examination of the books revealed the fact that he commenced 
his embezzlement soon after entering the office, and had carried it on 
successfully and without suspicion from the first, until some transaction 
caused Mr. Morris to suspect him, and his foot was soon in the trap 
adroitly set for his capture. I don't think there was an officer of the 
prison who did not weep like a child when we saw him come through 
the gate under the guidance of the sheriff of Jackson county. He 
served his term and was discharged with a broken spirit, and only 
lived a few months after his liberation. 

On my retirement from the chaplaincy of the prison in the fall of 
1872, I recommended the appointment of Rev. George Hickock, a 
Baptist minister, as my successor and that you may see whether I made 
a mistake in my judgment of his fitness for the position, I am proud 
to say, that he has given such general satisfaction that he still holds 
the office, and probably will until he resigns from choice, unless death 
shall call for him before he tenders his resignation. If I had the time, 
I would like to give you some of my experience in dealing with con- 
victs, but this I cannot do as I must hasten around. My next 
appointment was at St. Joseph, where I spent two years very pleas- 
antly, and formed the acquaintance of Hon. A. H. Morrison, whose 
name appears among the deceased members of this Society, having 
joined it in 1877. He was at that time general manager of the 
Chicago and West Michigan railroad. During the first year I was 
there, I was on board a train returning from Grand Eapids, having but 
one passenger coach and a baggage car, and while rounding a curve the 
forward trucks of our coach left the track, and the coupling between 
it and the baggage car gave way and our car rolled down an embankment, 
making one revolution, and I turned a sort of somersault and fell upon 
the floor face downward, with the stove, well loaded with fire, across my 
back, spilling some of the coals on the left side of my neck and face, 
causing my whiskers to appear very much demoralized. I was laid up 


for about four weeks, and after I was fully restored, Mr. Morrison 
called me into his office, and after introducing me to the attorney of 
the road, Mr. Nims, he asked me what damages I intended to demand. 
I replied, "not any." "Why," said he, "you are entitled to damages 
according to law." " Yes," said I, "I suppose I am, but my half fare pass 
has certain conditions printed on the back, which I accepted when I 
received the pass." " Yes," said he, " but that don't amount to anything 
according to law." "I am well aware of that," said I, "but if I should 
demand damages you would refer me to those conditions, and say, 
* what about the moral question involved in your demand, ' wouldn't 
you?" "Perhaps I should," said he, "but I intend to give you some- 
thing." "Very well," said I, "give me what you please and I'll not refuse 
your donation." " Well," said he, "I propose to give you $50 and a pass 
for yourself and family while you remain on the line of our road, will 
that be satisfactory?" "Anything that will satisfy you, will satisfy me," 
was my reply. He then turned to his clerk and told him to order a 
car load of four foot wood delivered at the M. E. parsonage, and 
another carload next year, if Mr. Crawford remained in it, and I did, 
and the wood came, and of good quality. Our next move was to 
Allegan, where we spent two very pleasant years, forming many 
acquaintances and securing new friends. Among these were Judge 
Stone, Judge Littlejohn, Judge Williams, Judge Arnold, Dr. H. F, 
Thomas, Don C. Henderson, Esq., Duncan McMartin and Joseph Fisk. 
The most of these are gone to swell the majority on the other side, 
while Stone, Thomas, Williams and Henderson, are still here in active 
service, and are held in high esteem by men of all political parties 
and religious creeds. Our next move was to Cedar Springs, a little 
village on the Grand Rapids and Indiana railroad, twenty-two miles 
north from Grand Eapids. Here we spent a pleasant year, and was 
then appointed presiding elder of Ionia district, and returned to renew 
old acquaintances, and form a great many new ones, at Greenville, 
Stanton, Portland, Hubbardston, Carson City, Lyons, Pewamo, Muir, 
Woodland, Bowne Center, Saranac, and Lowell; among whom was 
Hon. Jas. W. Belknap, Westbrook Divine, Col. Ellsworth, John Lewis, 
Esq., and many others whose friendship I highly prize. After spend- 
ing four very pleasant years at Ionia in district work, I was returned to 
the pastorate, and appointed at my own request to East Street, Grand 
Kapids. Here I succeeded, after much effort, in building a new church, 
to take the place of the little chapel, where we worshiped for two 
years. Our new church cost us when completed, including furnishing, 
$5,000 and I had the pleasure of occupying its pulpit all of my third 

280 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

year, and at the close of my term, had the entire indebtedness pro- 
vided for, and only three hundred dollars remaining unpaid, which was 
soon wiped out by my successor, Rev. Mr. Carlisle. We left many 
warm friends at East street, when we were appointed to Ames church, 
another charge in another part of the same city, and where we spent 
three very pleasant years. While serving these two charges I made 
the acquaintance of Dr. Charles Shepard, Henry Fralick, T. D. Gil- 
bert, Judge Champlin, Harvey J. Hollister, J. C. Fitzgerald, Allen 
Durfee, Henry Spring, and Major Watson, and a host of others I 
cannot take time to name. At the close of this pastorate, and at the 
completion of forty-six years continued service, I took a superannuated 
relation for the purpose of taking a trip to Oregon and Washington, 
to spend a few months with our friends on the Pacific coast. We left 
home the last of October and returned the first of August following, 
having had a most delightful visit with our friends, and a view of 
much grand scenery, going via Union Pacific railroad, and returning via 
Northern Pacific, from Seattle to St. Paul, and from thence to Chicago, 
via Wisconsin Central, and from Chicago to Grand Kapids, via Chicago 
and West Michigan. We made the entire trip without accident or delay 
on either route, except one-half hour in Bear River valley, on Union 
Pacific, from a heated journal, which was easily made up in the next 
run, so that we were at all stations on schedule time. At the next 
session of our conference, I was returned to the effective list and 
appointed to Holland City, twenty-five miles southwest from Grand 
Rapids. At the close of one year, having received a meagre support, 
and finding myself advancing in years, I thought best to retire from 
effective work and took a superannuated relation, designed to be perma- 
nent, and returned to Grand Rapids for our permanent home, where a 
generous friend, Mrs. Jas. Dolbee, built a good commodious house 
known as "The Cottage in the Orchard," and presented us with a life 
lease of the same; and we find ourselves nicely settled for the balance 
of our lives, among our East street friends and our East street church, 
our place of worship. Soon after our return to Grand Rapids, I was 
invited by General Pierce to act as chaplain at the Soldier's Home, 
where my duties were to consist of. one sermon on the Sabbath and 
attend all funerals of soldiers dying at the home. I took this work 
in hand on the 6th of April, and continued the work until the 25th of 
October, the second year, when I resigned, as I had supplied the work 
by proxy since the 28th of June, at which time I held my last service 
with the veterans, being prostrated with malarial fever, from the effect 
of which I could not rally, and resigned, feeling that I must be 


relieved of the responsibility of looking after the work of supplies for 
funerals and sabbath services. Meantime, I had done some successful 
canvassing for some valuable books, but now laid upon the shelf by 
sickness, my little salary at the Soldier's Home cut off, and being 
unable to do any canvassing for the sale of books, things from my 
human standpoint looked a little dubious, but thus far God has been 
better to us than our fears; and our friends have shown themselves 
friendly in many substantial ways. At the celebration of our golden 
wedding one year ago, many of our friends outside of Grand Rapids 
sent their congratulations in substantial form, which, added to those of 
our city friends, netted over three hundred dollars, which made us feel 
almost as rich as did Father Clark, when his little dowry came from 
England, but we did not pray, "Lord keep us rich," but we did pray, 
" Lord make us worthy of such friendships." At the time of our last 
pioneer meeting in June, one year ago, I was unable to attend, and 
thought it quite probable that I should never look into your faces 
again, until I should greet you on the other shore. But I am here, in 
much better health than I enjoyed two months ago, and from present 
indications I am encouraged to hope, that by the time of our next 
annual reunion, " Bichard will be himself again." But what the future 
has in store for me, no finite mind can tell, but I'll try and keep on in 
the service of my Master, who has borne with my weaknesses for these 
fifty-two years; and I am sure I shall find mercy at his hands, when 
he comes to sign my release, whether this year or the next, or many 
years thereafter; and in the sweet bye and bye I shall hope for a reunion 
with all of my pioneer friends who have gone before, or may go before, 
and all who may come after my transfer to the church triumphant, 
which is without spot before the throne of God. 



Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen I have a short paper to read 
on the cost of transportation back in the forties and at the present 
time, showing the great progress that has been made in cheapening 
transportation in the last fifty years. 

282 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

I went to Hillsdale to live in the spring of 1843, first of May. The 
Michigan Southern railroad was completed there in October of that 
year by the State of Michigan, at a cost of about $1,400,000, with 
wooden superstructure and flat rails. The superstructure consisted of, 
first, a mud sill six by ten inches, on that cross ties about three by 
six inches, in which a groove was cut, and a wooden rail five by seven 
inches placed with the inner edge champered off, and to which was 
spiked down a flat iron bar three-quarters of an inch in thickness and 
two inches wide. 

The State simply transported the produce and merchandise but did 
not handle it. The State charged for hauling wheat to Monroe, sixty- 
seven miles, twelve cents per bushel. 

I owned and operated a large warehouse and there were five others 
in town. The warehouseman got three cents for storing and shipping, 
one cent for buying, which, added to the twelve cents freight, made 
sixteen cents, and three cents for storage at Monroe made nineteen 
cents, the cost to the farmer to take his wheat from the team at 
Hillsdale and place it on board of a vessel at Monroe, sixty-seven 
miles. A load for a freight car was one hundred bushels and that 
in bags. 

Now, what have the great railroads, or as they say, the great 
monopolies, done for the farmers? They take, today, his wheat from 
Chicago to New York all the way by rail, and deliver it in Liverpool 
for less than it cost to transport it from a team in Hillsdale and place 
it on board of a vessel at Monroe forty-five years ago, and yet they 
think, or seem to think, these great railroads their enemies, and are 
ready to make war on them in every possible way. The railroads 
barely get justice from a jury of farmers. 

Now another item of progress is shown more completely in trans- 
porting the mails. At the time I speak of, the Great Western mail 
from New York and New England came up by stage, along the south 
shore of Lake Erie in winter, by boat in summer; to Hillsdale by rail 
from Monroe, and was transported to Chicago on the boot of a stage 
for six years. Now there passes every evening a fast mail train of 
eight cars with twenty or thirty postal clerks, and another on the Air 
Line, besides all the mail carried over the Michigan Central. 

These two items in our commercial history show the progress this 
State has made more perfectly than any other I know of. Here was a 
railroad built by the people themselves, the State of Michigan, and 
charging the farmer more for transporting and handling his wheat 
sixty-seven miles, than it now, this seventh day of June, 1893, costs to 


transport it one thousand miles by rail, and three thousand miles by 
steamer to Liverpool or London, and yet the farmer appears to think 
these great corporations their worst enemies, are ready to fight them 
on all occasions. 

I suppose it to be true that the two great railroads of this State, 
the Michigan Central and the Michigan Southern, are managed by as 
hightoned, honorable business men, as any other great business 
interests in the country; that any party having a just claim is sure to 
get a prompt and honorable settlement. It only discloses an unhealthy 
public sentiment, that has taken hold of the public mind, which has 
largely been built up by the unthinking public press and ought to be 

The Michigan Southern was sold to a company in the winter of 1846 
and 1847 for $500,000, having cost the State $1,400,000. The company 
had ten years to pay it in, ten per cent down and ten per cent per 
year payable in the State indebtedness, which was then worth but 
forty-two cents on the dollar. The late Henry Waldron, John P. Cook, 
C. W. Ferris and myself took $10,000 each of the stock. At that time 
we could not have raised $10,000 all together but we still thought it a 
good business venture. My first $1,000 that 1 was to pay down cost me 
$420. The next year the road earned enough to pay the ten per cent, 
the third year we had to pay eight of the ten and then the road was 
sold, or rather a majority of the stock, to a new company. Soon after 
arrangements were made for its extension, supposing we would be 
called upon to pay the full amount of our stock we sold out, but made 
handsomely on our investment. 

At the time I speak of, the south part of the county was a substan- 
tial wilderness. Land three miles from town sold for three dollars to 
five dollars per acre. 



In undertaking a comparison of men with each other for the pur- 
pose of determining what benefit the world, or their fellow men, have 
derived by reason of their having lived, demands an analysis as to the 

284 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

prominent characteristics manifested to produce the results achieved. 
Bonaparte declared that " circumstances make men," and the question 
is often mooted whether character be the creation of circumstances or 
circumstances the creation of character. If we assume that circumstances 
create character we eliminate from it that vital causative energy which 
is its essential characteristic, or to assert that circumstances are the 
creation of character is to endow character with power not only to 
create but to furnish the material for creation. The results of both 
these processes, it seems to us, would not be character but caricature. 
We, therefore, must admit that circumstances furnish the nutriment for 
character, or the food which converts it into blood which is the pro- 
cess of assimilation and supplies individual power to act upon circum- 
stances. In all the departments of life success depends upon a knowl- 
edge preceding all assimilating of the circumstances connected with 
each department. 

Man standing for the thing, mastered or utilized, all its forces are 
in himself as a personal power and a personal intelligence. Character 
being the embodiment of things in persons, it is obviously limited in 
its sphere to facts and laws it has made its own, out of that sphere it 
is comparatively feeble. 

Many able lawyers, merchants and generals have been blunderers as 
statesmen, thus injustice is often done to the real merits of eminent 
men who have been enticed out of their strongholds of character to 
venture into unaccustomed fields of exertion where their incapacity is 
soon detected. But confine a characteristic man to the matters he has 
really mastered and there is in him no blundering, no indecision, no 
uncertainty, but a straight decisive activity. " Sure as insight and 
rapid as instinct," which is not to be imposed upon by nonsense of any 
kind, however prettily you may bedizen it in inapplicable eloquence. 
The perfection of character depends on the man's embodying the facts 
.and laws of his profession or avocation or object to such a degree of 
intensity that power and intelligence are combined. 

For knowledge unassimilated does not form part of the mind but is 
only attached to it and often blunders as badly as ignorance itself. 
While character, in its intrinsic nature is the embodiment of things in 
persons; the quality which most distinguishes men of character from 
men of passions and opinions, is persistency and the power to continue 
in its exercise until the end sought is accomplished. If we scrutinize 
the lives of persons who have become eminent in any department of 
action, we find it is not so much their brilliancy or fertility as their 
constancy of effort that makes them great. The heads of such men are 


not merely filled with ideas, purposes and plans, but the primary 
characteristics of their natures and secret of their success is that labor 
cannot weary nor obstacles discourage them. 

The distinction between the strong and the weak is that one persists, 
the other hesitates, falters, trifles and at last collapses. We have thus 
attempted to define the combination of the elements of human nature, 
and to indicate the great vital fact in human affairs that all influential 
powers in all departments of practical, intellectual, and moral energy, 
is that expression of character by forcible persisting and calculable 
persons, who have grown up into statures more or less colossal through 
an assimilation of material or spiritual realities. 

This fact makes production the test and measure of power; it also 
imprints on production the mental and moral imperfections of that 
power and with a kind of sullen sublimity declares, " That as a man is 
so shall his work be." The possession of these elements and the results 
reached by their exhibition is demonstrated and exemplified in the 
lives and acts of those men to whom Michigan is especially indebted 
for its present prosperous condition. 

Among those names first associated with. the discovery and first set- 
tlement of Michigan are those of Sieur de la Salle and de la Motte 

The former was born at Rouen, France, in 1643, of an honorable 
family, and named Robert Cavelier. He was educated among the 
Jesuits, but being dissatisfied with theology he chose that of science, 
the pursuit of which led him at the age of twenty-three to sail for 
Canada, or New France, where he first met Frontenac, then governor, 
between whom a strong friendship was formed which continued until 
the latter's recall to France. Parkman says, he was a man full of 
schemes of ambition and gain. Other of his biographers insist that 
the love of money was foreign to his nature, but was secondary to his 
desire to discover a passage to China across the continent, and in the 
event of failure to anticipate the Spaniards and English and colonize 
the great west with Frenchmen, to develop its resources, make friends 
with the Indian tribes, to obtain control of the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, and thus secure an outlet for a vast trade which should redound 
to the benefit of his native country. The last would seem to be, in the 
main, the ruling object of his life, for, while he did not find a direct 
route to China, he explored the whole southwest to the mouth of the 
Mississippi and established posts in Michigan and at numerous inter- 
vening points between it and the mouth of the Mississippi and took 
possession of all the vast territory watered by the latter stream in the 

286 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893, 

name of the king of France. Unfortunately he was not permitted to 
enjoy the fruits planted through toil, personal pecuniary loss, and the 
jealousies and persecutions of enemies in the old and new world, for 
on returning from France, through a mistake of his navigator, the 
mouth of the Mississippi was passed and he landed at Matagorda Bay, 
Texas, where, after building a fort, which he named St. Louis, he 
remained three years exploring the country, and while on one of these 
expeditions was murdered by one of his own men, March 20, 1687. 

Antoine de la Motte Cadillac, born at Toulouse, France, in 1661, was 
educated for the army and came to Quebec in 1682, was appointed to 
the command of Michilimackinac in 1694. In 1699 he visited France 
and laid before the king his plans for the establishment of a permanent 
settlement at Detroit. His plans meeting the approval of the king, he 
returned and July 24, 1701, founded the first settlement of a civil and 
permanent character in Michigan. 

It is needless to enter into details of the events that transpired 
during the nine years he was commandant at Detroit. 

It is sufficient that, against the wishes of the Canadian company and 
in opposition to the intrigues of designing men, he succeeded in 
founding a town composed of civilians, who made substantial improve- 
ments for those times, that he succeeded in inducing many of the 
Indians to adopt the customs of the whites, that he established schools 
where the children of both the whites and the Indians received 
instruction, that he encouraged the clearing and cultivation of the 
lands, erected mills, that from time to time he sent out men to explore 
and establish posts elsewhere throughout the territory. 

In short he did more to civilize the surrounding Indian tribes and to 
excite in them a disposition to emulate the customs and habits of their 
French neighbors, than did all his successors the fifty-one years during 
which Michigan was under French or English rule. Both La Salle 
and Cadillac were alike courageous and determined men and exercised 
great influence over the Indian tribes, but each manifested it differently. 
The former maintained his authority over the Indians through their 
fear; the latter held them through their love. Both had incurred the 
animosity of the colonial government and were forced to appeal to the 
king. Neither profitted pecuniarily through the labor, privations, and 
dangers they encountered. The former had spent over twenty years in 
pursuit of his grand scheme to make for himself fame as a discoverer 
and, doubtless, looked for the time when both wealth and power should 
be his reward. His heart, however, was in the work of discovery and 
in this field there are no brighter names in American history. Cadillac 


had given the best years of his life in his endeavor to promote civili- 
zation by means which should preserve its barbarous inhabitants, and 
the measure of success he achieved in this direction is strong evidence 
against the heartless theories which have led to their destruction, His 
name should always hold a prominent place in Michigan's history. 

As but little notable progress was made in the way of civilized 
improvements in Michigan after the removal of Cadillac, we pass from 
that period through French and English rule to 1813-14, at which time 
Lewis Cass and William Woodbridge became prominently connected 
with the affairs of the territory. 


Lewis Cass was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, October 9, 1783. 
Was appointed military governor of the territory of Michigan, October 
14, 1815, and the following year made permanent governor, with 
William Woodbridge as secretary. The war of 1812-15 had but closed, 
the population had been scattered and was still exposed to the ravages 
of the hostile Indians. A brave, sagacious and firm hand was therefore 
needed to restore order and confidence, as well as to rebuke outrages 
perpetrated by the English authorities in Canada under the plea that 
they had a right to invade the territory in search of and arrest 
deserters from their army. 

General Cass acted in these emergencies with energy and promptness. 
What the territory now needed was more people and he immediately 
took the necessary steps to induce them to come and assuming that 
the survey of lands, which had been directed, would soon be completed, 
he began to lay out that portion of the territory, where the Indian 
iitle had been extinguished, into Wayne county with its seat of justice 
at Detroit, and to divide the whole territory into road districts. 
Monroe county was established in 1817, just after Indiana had been 
admitted as a state. Illinois was admitted in 1818, thus leaving Michi- 
gan territory to embrace all north of those states. In all the measures 
in bringing about these results, the interests of Michigan proper were 
carefully guarded by Governor Cass so that by the year 1818 the terri- 
tory began to grow in population and in substantial improvements. 

In 1819 its population had reached the number authorized under the 
ordinance of 1787 to form a representative government, and this gave 
occasion for General Cass 10 show himself in advance of any statesman 
of his time in his ideas of popular interference in the selection of 
public officers, adhering as he did with great tenacity to the doctrine 
that the people should have a direct voice in appointments generally. 

288 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

He continued to hold the position of governor until 1831. During 
his term of seventeen years, he secured the respect of the men of all 
parties, which he retained during his life, notwithstanding party spirit 
at times ran high and apparently disregarded personal considerations or 
relations in the desire for party success; all, however, recognized his 
devotedness to Michigan, for, whether as secretary of war, secretary of 
State, or as minister to France, or as United States senator, he ever 
manifested for Michigan and all that concerned it, that it was ever first 
and uppermost in his thoughts. His last public demonstration evinced 
for and loyalty to it and the ' constitution. He died at Detroit June 
17, 1866. 


Governor William Woodbridge, a native of Connecticut, was born 
August 20, 1780, and in 1791 removed with his father to Ohio, then a 

He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1806. In 1807 he 
was a member of the Ohio assembly and state senator from 1809 to 
1814, when President Madison appointed him secretary of the territory 
of Michigan. 

He also acted as governor and superintendent of Indian agencies in 
the absence of the governor and was collector of customs. In 1819 he 
was the choice of all parties for delegate to congress, inasmuch as the 
right of the territory to be represented in congress was obtained 
.through his efforts. As a delegate he secured an appropriation to con- 
struct roads from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, Chicago, and through the 
black swamp to the Miami river in Ohio. He also secured the settle- 
ment of the old French claims and was instrumental in securing aid 
for General Cass' expedition to Lake Superior and the upper Miss- 
issippi. Refusing a second -election as delegate to congress, he acted 
as secretary until 1824, when he was appointed one of the commission- 
ers to adjust private land claims. In 1828 President Adams appointed 
him judge of the supreme court. He was a member of the constitu- 
tional convention in 1835, and state senator in 18H8-9, and was elected 
governor and served as such until 1841, when he was chosen United 
States senator, both Whigs and Democrats uniting in his election. 
After serving his term as senator he retired to private life. He died 
October 20, 1861. 

Gov. Woodbridge was a man of decided opinion and firm in his con- 
victions of right and fearless in expressing them. While occupying 
the numerous public positions of honor and trust he was distinguished 


for the impartial and just manner in which he administered and 
executed the requirements they imposed. 

Although General Cass and Governor Woodbridge differed on politi- 
cal questions, neither suffered them to interfere in the discharge of 
their respective duties and obligation to public interests and the good 
of Michigan. Each enjoyed the confidence and respect of all classes of 
the people. Both came to Michigan when its affairs were in a chaotic 
.state, and were instrumental in bringing them to that condition of 
order, which resulted in paving the way to its present proud position 
among its sister states. Neither of them became personally interested, 
pecuniarily, in large enterprises, yet so far as encouragement and weight 
of influence could promote, it was exercised in the interests of all that 
tended to advance the material growth of the State and the develop- 
ment of its resources. 


While his parents were on their way from Vermont to the west, 
through Canada, they were compelled to delay at New Hamborough, 
Upper Canada, where Captain Eber Brock Ward was born December 
25, 1811. His parents brought him to Michigan and with them he 
bore the privations, trials and hardships incident to pioneer life. 

At twenty-two years of age we find him at work on the farm of his 
uncle Samuel Ward, of St. Clair county. In the winter of 1835-6 he 
assisted his uncle in getting out ship timber, and in the spring of 
1836 purchased of his uncle a quarter interest in a small schooner. 
Thus commenced a partnership which continued during the life of his 
uncle. In 1840 the firm built its first steamer, and in 1845 it owned 
and controlled a feet of twenty steamers and sail vessels. In the latter 
year he ran two steamers on Lakes Michigan and Erie in connection 
with the Michigan Central railroad. This service he continued until 
that road had reached Chicago and the Great Western road was com- 
pleted and connected with it at Detroit. The Ward vessels afterward 
did a large general transportation business on Lakes Erie, Huron, 
Michigan, and Superior. During a portion of this period Capt. Ward 
became interested in the mines of Lake Superior, and also in the pine 
lands lying along the shores of Lakes Michigan and Huron, and soon 
afterward projected and saw completed the Flint and Pere Marquette 
railroad across the northern portion of the State. In 1864 he reduced 
his vessel interests somewhat, devoting his means to mining and manu- 
facturing and in the course of a few years had rolling mills at 

290 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

Wyandotte, Chicago, and Milwaukee, and had established large manu- 
facturing industries at Ludington, Toledo, Saginaw, and Flint. 

Among the most remarkable characteristics of Capt. Ward was his 
wonderful business ability and his capacity for organizing industrial 
enterprises. Perhaps no single individual in the United States did so 
much to disseminate information on the subject of promoting home 
industries as Captain Ward. 

As he has often repeated to the writer, he believed that the best 
philanthropy of the age was that which afforded the greatest amount 
of remunerative labor to the working men of the country. His heart 
was large, his charity abundant, his forethought and foresight wonderful, 
his will power indomitable, and his physical and moral courage 


About the time when Capt. Ward had successfully established his 
lines of steamers upon the lakes (1846), James F. Joy and his associ- 
ates had negotiated with the State for the purchase of the Michigan 
Central railroad, then constructed to Kalamazoo. In consequence of 
financial embarrassment, the credit of the State was so impaired as to 
be totally unable to meet its obligations or to provide the means for 
completing its public works which had been projected and commenced 
under the legislative acts of 1836-7. The Michigan Central railroad 
was among them. 

It was then, when the State was on the eve of bankruptcy, that 
Mr. Joy and his associates came to its rescue and purchased this road 
and extended it to Chicago. At this time it was the first great line 
of railroad to enter that city with a population of between 8,000 and 

Having reached this point, Mr. Joy saw that the Michigan Central 
must have connections west, and starting from Chicago with his 
engineers, he projected the present Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 
railroad across the Mississippi at Quincy and the Missouri at Kansas 
City; made its connections with the Hannibal and St. Joseph; thence 
extending a branch to Fort Kearney, Nebraska, and Fort Scott, Indian 
territory, established a continuous line from these points to Detroit. 
In the extension of the Hannibal, and St. Joseph road to Kansas City 
he spanned the river with the first iron bridge across the Missouri, 
and constructed the Kansas City, Fort Scott and Gulf railroad to the 
Indian territory and Kansas City; the St. Joseph and Council Bluffs 
road from Kansas City to Council Bluffs. When returning to Michigan 


he, between the years 1861 and 1870 projected and completed the 
Detroit, Lansing and Northern; Detroit and Bay City; Air Line, from 
Jackson to Niles; Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw; Chicago and West 
Michigan; Kalamazoo and South Haven, and the Wabash from Detroit 
to Chicago. 

He is at present the president of the Detroit union depot and its 
railway connections, and planned the present union depot buildings in 
Detroit, which are pronounced to be the most complete of any west of 
New York. 

From 1846 to the present, Mr. Joy has been the chief factor in the 
construction of over two thousand three hundred miles of railroads in 
Michigan, and the promoter of over six thousand miles of the railroads 
and their connection entering the city of Detroit. 

Mr. Joy was born at Durham, New Hampshire, Dec. 2, 1810. A 
kind providence has permitted him to live and retain his mental and 
physical powers in vigor as full as that of his early manhood, and to 
contemplate the changes which have taken place through his instru- 
mentality, to view the forests disappear and to be replaced by prosper- 
ous cities and towns, and the great highways constructed which con- 
nects and promotes their growth, to witness the progress of art and 
the advance of learning and the increase of an intelligent population. 

It cannot be regarded as fulsomeness when we say that both the 
present and future generations of Michigan should recognize Mr. Joy 
as one of the prominent factors in promoting many of the changes 
which have occurred within fifty years in Michigan, as well as in the 
states. west, directly through his agency. 

The characteristics manifested by both Captain Ward and Mr. Joy 
-are similar in respect to their great undertaking, for what seemed to 
others boldness in conception, were to them the product of careful 
thoughts and well matured plans, while neither permitted ordinary 
obstacles to interfere with their consummation, at the same time both 
recognized that personal interests should be subordinate to public good, 
while doubtless personal gain entered into their calculations, still the 
ruling motive with them was to meet the demands of general business 

Both found in Michigan and its surroundings a field for the exercise 
of their power to conserve, perfect and complete large enterprises, 
where millions of money was required but where millions of men and 
women would be correspondingly benefited. 

While Captain Ward was covering the waters of the great lakes with 
liis fleet vessels, Mr. Joy was reducing distances with the iron rail, 

292 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

thus cooperating, they afforded the workingman compensating employ- 
ment; the farmer and manufacturer ready sale for their products^ and 
commenced the facilities for transportation and paved the way for the 
development of all the natural resources of this great State. 

Thus, while we have referred to these few names of Michigan's pio- 
neers as demonstrating and exemplifying, in their lives and acts, the 
possession and assimilation of those elements which form what we have 
sought in our introduction to define as constituting character, there 
are hundreds of the pioneers of Michigan whose names and lives 
remind us as having manifested the possession of these attributes, to 
whom Michigan is greatly indebted for its development of material 
wealth as well as in literature, and an educated and refined population. 

Gladly would we refer to them and detail the evidences of their 
influence in bringing our State to its present condition, but time and 
space will not permit it. 



The territorial legislature of Michigan, as early as 1833, passed an 
act to incorporate the Detroit and St. Joseph railroad company. The- 
object of the company was to build a railroad from Detroit to St. 
Joseph, on Lake Michigan. This was the first mention in the legisla- 
tion of the State of any railroad to Detroit. There was, at that time, 
but little railroad constructed in the whole country. The Boston and 
Lowell, and the Boston and Worcester were all in New England. 
Albany to Schenectady and a commencement of the road from Schenec- 
tady west only, were about all the railroads in the United States north 
of Mason aud Dixon's line. What a difference between now and then! 

The Detroit and St. Joseph railroad company was commenced and 
under great difficuties was in progress and some work done between 
Detroit and Ypsilanti, in 1836, when the State determined to undertake 
to build that road through to St. Joseph, to be called the Central 


road, and also one from Monroe, and one from the foot of Lake Huron, 
also, to Lake Michigan. The terminus of the Central road was fixed 
on the Campus Martius, where the city hall now stands. It came into 
the city along Michigan avenue, then called the Chicago road. At one 
time it extended from the Campus Martius along down through Wood- 
ward avenue to the border of the Detroit river, and that part of it was 
constructed by Thomas Palmer (father of the Hon. Thomas W. Palmer) 
under a contract with the railroad commissioners representing the 
State. It was a singular movement and illustrates how little the 
business to come was understood. To build a railroad through the 
middle of the street and on to the river at the foot of a hill, with no 
station or station grounds upon which to do business, and with no plan 
to acquire any, and with no possibility of doing so for such an 
approach, would hardly commend itself to the judgment of a railway 
man of the present day. It is needless to say that that part of the 
road was never used for any purpose and was soon taken up. 

In March, 1837, the legislature passed an act, under which it under- 
took the construction of the three railroads above mentioned across 
the State, and authorized a State loan on the bonds of the State for 
$5,000,000 to enable it to build them. 

Both the amount of money which was thought adequate for the 
construction of about six hundred miles of railroad, and the history of 
the negotiation of the bonds, proves how little the cost of railroads 
was then understood, and how unfit the then authorities were to 
manage such negotiations. The parties with whom the business was 
transacted failed, and as the sale was on the credit of the State, it 
never received but a portion of the money, and was involved in many 
difficulties, both embarrassing its own work, detrimental to its credit, 
and causing it to be treated as a repudiating State, because it refused 
to pay bonds upon which it had never received the money agreed to 
be paid for them. 

The State, however, had undertaken the work of internal improve- 
ment. But it soon became bankrupt. It did not build a mile of the 
northern road. It built but a few miles of the Michigan Southern 
from Monroe (now Lake Shore and Michigan Southern). In the course 
of about eight years it did build the Central to Kalamazoo. It was 
built with strap rail, so called, about half an inch thick, laid upon 
wood stringers, which in turn were laid on cross beams or ties sunk 
or buried in the ground. To accomplish even this the whole means 
and credit of the State were exhausted. It used its credit abroad 
where it had any. It then resorted to forced loans in the form of 

294 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

bills or notes of the State, similar to bank notes, in which it paid for 
materials and labor till even they could not be used. In 1846 it had 
become so utterly without credit that it was compelled to negotiate the 
sale of all its public works, and among them the Central road from 
Detroit to Kalamazoo. What a difference again between the condition 
of affairs then, and the credit and ability of the very prosperous and' 
great State of Michigan of the present day! 

The Michigan Central charter, proposing a sale to a corporation, to- 
be formed to take and complete the road as provided and agreed in 
the charter, was passed in 1846. The company was to finish it through 
to the lake at New Buffalo, instead of St. Joseph, within three years;; 
to relay the already built road as well as the new with sixty pound- 
iron rail; to change its eastern terminus from the Campus Martius and 
the entrance by the Chicago road (as it was then called), over a new 
line to the river, where it should acquire adequate yards for its 

The company which took the road was a strong one. It complied 
with its charter, and within the three years the road was built to New 
Buffalo and a harbor constructed there, and the through business by 
water and rail between Chicago and New York and New England 
commenced over the road. It was the first considerable road built in 
the west. The business then begun has been every year increasing in 
magnitude, though there are five or more roads from Chicago east, all 
competing for the through business. In three years more it was 
extended to Chicago, and the first great railroad from the east entered 
that city, then containing from 8,000 to 10,000 inhabitants, hardly as 
large as Detroit at the same time. 

The sale of the Central road to the corporation and the resulting 
construction of the road, gave great impulse to the progress of both the 
city and State. The Southern was sold and also constructed through 
to Chicago. 

The Detroit and Pontiac railroad was chartered in 1834 to build a 
road between Detroit and Pontiac. It was undertaken with inadequate 
means, and it was many years, even, before it reached Pontiac. It 
originally came into the city on the north side of the Campus Martius, 
where the Detroit opera house now stands. In 1850 it was authorized 
to extend to the river, and also to extend through Pontiac and 
connect with the Oakland and Ottawa road, which, when built, was to 
extend to Lake Michigan. This plan was carried through, and the two 
roads consolidated constitute the present Detroit, Grand Haven and 
Milwaukee railroad. 


A charter had been passed by the legislature for the construction of 
a railroad from Detroit to Toledo at the session of 1846, to be called 
the Detroit and Monroe railroad, and some efforts were made to build it, 
but all failed, and the charter by its limitations expired. In 1855 the 
first general railroad law was enacted, and under it the Detroit, Monroe 
and Toledo Railroad Company was organized in the same year, and the 
road constructed by the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern stockholders 
in the interest of that company, which now is in control of the Lake 
Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad Company. 

It is a valuable piece of the property of that prosperous company. 
Now came on a panic and but little was done in the way of building 
railroads for several years. 

In 1871 the Detroit and Lansing railroad was organized under the 
general law and was built through to Lansing. It was afterwards, in 
1876, consolidated with the Ionia and Lansing, and now constitutes the 
Detroit, Lansing and Northern railroad. It is an important and valuable 
road to both city and county. 

In 1871 the Detroit and Bay City was organized, and quickly built 
through to both Saginaw and Bay City, and now constitutes a portion 
of the line from Detroit to Mackinac. These two roads were built 
largely by those interested in the Michigan Central Company. 

About the time of the construction of these two roads, or perhaps 
earlier, the Canada Southern, and Chicago and Canada Southern had 
been undertaken by capitalists living in New York, with the purpose 
of erecting a shorter line between Chicago and Buffalo, as well as one 
of the easiest grades to cross the Detroit river at Grosse Isle. The 
enterprise proved a failure and the company became bankrupt. 

The whole plan fell through. The Chicago and Canada Southern 
being partly built from Trenton west, was extended from Trenton to 
Detroit, and subsequently from Trenton to Toledo, and became the 
property of the Michigan Central Company. 

The Canada Southern, also in Canada, having been insolvent for 
some years, was acquired by the Michigan Central and extended from 
Essex Center, in Canada, to Detroit, and now constitutes a part of the 
through line of the Michigan Central from Chicago to Buffalo, all the 
business crossing the river at Detroit. 

Next to the Michigan Central the most important road for Detroit for 
many years was the Great Western of Canada, extending from Windsor, 
opposite Detroit, to Niagara Falls. 

The Michigan Central had been completed to Chicago, and had been 

296 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

in operation several years before the Great Western was undertaken. 
There was no road through Canada. 

The travel and business was across Lake Erie on magnificent steam- 
ers, constituting the Michigan Central line between Detroit and 
Buffalo. A splendid line of boats, and constituting a most pleasant as 
well as magnificent mode and route for both pleasure and business. 

The Great Western Railroad Company owed its origin to the Michi- 
gan Central Company. The men at the head of the latter company 
were its promoters. They enlisted with them the New York Central 
Company, and started into life the interest of Canada all along the line 
of the proposed road, and at Detroit. By the united strength of all, the 
required life was given to the enterprise, and the road was built, though 
with immense difficulty and effort. It was the first road built in 
Canada. It was injured by the alliance of the Michigan Central with 
the Canada Southern, and finally fell into the control of the Grand 
Trunk, of which system it is now a part, and is known only as Grand 

The Detroit and Port Huron branch of the Grand Trunk road was 
built entirely by this company in about 1855, and was for many years 
its main line for all through business connecting with the Michigan 
Central Road at West Detroit, and for many years all the large busi- 
ness of the Grand Trunk to and from the west was done by that road. 
It is now reduced to a mere local road by the extension of the Grand 
Trunk connections to Chicago. 

The Detroit, Butler and St. Louis Railroad, extending from Detroit 
to Butler in Indiana, was undertaken in 1880 by public spirited citizens 
of Detroit to connect the Wabash Railroad with the city of Detroit. 

It was undertaken after all means had failed to bring that great sys- 
tem to Detroit. Negotiations had been had to use one of the lines 
between Detroit and Toledo, and obtain the connection that way, but 
it was found impossible to accomplish it, and no other way remained 
but to build a new road. As above stated, it was undertaken by citi- 
zens of Detroit, and finally the road was completed in 1881. At Butler 
it connected with the Wabash, making a very straight line by that 
road to St. Louis, and opened the southwest, Indiana, Illinois and 
Missouri to the business of Detroit, and brings largely the productions 
of those fertile states to and through Detroit. 

The last of the railroads connecting with Detroit has been the 
Canadian Pacific. It is another road from Detroit to all the eastern 
centers of the Dominion of Canada, and all the eastern states of the 
United States. It is destined to become one of the great through 


routes of the country, connecting as it does at Detroit with both Chi- 
cago and St. Louis railroads, and by them reaching the whole west and 
northwest of this country. 

The condition of several of the roads connecting with Detroit has 
made necessary many depots and stations for their accommodation. To 
accomplish their establishment and construction, several of the citizens 
of Detroit have united together and established at first the Detroit 
Union Railroad Depot and Station Company, and constructed it with a 
connecting railroad through the western section of the city to the 
Wabash and other railroads there, and have also brought about the 
establishment of the Fort Street Union Depot Company, principally as 
a passenger station. This brings the roads nearer to the center of 
the city and furnishes as convenient a passenger station as is perhaps 
possible. These depot and station establishments are as important, 
perhaps, to promote the convenience of the public, as any public 
improvement which has been undertaken at Detroit, save the sale of 
the Central railroad to the company now owning it. 

In looking back over the progress of many years of the State and 
city in prosperity, the transfer of the Central road to the present com- 
pany must be considered the most effective in its influence upon the 
prosperity of the whole State as well as of the city. It was a strong 
company. The influence of the company upon property was immediate 
and has been constant. Its strength has been felt in the construction 
of many other railroads, lateral and otherwise, extending largely over 
the State, and always tending to bring the benefit of all its connections 
to the city. While contributing greatly and immensly to the interests 
of the whole State, it has equally been the largest factor in the prog- 
ress and prosperity of the city of Detroit. Each new enterprise has 
done much, and all of them in the aggregate have contributed to carry 
forward the State from its bankrupt condition to its present state 
of prosperity and wealth, and build up the present large and prosper- 
ous Detroit. While, therefore, all have been valuable, the Michigan 
Central has been always easily the most important factor in the State's 

[Published in the Detroit Free Press, May 1, 1892.] 

Discoursing with Mr. James F. Joy on early railroading in the west, 
apropos of the recent publication in the Free Press of the experience 
of Mr. A. B. Priest as a locomotive engineer for forty-six years and of 

298 ANNUAL, MEETING, 1893. 

Mr. Samuel Skelding as a conductor for a somewhat longer period, Mr. 
Joy was requested to relate how he came to engage in railroad work. 

" In the summer of 1845," said Mr. Joy, " Mr. John W. Brooks paid 
a visit to Detroit, bringing letters to me from friends in New England. 
He came to the office of Joy & Porter, and after several conversations 
upon the subject of the Michigan Central railroad, I unfortunately took 
the step which led me away from the practice of the noble profession 
of law to become a railroad man." 

Mr. Joy's eyes twinkled as he made this remark, and he laughed 
quietly as his interlocutor looked at him in some surprise. " Without 
judging from your standpoint about that, Mr. Joy, I should say that it 
was a fortunate thing for Detroit and Michigan for the rest of us 
that you took that step." 

<l lt was that circumstance of meeting with Mr. Brooks," continued 
Mr. Joy, " which engaged me in railroad work and took me into such 
enterprises deeper and deeper until they engrossed my whole time. 
Perhaps if we look further back it may have been some articles which 
I published in the Detroit papers quite a while before this, advocating 
the selling of the railroads then owned and operated by the State. If 
you will look into the old files you will find several letters on this 
subject written by me, a long time before the visit of Mr. Brooks to 
the office of Joy & Porter in 1845, and without any thought of 
having personally any part in the matter except as a citizen favoring 
a sound and proper policy for the State government. 

" You must understand that at this time the State of Michigan was 
in extreme financial difficulties. It was overburdened with liabilities 
and there was no money in the treasury. It could not meet the interest 
on the public debt and there was serious action taken looking to the 
repudiation of the State's bonded indebtedness. In fact in financial 
circles we were looked upon as dishonest, and Michigan was charged 
with being a State repudiating its debts. A kind of state treasury 
note known as ' scrip ' circulated hazardously at a woeful discount. 
That was all the money within the State's resources. The railroads 
owned by the State were terribly dilapidated affairs. The rails were of 
flat bars, worn and broken into short lengths of a few feet or yards, 
and everything was getting worse and no prospects for improvement. 

" I will tell you how the State became involved. I knew of it from 
the beginning. It started in 1834-35. I was in Augustus Porter's law 
office. The men who were influential in public affairs were in the 
habit of coming to the office to talk upon subjects relating to the 
welfare of the infant State. I heard their discussions and knew of 


their projects. Stevens T. Mason was Governor young, impulsive, 
gallant and progressive and public improvements were concluded to be 
a most necessary thing. A proposition was brought before the Legis- 
lature to borrow $5,000,000 for this purpose. It was earnestly dis- 
cussed. The Legislature held its meetings in the old capitol, in the 
building now somewhat transformed and used by the Detroit high 
school. I remember in particular the earnestness of Representative 
Elisha Ely of Allegan, a member in 1835, '36, and '37, quite an old 
man then, with a young wife, whose vigorous speech favoring internal 
improvements brought down the House. 

" The loan carried and Gov. Mason and Theodore Romeyn were 
appointed a committee to negotiate it. They went to New York and 
saw the officers of the United States bank. That institution was then 
experiencing the stress of adverse weather. It was toward the close of 
Gen. Jackson's administration and it was his policy to abolish the 
bank. The officers of the bank therefore told the Michigan envoys 
that they could not take the loan, but they would recommend them to 
the Morris Canal and Banking Company. 

" The Morris Canal and Banking Company was a New Jersey insti- 
tution, and an arrangement was soon made with them to loan the 
money to the State of Michigan. The terms were not at all favorable, 
but they were the best that could be had at the time. Mason was 
not a good business man, but he was honest. He turned over to the 
New Jersey company bonds to the amount of $5,000,000 and received 
as cash in hand between $400,000 and $500,000. I do not now remem- 
ber the exact sum, but this amount was given in new bills issued by 
the Morris Canal and Banking Company. As I said, Mason handed 
over all the bonds; Romeyn should have known better. In exchange 
they received a trunk full of the new bills, amounting to $500,000, or 
near that sum, and came on to Detroit with the money. It was the 
first installment on the loan, and the rest was to be forthcoming later. 

" The New Jersey men had placed a private mark on each bank note. 
Their object was to see how long the bills would remain in circulation 
in the western country, then considered to be so remote, before they 
would come back to the bank for redemption! Mr. Romeyn did not 
know of the private mark on the bills. 

" The trunk and its contents were taken to the Michigan State Bank 
of which Mr. Norton was then the cashier. The money was recounted 
and, to the consternation of everybody, found to be $5,000 short. A 
singular thing was that the missing $5,000 was not taken in complete 
packages, but bills were extracted here and there from the different 

300 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

packages of the trunk. Probably this careful selection was done with 
the idea of avoiding the risk of tracing bank notes consecutively num- 
bered. At any rate, bills were missing from the several packages, and 
the amount was $5,000. 

" There was a great ado over this discovery. Gov. Mason was greatly 
distressed about it. He finally concluded not to pay out any of the 
money. The trunk full of new bills continued to remain sealed and 
undisturbed in the custody of the Michigan State Bank. It was said 
that the Governor met Mr. Komeyn on the street and pointedly 
remarked to him: 'Bomeyn, they say either you or I stole that $5,000. 
I will take my oath that I did not steal it.' One day, quite a while 
later, the missing money was returned through the mail, the package 
bearing the stamp of the postoffice at Cleveland, O. The deficiency 
being thus made good, the State was ready to make a beginning on its 
work of internal improvements, and had a little money to start on. 

" Before all the five millions were paid over I think, in fact, before 
as much as two millions were paid over the United States Bank had 
failed, the Morris Canal and Banking Company had failed, and over 
$5,000,000 of bonds had been sent to Europe to satisfy creditors of 
those institutions over there. Michigan was called upon to pay inter- 
est and principal on five millions of dollars, and had realized much 
less than half that amount from the loan. The State had been cheated, 
and this fact, of course, gave rise to the indignation and complaint of 
citizens, the danger of repudiation, and troubles legislative, political 
and financial, which made us very unhappy for a long time. The end 
of it was, after years of disagreement, a compromise; the State 
redeeming principal and interest at the rate of $483.89 for each $1,000 
bond that it recognized as valid, which goes to show that it had not 
realized much more than forty per cent of the whole loan. 

"This loan, this $5,000,000, which amounted as a definite sum, paid into 
the State, to probably not more than $2,000,000, was to be used to con- 
struct three railroads across this peninsula and one canal. One rail- 
road was to start from Monroe the southern road; one was to start 
from Detroit the central road; and one was to start from Port Huron 
the northern road. The canal was to begin at Mt. Clemens, and by 
utilizing the Clinton river and lakes and streams which might serve as 
feeders, connect with the Grand river, and reach a water outlet at Lake 
Michigan. Some money a good deal of money for those days was 
expended on all of these projects. The Central railroad was by far the 
most advanced in construction of them all, the day John W. Brooks 
came into Joy & Porter's office. It was the chief trunk line of the 


State. It extended to Marshall. The Southern road was finished after 
a fashion as far as Hillsdale. 

"John W. Brooks was then about 27 years old, a man of great 
energy and ability, of ideas and industry, educated as a civil engineer 
and at this time was the superintendent of the Syracuse and Rochester 
railroad. This road, now known as the 'old road' of the New York 
Central, ran from Syracuse via Auburn and Canandaigua to Rochester. 
Previous to this, at the age of 25, Brooks had worked on the con- 
struction of the Boston and Maine railroad as assistant chief engineer. 
When that railroad was completed and no other work of that kind 
offered, he went to the lumber woods of Maine and was energetically 
applying himself there when he was called to take charge of the road 
in New York. As the superintendent of this line, he soon came to have 
a knowledge of the growing west and the sources of traffic for his rail- 
road. Besides, he wanted to engage in some great enterprise. My 
letters to the newspapers satisfied him that the State would never 
complete the Central railroad to a port on Lake Michigan, and being 
ambitious to do this work he came to Detroit to look over the ground 
and confer with me. I consented to act with him, drew a charter for 
the railroad company and was to endeavor to get the legislature to 
authorize the sale of the road. Brooks, already having some conditional 
or partial assurances of backing from capitalists at Boston, was to pro- 
ceed to organize a company to purchase the road, complete it and 
operate it. 

" The legislature met in December. The strongest opposition imagin- 
able was aroused against the bill to sell the Central railroad to a 
chartered company. The opposition was incited by the jealousies of 
Monroe and the counties on the route of the Southern road and by 
Port Huron and the friends of the Northern railroad, and it was urged 
that if the State abandoned the Central to a private company, the 
other roads would be crippled, neglected and destroyed. It took until 
about the last day of the session to pass the bill. When it had 
passed the Monroe people hastened to have a similar measure adopted 
for the Southern road. Elisha C. Litchfield, of Detroit, supported by 
John Stryker, a capitalist of Rome, N. Y.', undertook to form a 
company for the Southern road and succeeded after much difficulty 
and delay. 

"The charter of the Michigan Central provided that the company 
should pay the State $2,000,000 for the road; $500,000 within six 
months, and $1,500,000 in twelve months after that, with interest at 6 
per cent. A new trouble arose among the capitalists. Many of those 

302 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

who had provisionally decided to go into the company, refused when 
it came to the pinch, but offered their good will. The terms of our 
charter were not enticing, and it was only by great effort and at the 
last moment that the company was solidly organized and the money 
paid in. 

"John M. Forbes was the first president, continuing as such for 
many years. He was a tea merchant who had amassed a fortune in 
Hong Kong and had invested much of it as a partner in Russell & 
Co., bankers and brokers of Boston. John E. Thayer, one of the lead- 
ing bankers of Boston, came in; John C. Green, a China merchant; 
George Griswold; also, Erastus Corning, a great iron merchant of 
Albany, and D. A. Neal. This was in 1846. William Sturges, whose 
great wealth had been acquired in the fur trade, and Alexander 
Duncan, a New York banker, backed out. 

"We went to work, Mr. Brooks as general superintendent, and in 
two years had the road completed to New Buffalo. A slip, something 
like our ferry landings at Detroit, was constructed in the harbor there, 
and small steamers ran across the lake to Chicago in connection with 
the railroad. Capt. E. B. Ward, some years before the time I speak 
of, had solicited my assistance in forming a company to build a small 
steamer for the St. Clair river trade. As I knew nothing of the 
steamboat business I did not engage with Capt. Ward. He went on 
and built his boat at a cost of $11,000, monopolized the trade between 
Detroit and Port Huron, and soon made enough to build the Champion, 
one of the boats that afterward connected our line with Chicago. Capt. 
Ward also provided two steamers for the Lake Erie connection and 
the company provided one, the Mayflower. Mr. Brooks found a field 
large enough to take up his best energies, and was happy. 

"As we were getting along toward the Lake Michigan terminus, it 
came upon us by degrees that the water route was only an expedient 
and that it would be necessary in the end to lay our rails into Chicago. 
The Southern company was languishing at this time and we might 
have bought them out for a small sum. Mr. Brooks and I went to 
New York to secure the approval of the company. They refused to 
accept the proposition," said Mr. Joy, with a manifestation of his 
surprise, which, no doubt, the course of events since that proposal was 
made has amply justified. 

" The Michigan Southern could get no suitable port on Lake Mich- 
igan unless it was St. Joseph, and this was not satisfactory to them. 
Their charter required them to go through Niles. For our part we 
wished to go through Indiana, but could obtain no charter in that 


state. A railroad had been chartered by the Indiana legislature to run 
across the northern counties of the state taking in Laporte, South 
Bend, etc., and it was known as the Northern Indiana. Nothing had 
been done on this road arid in the year 1848 I negotiated with the 
Northern Indiana company for the purchase of its charter for $50,000. 

" I was well satisfied with this purchase and so was Mr. Brooks. He 
wrote me a letter commending it, using all the obvious arguments for 
an all-rail route to Chicago, and closed with a prediction that in 
twenty years Chicago would have a population of 200,000 people. I 
hastened to New York and saw President Forbes and the directors. 
The matter apparently received favorable consideration until that 
portion of Brooks' letter was reached prophesying 200,000 people for 
Chicago in 1868 and the prospects of traffic with such a city. That 
unfortunate prediction spoiled the bargain. I remember distinctly the 
incredulous attitude of the directors. They were undoubtedly the 
foremost business men of their day the men engaged in the largest 
enterprises, and they scoffed at this prediction. They looked upon the 
man who made it as visionary, so lacking in judgment that they would 
not pin their faith upon him. Therefore they rejected the proposition 
to acquire the Northern Indiana for $50,000, and we continued to make 
connections with Chicago by boat across the lake. . 

"The Michigan Southern people stepped in, and when it was offered 
them bought the charter of the Northern Indiana, and commenced to 
lay rails through that state from White Pigeon to Elkhart through for 
Chicago. To retrieve the Michigan Central, I went to Indianapolis 
and labored with the Indiana legislature for a charter to cross the 
state. The Michigan Southern people fought me. I retaliated in the 
Michigan legislature against them for their failure to run to Niles, as 
provided in their charter. Stopping at White Pigeon was a long way 
short of Niles. They called upon the Northern Indiana towns Elkhart, 
Laporte, South Bend, Goshen for reinforcements. Schuyler Colfax, 
afterwards vice president of the United States, joined with them. I 
could not get my charter through. At last we agreed, both sides, to 
leave Indianapolis and stop the fight. 

" The Indiana legislature had chartered a road called the New Albany 
and Salem to build a north and south line. The road had a few miles 
constructed on its southern end. Before I left Indianapolis these 
people came to me and suggested that I could use their charter. I 
examined it and found that by inserting certain amendments, author- 
izing the company to extend its line to a point or points off from the 
main line, to locate any section of its road that it might find expedient, 

304 ANNUAL MEETING, 1893. 

and to build first any section that it might choose in short a roving 
charter that then the Michigan Central conld avail itself of it. 

"I left Indianapolis, the other side did the same. The New Albany 
and Salem charter amendments passed without objection. That company 
laid out a section of their line from Michigan City, on the Michigan 
border, to the Illinois line. The Michigan Central Company effected a 
perpetual lease of this charter for the sum of $500,000, and other 
engagements in the nature of a mortgage. It was a large price, but 
there was no help for it. 

"I went east the second time within a year with this patched up 
charter to get across the State of Indiana. President Forbes did not 
think it was sufficient, and I could not convince him that it was. He 
sent for Judge Benj. K. Curtis, of Massachusetts, a great lawyer, 
afterwards of the United States supreme court the one who wrote 
the famous opinion of the minority of that court in the Dred Scott 
case he sent for Judge Curtis and asked his counsel, Judge Curtis 
unhesitatingly agreed with me. Mr. Forbes and the directors at once 
accepted the charter and ratified the bargain at $500,000. 

"Being now free to build our line across Indiana, I said to Presi- 
dent Forbes that $500,000 was a high rate of interest to pay for 

"He said that it undoubtedly was but that he could now easier pay 
$500,000 than he could have paid the $50,000 when that proposal 
came up. 

"Our next trouble was to get across the state of Illinois. I spent 
time at Springfield, trying for a charter that would give us this 
privilege. Although I was ably assisted by Abraham Lincoln, I did 
not succeed in my efforts. The assistance of the future President 
Lincoln availed not as much for our interests in Illinois as the opposi- 
tion of the future Vice President Colfax availed against them in 

"The difficulty was met by diverting the route of the Illinois 
Central, a duly chartered north and south line, by allowing it to come 
over to the Indiana border, and thence into Chicago. This was 
effected by an amendment to the charter. An agreement was made by 
the Michigan Central for the use of its right of way, and the joint 
purchase and occupancy of depot grounds in Chicago. That is how it 
comes about that these two roads have joined together in all their 
improvements at Chicago, and that is briefly the story of a long and 
bitterly contested struggle to get the Michigan Central into Chicago.'* 



[Published in the Detroit Free Press in 1877-8.] 

No. I. 

" Old times have gone; old manners changed." Scott. 

Having been for many years a cosmopolitan and a " coast" man, as all 
inhabitants of that region lying west of the Missouri river style them- 
selves, on the hypothesis that " The Pacific Coast " reaches clear over 
to the big muddy. 

I long since learned that two meals each day are much more health- 
ful and better, and that neither man nor beast can work well on a full 
stomach; so I put away as far as possible all dinners at midday, and 
taking a light lunch, dine only when the day's work is over. When- 
ever the merchants, bankers, business men and professionals adopt this 
rule, and work by it, they will find they can do much more labor from 
10 a. m., to 4 p. m., than by a break of two hours in midday, and 
that the thousands of people who come in on the morning trains to 
business and return in the evening will be much better accommodated 
than by their present mode of business. Courts especially that sit 
from 9 a. m. to 4 p. m., with a ten minute's recess at 1 o'clock can 
dispatch more business in one day than in three with a recess of two 

Looking for a light lunch at 1 p. m. yesterday, I saw at the corner 
or angle of Griswold and Fort streets the word " Restaurant " in large 
letters, and in I rushed for a cup of caf au lait and a sandwich; and as 
I sat there and looked through the rain over that splendid city hall; 
that exquisite monument to the bravery and blood of Michigan's sons 
who died on the land and sea during the war; around over the 
Russell House, with its staring array cf windows and blinds and 
listened to the clattering of the street cars and merry tinkling of their 


bells; and saw all around in every direction the great magazines, ware- 
houses and shops of commerce of 125,000 people, memory, bright as 
the morning's sunlight, carried me back to the by-gones of 


Sipping my coffee, the scene changed, and I saw in my mind's eye 
on this identical location including that occupied by the city hall, the 
old Baptist church and all of this high ground or knoll, a herd of 
wearied cows, muddy and worn out by long travel, stretched here and 
there, just brought from Ohio by Mr. Wight for his milk ranch below 
town, he then being a hale, hearty, middle aged man, engaged in the 
milk business, while today he is a retired man of wealth, slowly pass- 
ing away, and shut out from all the glories and beauties of this great 
handiwork of God. Between that herd of cattle and the old capitol, 
now that beautiful union school house, not one single building was 
erected, either on Griswold street or Michigan avenue; but a long nar- 
row plank walk over the green sward (for it was May, 1833), to the 
capitol, where the "Supreme Court of the Territory of Michigan" was 
then in session, was the sole isthmus that connected Detroit with that 
beautiful suburb. 

At the same time (1833) on the west side of Woodward avenue, just 
below Woodbridge street, stood a low, two story, old-fashioned, wooden 
building, probably over fifty years old, standing perhaps ten feet back 
from the avenue, with a steep roof, dormer windows, and a huge brass 
knocker on the door, on w.hich was cut in deep letters "James Abbott." 
" The latch string of the old door was always on the outside," for there 
lived for many a long year one of Detroit's most active and successful 
old-fashioned merchants, a man of figures and of wealth, a sturdy 
descendent of an English family, born in Montreal about the year 1791, 
who, in the "fur trade," in commission business and supplying the 
military posts of Michigan and the Northwest, had accumulated a very 
large estate, for he owned nearly half of that whole block, and who 
always maintained to his death the character of the fine old English 
gentleman, "all of ye olden time," and who amidst a long life of 
business entertained with true baronial hospitality all who made his 
acquaintance and sought society under his roof. 

In those days the merchant princes of Detroit, and Mr. Abbott 
especially, lived in small, snug, cosy houses, richly furnished with real 
mahogany table spread with solid silver and the finest linen; cellars 
full of pure old brandy, Jamaica rum, London port, luscious Maderia, 
and sherries that would make the blood dance in one's veins; and the 


richer they grew the more hospitable they became, the more they 
entertained with elegant dinners. After business was over splendid 
suppers and dancing parties were the order almost every evening, after 
navigation was closed until the next summer came. 

No better representative home of Detroit, fifty years ago, could be 
found than that of James Abbott, on Woodward avenue, and he 
himself, his genial, jolly wife, his beautiful daughter Sarah, too soon 
to die, A ant Cad Whistler, an antique sister of Mr. Abbott, the most 
graceful dancer and waltzer then in Detroit, his then two roystering 
wild sons, Madison and Bill Abbott, who sometimes in grand frolic 
rode their horses up into the old Mansion House and drank julep and 
toddy with Jack Smith from the counter there. All these grouped 
in a photographic gallery would tell the story of " By-gones of 

But commerce had increased. The old steamers Niagara, Clay, 
Sheldon Thompson, had given way to the New York, the Michigan, 
and such floating palaces. The docks were crowded in summer with 
vessels and Judge Abbott found that he must move away from the 
busy, crowded port of Detroit to a quiet retreat in the country remote 
from all business, and so he built the then elegant home in which I was 
now sitting taking my lunch. At that time, except the homes of John 
Palmer and James Williams, directly opposite and where the Moffat 
block now stands, and a small, old, wooden building at the rear of 
what was the Baptist church, then occupied by Mason Palmer and 
Mechanics' Hall, then a small, rickety old shanty, there were no build- 
ings in the neighborhood, and when his new home was completed Judge 
Abbott flattered himself that he was forever outside of and beyond the 
reach of business wants, or business property; that in future years 
there he and his children and his children's children could have a 
quiet country home, where in peace and quiet they could live and die. 
Of the house itself, it may be said that, when finished, it was one of 
the most substantial, costly and elegant buildings in Detroit. 

"Now stands it there; and none so poor, so low as do it reverence." 

But the house was finished, the grass plat prepared, and the rose 
bush transplanted from the old home, and with true old-fashioned 
hospitality there must be a "house warming," and so invitations, 
written in Mr. Abbott's round English hand, bespeaking order, firmness, 
health, and true nobility, were sent to all the elite of Detroit to come 
and help dedicate that home to comfort, enjoyment, pleasure, and 
hospitality. And they came. As I looked into my coffee cup, nearly 


drained, and closed my eyes to the present, memory and fancy, blessed 
gifts to man, gave me back that brilliant scene and replaced it in those 
then large parlors, dining rooms, chambers, and ante-rooms, long since 
gone, never, never to return. 

There stood Mr. and Mrs. Abbott, two sturdy specimens of the old 
English and French Canadian stock, most richly and elegantly dressed; 
not in the Parisian styles, but in the true English mode; poor Sarah 
Abbott, such a beauty! Miss Whistler as an aid-de-camp, waiting to 
receive their guests, who came to exclaim from their very heart of 
hearts, " Peace be upon this house and all beneath it," and who were 
welcomed without ostentation or ceremony, but with true old-fashioned 
western hospitality. There was Gen. Hugh Brady, one of the noblest, 
bravest, truest soldiers that ever trod with undaunted .step the field of 
battle, in full uniform, with his staff; Gen. Frank Larned, with hi& 
suave and elegant address; Capt. Backus, the son-in-law of Gen. Brady; 
ex-Gov. Thompson Mason, Gov. Woodbridge, B. F. H. Witherell, 
Augustus S. Porter, Judge Goodwin and a large number of the old 
lawyers of Detroit, always ready for a big fee, a frolic, a flirtation. 

Major Bob Forsyth, a superb, elegant paymaster, United States army, 
Pierre Desnoyers, Chas. Moran, Chancellor Farnsworth, Edmund Brush, 
all in complete uniform; Charles C. Trowbridge, John A. Wells, aye, 
all the men and women of that day, full of life, hope, joyous, generous, 
fraternal, hospitable, were gathered there and then; and the feast of 
viands, of music, and of joy, and of wine went merrily on. Such a 
supper of elk steaks, roast venison, prairie chicken, buffalo tongues and 
beavers' tails, was never excelled in Detroit; and the claret, and sherry, 
and Madeira flowed like water, while Jamaica toddies, apple toddies, 
egg nogg, Canadian shrub, and hot Scotch and Monongahela whisky 
punches came and went, until the long and joyous feast was over; and 
even now, here, as memory brings back the aroma of that old Jamaica 
toddy and Monongahela whisky, my red ribbon trembles with the 
pleasant memory of long time ago. 

. But the lights are gone, the music has passed away and nearly all 
that gay and happy crowd sleep the last sleep in Elmwood, and here 
I sit alone a stranger, with not one single familiar face today to beckon 
me beside it, not one friendly hand to bid me to that table where so 
long ago I was a welcome guest. Such is life. Thompson Mason, 
Gov. Woodbridge, Gens. Brady and Larned, and Forsyth and Kercheval, 
and Moran and Witherell, and Farnsworth and Berrien, and Brush, 
where are they ? And of all this crowd around ' these tables in this 
restaurant, what one single person either knows or cares that they, 


these gentlemen and ladies of "by-gone times" were ever here. Pink- 
ney, the very greatest and most eloquent lawyer of the Union, said 
that " Time, which changes all things, changes man more than all 
other things," and it is true. 

And here in the Detroit of today, with its broad streets, beautiful 
river, magnificent railways, immense and growing commerce, we find 
that all is changed, and that, though wealth has increased by millions, 
business of all kinds outgrown the hopes of the most sanguine, that, 
while there are more churches, more schools, more banks, more business 
places, yet that in elegant hospitalities, true fraternity, kindness of 
heart, and the practice of Christ's most beautiful command, "Thou 
shalt love thy neighbor as thyself," the by-gones were the truest and 
the best. My coffee was ended, my sandwich disposed of, and as I 
turned from the doors of the restaurant I felt as the dove did when 
first coming from the ark, it found no resting place for its foot, but I 
offered up a heartfelt prayer for the spirits of our departed friends, 
and for all who joined in that house warming long, long time ago of 
the Detroit restaurant. 

No. II. 

"Memory is the purveyor of reason." Johnson. 

"Why seeks he, with unwearied toil, 
Through death's dim walks to urge his way, 

Redeem his long asserted spoil, 

And lead oblivion into day?" Old Mortality. 

Forty years ago, just about these days, as the almanacs say, or used 
to say, the old democratic and whig parties of Michigan had sounded 
their respective bugle calls to action, and our people, then a State not 
yet admitted into the Union, were summoned for the first time to elect 
their State and county officers in the November election of 1837. That 
was the beginning of the political existence of this "Amcenam Penin- 
sulani" now one of the finest, richest, purest, noblest and best states 
of our grand old Union; and I was there at its birth, God bless it! 
Today it counts a million and a half of inhabitants, then it had in the 
entire peninsula not more than sixty thousand people. Today its 
wealth may be counted by hundreds of millions, then like a new born 


child it had nothing to cover its nakedness. Today its commerce- 
sweeps over the great lakes, whizzes over a thousand railways, and 
whitens all seas, then a few old steamboats, a dozen sail vessels and 
scows, and flats transported all its products. 

Now its golden harvests will yield nearly twenty millions, then we- 
brought from Ohio and New York the bread we ate. Today our cattle- 
and flocks roam over ten thousand miles, then Ruckminster Wight and 
a few pioneers furnished us with herds of cattle brought from Ohio,, 
and droves of sheep from Ontario and Genesee in New York. Then I 
could count the humble school houses of Michigan on my fingers* 
twice told, today they, rise in architectural beauty in almost every 
square mile of the State. Then here and there plain and unadorned 
houses dedicated to God told of our religious culture, today temples- 
gorgeous and beautiful in architecture, grand and sublime in style and 
ornamentation, costing millions of money, point their gothic spires 
from every city, town, village and hamlet upwards toward God's throne 
and thus proclaim to the world, that moral and Christian education 
go hand in hand with commerce, science and art; while a university r 
outnumbering in its pupils those of Cambridge and Oxford and 
Gottingen, where every branch of learning, of science, and of art, is- 
thoroughly taught by professors, savants, and scientists, the peers of 
the wisest and best, gives evidence that all the sons and daughters of 
the State, now in its youth and beauty, are bountifully supplied with 
the means requisite to make them all educated gentlemen and ladies. 

But of all this, "More anon, sir." 

Now we have to stop a moment to look on a picture, crude but 
truthful, not ideal but realistic, of the first State election ever held in 
Detroit or the State. The harvest then, as now, was just over, the 
month of August nearly gone. 

When the gallant whigs were invited to meet in State convention 
at Ann Arbor, there to nominate candidates for governor and State 
officers, to be voted for on the first Tuesday of the coming November, 
the democrats, in response to a call of their central committee, David 
C. McKinstry, John Norvell, Lucius Lyon, Marshall I. Bacon and 
Henry Newberry had taken time by the forelock, and determined to 
carry the State at all hazzards; had already nominated Stevens T. 
Mason for governor and Edward Mundy for lieutenant governor, and 
with that most popular ticket had thrown down their gauntlet of defi- 
ance, and under such a splendid leader as young Mason bade their 
enemies to combat. I need not say to the old citizens of Detroit that 
young Mason, just now twenty-one years of age, was the beauideal of 


the democratic party, the cynosure of all eyes, for he was as fine a 
specimen of a young Kentucky blood as ever stood on earth. Hand- 
some almost as that father whom the Swedish authoress on her visit 
here pronounced " the most elegant American gentleman she had ever 
met;" his manners were courtly and lordly, his hospitality boundless; 
with talents polished, but not of the first rank in oratory; graceful, 
captivating, and majestic; a voice uncommonly sonorous, sweet and 
musical; a face as handsome, but more robust than Edwin Booth; 
manner free and easy, hail fellow well met with all men. Tom Mason 
was the very impersonation of the young democracy of Jackson's time. 
And there was something in the warm grip of his hand and the jolly 
"How are you?" that was worth a thousand votes in every precinct 
where the ballot box was open. 

Bear in mind that in the fall before (1836), Van Buren had been 
elected General Jackson's successor, and that really "Old Hickory's" will 
and power and influence still ruled and governed with an iron hand, 
while the grand old whig party had for its chieftains brave Harry of 
the west, that splendid, gallant, eloquent, and fiery son of Kentucky; 
Daniel Webster, the very greatest and ablest of all American states- 
men; Willie P. Mangum, of North Carolina; John N. Berrien, of 
Georgia; Nat Talmadge and Wm. H. Seward, of New York; Freling- 
huysen, of New Jersey, et id omne genus. Party spirit on both sides 
was at a perfect white heat, where no quarter on either side was asked 
or given, and we cannot appreciate the importance of the first great 
canvass in the new State of Michigan. 

Well, we met in the old court house in Ann Arbor, just now about to 
give way to a more imposing structure, and two days were occupied in 
making the journey via Plymouth Corners, where we passed our first 
night, and were there joined by Ebenezer Penniman and others, for 
Plymouth was the only whig town in Wayne county, and on the next 
day, after patriotic resolutions, earnest and eloquent speeches by Jacob 
M. Howard, Hezekiah G. Wells, James Wright Gordon, and others, the 
convention nominated unanimously Charles C. Trowbridge, of Wayne, 
for governor, and Nathaniel I. Bacon, of Monroe, as lieutenant gov- 
ernor, two of the oldest citizens of Michigan, two men who had done 
as much and contributed as much to the rise, progress and growth of 
the territory as any two men ever living within its boundary. Of all 
those nominees at that election Charles C. Trowbridge alone survives, 
and his life and labors are so interwoven with the conception, birth, 
infancy, youth, manhood, wealth, and greatness of our State that they 
deserve a special mention in some future sketch. It is enough now to 


say that as cashier and president of the old Bank of Michigan, as 
secretary to Governor Cass, so early as 1820-22, as one of the vestry- 
men and founders of St. Paul's Episcopal church of Detroit, as 
manager of the Detroit and Milwaukee railway company, as an accom- 
plished gentleman and an old-fashioned, hospitable citizen, he has been 
well known all over the lake country for over half a century. On that 
August day forty years ago, in that old court house at Ann Arbor, the 
writer hereof made his debut as a popular speaker in his maiden effort 
in behalf of Trowbridge and Bacon, and his maiden vote was cast at 
the election in Detroit, in November of that year, for that ticket ; and 
now, after "life's fitful fever is almost over," after battling the match 
with the democrats in 1840, 1844, 1848, 1852, and so on down to this 
very day, he has never felt any regret for that vote and speech. 

And here, in " Abbott's restaurant," where these memories come 
with blinding tears as he recalls the fact that almost all that grand' 
army of democrats and whigs are sleeping in beautiful Elmwood, he 
drinks in silence and alone, in clear, cold water, to " Trowbridge and 
Bacon," to Clay and Webster, to Mason and Mundy, to Cass and 

But the first election day of Michigan, ]837, has come at last; the 
leaves have fallen but we have an old-fashioned Michigan Indian 
summer. Those, too, are now gone forever. 

Sunday it rained all day, but we worked hard and fast on Monday, 
when the sun came out with now and then a shower. 

And the streets around the then new city hall, now swept away, 
were deep with mud, for the clay streets of Detroit were unpaved and 
locomotion was carried on in the common carts of the day, and 
pedestrians were always, clad with high top-boots, the pantaloon 
strapped under the feet and inside the boot legs. And so the first 
Tuesday after the first Monday of November came; and this was the 
"day big with the fate of CaB3ar and of Borne," the day that should 
determine the political name and character of Michigan, just now born 
into the family of states; the rains had ceased but the clouds hung 
low, and at early morning the hosts of democrats and whigs were 
moving; and the "shrill fife and rattling drum" all over Detroit called 
the voters to their respective quarters. But one voting or polling 
place then existed for all the voters of this city, and that one was the 
city hall, standing half way between the Russell House and the 
opposite corner, a very useful but not stylish or tasteful public build- 
ing, in which the butchers cut up and sold meats in the market room 
on the first floor, while on the upper floor were the courts where the 


lawyers cut up their clients during the term, and in off days it was 
used sometimes as a lecture room, always council chamber for aldermen, 
a then political club room, and, if I am not mistaken, sometimes on the 
sly for masked balls, fancy balls and dances, and such gay amusements, 
which even then wer^e rife in the City of the Straits. 

It may be that many of the old citizens of Detroit have seen a .long 
time ago a picture not altogether like one of Michael Angelo's, but 
realistic, truthful and speaking, the outlines of which were taken on 
the ground on the election day by young Burnham, of Boston, which 
now hangs in the parlor of Mrs. Gen. Williams, formerly Mrs. James 
W. Tilman, on Woodward avenue, whose first husband was an earnest 
whig, and so long as he lived, treasured the picture of "The By-gones 
of Detroit," with care and affection; a picture which ought finally to 
pass into the care and custody of the Historical Society of the city, 
for it tells a story as truthful and honest of that election as a photo- 
graph could do, if such a thing had been. 

Let us quietly enter that parlor and see that memorial of the past 
election of Michigan. One of the most prominent figures on the right, 
in rather heavy coloring, just in front of the city hall, is Col. David 
C. McKinstry, then chairman of the democratic central committee, a 
giant in size, holding in his right hand a heavy cane, while a broad 
brimmed slouch hat drops over his right eye, the deep gray eyes 
almost covered and concealed with heavy eye-brows. He was in full 
command of the democratic forces, which were brought early on the 
ground and gathered around the ballot box and inspectors of election, 
who, with the talesmen and challengers of both parties, are grouped in 
.the vestibule or deep recess existing in front of the market, but inside 
the door. It must be borne in mind that at the time none of us wore 
red ribbons and McKinstry, the Tallerand of democracy, who was 
always in close communion with his democratic friends, while not a 
drunken man by any means, was a free and easy drinker, could carry 
on election day even his full quota of inspiration. His right hand is 
raised as he gives his orders to Major Stillson, who is mounted on a 
splendid charger covered and caparisoned like the circus horse with 
which the clown makes his grand entree, while he himself in the 
undress uniform of a brigadier general of militia, sits as Jackson did 
in quiet command at New Orleans. Stillson was an auctioneer, a 
fellow of soldierly bearing, stentorian voice, unblushing effrontery, and 
was the very best drill sergeant the democrats ever had in Michigan. 
In his hand he carried that glorious banner which caused a thrill then 


in every democratic heart. "Stevens T. Mason, for governor; Edward 
Mundy, for lieutenant governor." And some hundred or more figures 
in double file crowd the picture, representing true as life the bone and 
sinew of the party, the rank and file of the democracy of Detroit. 

Major Stillson, while listening to the orders of McKinstry, has turned 
partly aside to look with pride on his young chief, Stevens T. Mason, 
who (this was late in the day), with a hat once shiny and elegant, has 
manifestly been in a heavy wet, whose high top-boots covered with 
mud, and full dress coat, buttoned at the top with the wrong button, 
give him very much the appearance of Mr. Pickwick after the celebrated 
dining party with his club. Mr. Norvell, neat as if in the dress of the 
senate of the United States, always self-poised and self-possessed, 
stands clear down in the corner with self-satisfaction at the democratic 
crowd as it rolls on and on, and counting too truly that victory which 
was to make Mason governor, himself senator, and send Trowbridge 
and his troops back to private life, while Kingsbury, from Maine, 
shrieks out: "Three cheers! Three cheers for democracy and Mason!" 
In the left hand of the picture the poor whigs, doomed to defeat, are 
admirably portrayed; and now, after forty years, as I study that picture 
those "by-gones" all return. 

Frank Sawyer, a scholar and a good fellow, but a sort of a whig 
giraffe, ordinarily very staid and sober, is manifestly now full of 
" Trowbridge and reform," and he is shouting loud and long to his 
whig comrades to "Hurry up! Come on, fellows, and give your votes, 
the day is almost won;" while still further in the background stands 
honest Jack Howard, with Webster ian brow but soiled garments and 
very dirty boots, as if in a gale at sea, looking his utter contempt at 
Stillson, McKinstry and Mason, as if he would and could exterminate 
them all, and you can hear him, if you put your ear close to the 
picture, as he hisses out these words: "Vagabonds! Hinds! Throw up 
your greasy caps, but we will beat you at last." But we did not. 

In the very front of the picture, clear outside the crowd, stands the 
ship " Constitution." A splendid boat, in full ship's rig, named the 
"Constitution," with Captain Bob Wagstaff in the chains, heaving the 
lead, and Eugene Watson in the shrouds, like Commodore Farragut 
with his speaking trumpet, bawling out: "Whigs, ahoy there! Give 
way! Give way, lads, for the Constitution, Trowbridge and Bacon." 
In the dim distance Alanson Sheley, John -Owen, and a little further a 
crew of sailors are seen in the grand mel6e, which ended the day, 
when the democrats rushed on to the polls and were strewn like 
autumn leaves, all around by the heavy blows of Bob Wagstaff, Sheley 


and Bill Caverly, the mate of the Michigan, just before the polls were 
closed; while the writer hereof in a seedy hat, torn pantaloons and 
wearied actions may be seen as a sort of skirmisher, evidently safe 
himself, driving up the democrats to the front to be knocked down 
by the whigs, who stood backed up against the city hall, and from 
whom the war cry came often, from Sheley and Owen especially: 
" Give it to them, boys.'" 

But the picture fades, the figures have nearly all sunk away into the 
grave. "They heed not, they have fought their last battle." Mason 
was elected triumphantly. The democrats carried everything, and thus 
they held all the offices of the government, and Charles C. Trowbridge 
retired from political life. 

The curtain rings slowly down and the picture fades gently away r 
while in the dim distance we can read on the headstones of the graves 
the names of Mason and Norvell, McKinstry and Howard, Sawyer and 
Kingsbury, Wagstaff and Bacon, and nearly all the rest, gone. 

No. III. 


No. Ill of " By-gones" is published in Volume 2, page 573, Pioneer 
Collections, and consists of a sketch of General Hugh Brady and his 
military exploits in the "Toledo and Patriot wars. 

No. IV. 

The memories that cluster around Gen. Hugh Brady, naturally 
suggest the life and times of the Brady Guards whom the old hero 
used to salute as Emperor William does his troops as " my children," 
and no body of men who ever lived in Detroit in those by-gones 
deserve a better place in history than does that gallant corps. 

The original organization of the Brady Guards grew out of an old 


company called " The Detroit City Guards," which existed so early as 
1834 was commanded by Capt. Charles L. Bull; and was drilled at 
times out on the commons, where now stands the city hall, by Col. 
Edward Brooks, who had been a gallant soldier under Gen. Jackson, a 
Captain of Infantry for many years, and who was a true soldier, a 
thorough drill-master, and one of the most humorous and witty 
auctioneers that ever knocked down his hammer. 

In Judge Campbell's sketches of early days in Michigan, he has told 
in his own luminous and classic language the outlines of the history of 
the controversy between Ohio and Michigan, touching the southern 
boundary of the State, and briefly hinted at that farcial military 
uprising called " The Toledo War." 

Gov. Mason, who was the hero of that grand epoch in Michigan's 
history, was not only a whole-hearted, generous, roystering Virginian, 
but under the discipline and influence of John Norvell, afterwards 
United States senator, he became a careful, shrewd diplomat; a sort of 
sagacious, far-seeing young Richelieu; and when he made up his mind 
to resist by force the aggressions of Ohio, backed up by the general 
government, it was all-important to enlist under his banner all the 
whig element in Michigan; because even then party spirit ran very 
high and personal encounters between ardent whigs and zealous dem- 
ocrats were becoming very frequent. Well, the leading members of 
the bar, the merchants, ship owners, sailors, fur traders, and most of 
the business men of Michigan were ardent whigs, and while they 
admired Mason and Norvell, they were yet very hostile to the demo- 
cratic party and its policy. Thus, while Charles M. Bull was a sturdy 
democrat, James A. Armstrong, Jacob M. Howard, Frank Sawyer, 
John Talbott, the writer hereof, and nearly all the rank and file of 
the "City Guard" were very earnest whigs, and our old drill sergeant, 
Edward Brooks, was a very host of whigs in himself. 

The time had finally arrived when Governor Mason had determined 
to call out the militia of the territory, and with an armed force to 
resist the attempt of Ohio to steal away our twelve-mile strip of land 
on the south, and it was all important that every Michigan heart 
should be fired with zeal to protect the territory, that no division of 
party should exist among its sons and that every able bodied man should 
come cheerfully to the front. Accordingly, one afternoon in early 
September, 1835, the City Guards were called out by executive order 
to drill, and at the personal solicitation of Col. Brooks, the whig young 
men, Howard, Sawyer, Talbott, and that set went to the commons to 
exercise and perfect themselves in the company evolutions. Once there, 


Col. Brooks put us through the school of the soldier the manual the 
school of the company the school of the battalion, and after marching 
and counter-marching, we were quietly taken to the third story of Capt. 
Bull's store, on Jefferson avenue, next adjoining the old Farmers' and 
Mechanics' Bank, and then, sentinels being placed at the doors, to 
prevent egress or ingress, an executive order was read commanding us 
to move on the following morning, with arms and equipments, to Monroe, 
and there await orders from Gen. Joseph Brown, who was organizing 
troops from Lenawee, Monroe, Washtenaw and other counties, to take 
military possession of the disputed strip of land and hold it by armed 
force. Thus the City Guards became a body of forced volunteers, who 
went bravely forth to crusade for Michigan in Michigan's Holy Land. 

Well, they went, and of "their moving incidents by field and flood" 
we shall learn more hereafter, when we come to photograph that Toledo 
war, but now we have in hand the old Brady s, that afterwards, in 1839, 
completed that organization as an independent military company of 
Detroit, with Isaac Kowland as Captain; Edmund Kearsley, First Lieu- 
tenant; James A. Armstrong, Second Lieutenant; - Ashley, Third 
Lieutenant; John Chester, Orderly Sergeant, and with John Winder, 
George E. Hand, Rev. John S. Atterbury, Henry Doty, George Doty, 
Peter E. DeMill, Christian H. Buhl, Marshal J. Bacon, and over one 
hundred more of such then young gentlemen, as rank and file. 

Taking the name of Hugh Brady, and with a superb full-length 
portrait of that old hero on their flag, no sooner was it unfurled than 
their ranks were filled up with all the spirited young gentlemen of 
Detroit, and their reputation and name soon became the theme of 
admiration all over the Northwest. With a neat but striking uniform 
of cadet grey, trimmed with black and gold, each member soon became 
resolved to excel every other member in the style and brilliancy of 
his equipments, and with the old-fashioned flint lock muskets and 
burnished barrels the strife was constant to excel, and in many 
instances from $30 to $50 was expended on these weapons for mahogany 
stocks, extra burnishing and scouring, and as the company rapidly grew 
in numbers it increased in efficiency, became better and better drilled, 
and was an effective command. Capt. Isaac Rowland had been at West 
Point .for several years and was a most thorough and efficient officer, 
while Edmund Kearsley was a native born soldier, and Gen. Alpheus 
S. Williams, a soldier by nature, has since proven on a hundred battle- 
fields what a capital soldier he was, even then, by nature; and no 
better drill officer, no more painstaking man ever buckled on sword 
than James A. Armstrong, while young Ashley, whom we soon buried, 


was an active, zealous, and good officer. His place was filled by John 
Chester, one of the most accurate, industrious, and thorough orderly 
sergeants, and who combined in himself the attributes of a brave soldier, 
a perfect gentleman and a true Christian. Scarcely had the old Bradys 
learned the manual of the soldier, the evolutions of the squad, the 
section, the company, when real work called them to sturdier duties 
under the eyes of Gens. Scott and Brady, by Gens. Worth and Wool 
and Col. M. M. Payne, three of the most thorough martinets that ever 
drilled troops in any army, and there is not an old Brady today in 
Detroit, who, if he heard the command, "Attention! Fall in, company! 
Eyes right and dress!" would not instantly take the position of a 
soldier, complete his alignment, dress by the right, and obey all the 
words of command promptly and soldierly. The military existence of 
the Bradys had been short when the incursions of the patriots arrested 
the attention of the General, and he, having no regular force at his 
command, made a requisition on this corps for services as United 
States troops. 

The question was taken up, and by the unanimous voice of officers 
and men they were mustered into the service of the United States as 
United States troops for three months in the fall or early winter of 
1836 or 1837, and for three successive years thereafter. By a resolution 
of the company it was determined to pool the pay of the men and 
officers, and to expend the money in camp equipage, military excursions 
and drills; and so they were soon supplied with the very finest camp 
equipage in the United States. On the Fourth of July, 1837, they 
visited Niagara Falls, encamped with a regiment of infantry called 
Williams Light Infantry, from Rochester, on Goat Island, and were 
afterward entertained by the city of Buffalo Captain Taylor being 
then mayor in magnificent style and at a very large expense. 

Nor were the citizen soldiers permitted by any means to be carpet 
knights or holiday troops or household guards. Just at the close of 
navigation in 1836 General Brady was advised that the Patriots were 
about to cross from Canada at Port Huron and take possession of the 
military stores, arms, cannon, ammunition and munitions of war at Fort 
Gratiot. There was not one solitary soldier stationed there, so he made 
a requisition on Captain Rowland, of the Bradys, for a sergeant and five 
men to go up to Fort Gratiot, take all the material there and transport 
it to Detroit for safety. In response to that order Captain Rowland 
detailed Colonel Andrew T. McReynolds, then a sergeant of the Brady 
Ouards, with privates Alpheus S. Williams, Charles M. Bull, George 
C. Bates, Benjamin B. Moore, and one other, who were dispatched at 


once on board the old steamer Macomb for Port Huron, where they 
arrived in safety, after having been frozen in on the flats of St. Glair 
for one or more nights. Pursuant to orders they took possession of 
Fort Gratiot and commenced loading up cannon, arms, equipments, 
small arms and a large quantity of powder in kegs, when the people 
of Port Huron rose up as one man and by hundreds insisted " that 
they would resist by force the removing of these stores, as they needed 
them there for protection against the Patriots themselves." Here was 
a situation for our old friend Colonel McReynolds, who afterward won 
glory and fame at the gates of Mexico; but having been born an 
Irishman and kissed the blarney stone of Ireland, he negotiated and 
treated, and parleyed, until they yielded to the five old Bradys, and 
they brought away all the arms and public property, reembarked for 
Detroit, were frozen in on Lake St. Glair, went ashore on the ice, and 
finally brought overland to Detroit all that material of war and mili- 
tary supplies, for which we were highly complimented in general orders 
from Generals Brady and Scott, and for which we subsequently received 
each of us 160 acres of land as a military bounty. 

During these three years of United States military service, the 
Bradys were the pets and students of Major M. M. Payne, United 
States Artillery, who afterwards was wounded in battle in Mexico and 
died in charge of the Military Hospital at Washington, an old bachelor, 
a Virginian, a martinet and as thorough a soldier as ever trod the 
field of battle. It was his pleasure to turn out his command, some 
hundreds of United States recruits, and the Bradys, form them into a 
battalion and drill them, and occasionally to catch them by an order 
of "By right of companies rear into column, march!" *by the most 
minute inspection of muskets, sabres, side-arms, cartridge boxes, etc., 
for which, if he discovered any defect, he would send a Brady to the 
rear, expose him, mortify him, then, after duty was over, call him up 
to his quarters, give him a real Virginia toddy, and then warn him 
" to 'look out in future." 

During that same year and the succeeding one the Bradys were 
divided into detachments, one stationed all winter at the Dearborn 
arsenal to guard the public buildings there military stores of large 
quantities and value while another detachment here in Detroit did 
night guard duty at the magazine on the Riopelle farm, away in the 
northeastern part of the city, where afterwards barracks were erected, 
and where the headquarters of the Second and Fourth United States 
Artillery and the Fourth and Fifth Infantry were for many years 
stationed. In fact, until regiments of the regular army could be sent 


here the Brady s and recruits constituted the sole military force by 
which Generals Brady and Scott preserved the peace on the frontier. 

When Brady died they went with him to his grave, and then 
disbanded forever. At his funeral every living member in Detroit 
turned out, in full black dress, white gloves, white belts and side-arms, 
and constituted the mourning escort; and there, around his grave, after 
the firing escort had discharged their guns, some one hundred and 
sixty of the old Brady s circled around the grave and the writer hereof 
having made their valedictory to their old chief, they were forever 

Detroit has today 125,000 people within her boundaries, enterprising, 
energetic, honest people, but out of them all there are none more 
worthy of memory, none more deserving, none more respected than the 
old "Brady Guards." 

No. V. 

"As a judge he should be profoundly learned in all the learning of the law. He is to 
know not merely the law which you make and the legislature makes, but that 
other, ampler, that boundless jurisprudence, the common law which the successive 
generations of the State have silently built up. In the next place, he must be 
a man not merely upright not merely honest and well-intentioned this of course 
but a man who will not respect persons in judgment. He shall know nothing 
about parties everything about the law. He shall do everything for justice 
nothing for himself; nothing for his friend; nothing for his patron; nothing for 
his sovereign." Choate. 

What a scene for a historic painting was that which took place last 
week away up in the British Dominions, near the Red river of- the 
north, when a commission of military and civil officers of the very 
highest rank accredited by our government, the strongest on earth, 
sought to treat with Sitting Bull for his return to the United States, 
and to make with him, there in Canada, a treaty of peace between 
some few thousand half clad warriors of the Sioux and this mighty 
people of forty-two millions! Oh would some "gift to gie us" to 
spread upon the canvas where the whole world could see it, in such 
col6rs as would truthfully represent, not merely the silent, stoical 
Indian chief, surrounded by his half dozen comrades and braves, 


crossing backwards and forwards over the medicine woman; swaying 
here and there, now and then, with his blanket drooping from his left 
arm, his eagle plume, sole ornament and token of his power and rank, 
shaking and trembling with the wild passions that convulsed that brave 
and honest old warrior, as he listened to the propositions which fell 
from the lips of the plumed warrior Terry and his confreres, but also 
with such shading and tinting of the canvas as should illustrate to 
the world the truths sent home by that honest Indian in reply to the 
assurances given that "if he would come home once more, smoke the 
calumet of peace, surrender his arms, his ponies, his warriors and 
women and children to the tender mercies of Indian traders Indian 
thieves! Indian agents! Indian Christians! that hereafter he would be 
happy and his people contented, cared for, watched over and guarded 
by the Great Father!" Oh, what a picture was that, when, with the 
eloquence of truth, the sublimity of untutored oratory, with the logic 
of facts, he turned upon General Terry, and like Logan of old, bade 
them go; "that they spoke with forked tongues; that their promises 
were written in sand; that their offered protection was such as vultures 
give to lambs, such as hyenas give to the dead; such protection as 
plundered their homes, cut in twain their blankets, then stole one-half 
and borrowed the other; took flour furnished by the Indian department 
nominally to Sitting Bull and his people, but really sold it for the 
account of agents at Denver City, Cheyenne and Salt Lake; exchanged 
for buffalo robes by the bale at a glass of whisky each, furnished 
contrary to the laws of the United States, which year in and year out 
gave the old chief over to the tender mercies of the public thieves and 
robbers sent out to the Indian country clad in the garb of religion, 
who no sooner reached their missions at the Spotted Tail, Shoshone, 
Cheyenne and Arrapahoe agencies than they sang psalms and said 
prayers in the morning and devoted the afternoon to drinking hot 
Scotch Newmans, visiting the young squaws in their lodges and 
counting their gains made during the previous week by plundering 
and robbing their wards their children intrusted to their care by the 
Great Father." 

Let politicians, let partisans, let public thieves say what they may, 
Sitting Bull told General Terry the truth as it is, and as it is known 
to all familiar with our mountain mouse and our poor Indians, who 
are first driven to war and then denounced because they go to war. 

If there be a heaven above us, and a God of justice who sits upon 
his throne there, and "that there is all nature cries aloud," then in 


that heaven, before that God, this picture of Sitting Bull's triumph 
and truthfulness is suspended; and angels and archangels of justice will 
applaud the dignity, the sublimity and the grandeur of that warrior 
Sioux as rising in the majesty of truth and clad in the habiliments of 
justice, he turned his back on the American commissioners and fiercely 
said: " Away with ye! I know ye! Away with you! I am safe here 
under the protecting segis of England's honored queen. I do defy, 
deny and spurn back upon ye. Your great father may be good and 
mean well. You, his envoys, may mean well, but your public men are 
public thieves. They are our Indian agents, less honest and true than 
the highwaymen of our Black Hills, who rob you of the money which 
you have just now stolen from our gold mines lying within the very 
boundaries of our reservation, guaranteed to us by the sign manual of 
your great father, U. S. Grant, the chief who saved your Union, then 
sacrificed us." 

But it is not of this theme that I would speak today, only the event 
has suggested with great force a " by-gone " of Detroit of forty-four 
years ago, when a cause was pending in the territorial supreme court 
of Michigan, wherein Michael Dousman, a pioneer of Mackinaw, was 
plaintiff, and Duncan Stewart, an elegant Virginia gentleman, then 
paymaster of the United States army, was defendant. The cause of 
controversy was a contract made by the plaintiff with the defendant as 
agent of Lord Selkirk to supply his settlement on the Red river of 
the north with cattle, almost the very locality of Sitting Bull. That 
cause was on trial and the scenes connected with Pembina were vividly 
brought 4o my memory as I followed Terry and his commission to the 
place of meeting last week. 

It was a warm, clear, beautiful morning in May, 1833, when with a 
kinsman and friend I entered the senate chamber in the old capitol, 
now the Detroit high school building, and there stood face to face with 
the old territorial supreme court, consisting of Solomon Sibley, 
George Morell, and Ross Wilkins, the former of whom, having been 
appointed by John Quincy Adams, had occupied the seat for many 
years, and the two latter of whom in the political revolution of Andrew 
Jackson had secured their commissions in the year 1832, or perhaps 
t earlier. Those who consult Judge Campbell's history will find that he 
marks particularly the period of Jackson's accession to the White House 
as that which first introduced into the territory of Michigan the 
doctrine of rotation in office, for up to that period under Madison, 
Monroe and Adams, few or no changes were made in the territorial 
federal offices. Hence General Cass held the office of governor of 


Michigan through their several administrations with great satisfaction 
to the people, with the highest credit and renown to himself and 
honor to the government appointing him. 

On entering the court room the first thing which struck the eye of a 
stranger was the judgment seat, which, when the territorial council was 
in session in that chamber, was occupied by the "president of the 
council," an office similar to that of lieutenant governor of a state. It 
was hung with a rather stunning drapery of blue and gold, was sur- 
mounted by a gilded bird which might answer to the American eagle, 
the dove that came out of the ark, or the owl that opens its big eyes 
by night and closes them by day, as the fancy of the beholder might 
choose and which in times of high political excitement was apostro- 
phized as the American eagle by Senators Drake, Kingsley, of Ann 
Arbor, and such eloquent speakers, while Norman McLeod, the member 
from Mackinaw, denounced it in one of his classic and beautiful 

phillipics and denunciations as that d d old buzzard " over your 

honor's head, Mr. President." 

The crier of the court, old Dey, was a most dignified and stately 
specimen of those officers in by-gone times, whose memory is embalmed 
in a witty jeu d'esprit; the joint work of Charles Clelland, Frank 
Sawyer and John L. Talbott in poetry, which not long since was 
published in a city paper by the " Histriographer " of Detroit, the 
president of the pioneers and the accomplished author of that beautiful 
poem, Teuchsa Grondie. The officers of the court were the Hon. 
Daniel Goodwin, United States district attorney, Conrad Ten Eyck, 
United States marshal, Hon. Benjamin F. Withereli, prosecuting attor- 
ney, and Daniel H. Thompson, sheriff of Wayne county, all true blue 
Jackson men, except Judge Withereli, and he was a whig, with a reef 
in his topsail, always. 

Of the then supreme court bench perhaps three men more unique in 
their personal, mental and moral organization, more utterly dissimilar 
in their tastes, habits, education and idiosyncrasies, were never 
congregated on one seat of judgment; and while as a unit, and in 
detail, they were all eminently " honest and capable," yet they furnished 
a photograph of a judicial body composed of men, each born in a 
different state, each trained in a school different from the other, and, 
wedded to the practice and rules of the locality where he was born 
and educated, Sibley of Massachusetts, Morell of New York, and 
Wilkins of Pennsylvania, were all good lawyers; men as hones;t and 
pure as any who ever sat on the bench; were anxious to lay deep and 
broad the foundation of justice in Michigan, and to erect thereon a 


temple that should in all time, like St. Paul's in London, challenge 
the attention of the world, and be an everlasting monument to its 
architect. But each had been trained in the modes, forms and pecu- 
liarities of the law of his birthplace. Each regarded his own state as 
the best school of practice, where the most eminent members of the 
bar had been graduated, and each regarded the law reports of his 
birthplace as entitled to absolute authority with him on the bench. 
Hence, while a cause was easily settled at nisi prius, yet, when the 
court sat in banco regis as on this day, it required a thorough discus- 
sion and an examination of all the authorities of Massachusetts, New 
York, Pennsylvania and England, to satisfy this trinity and so make 
them a unity. Not more unlike in their mental, moral and intellectual 
structures were they than in their physique, and temperaments. Judge 
Sibley was quite short, very stout, very deaf, a most venerable, 
excellent, plodding, slow and careful judge, listening very patiently,, 
studying very carefully and deciding after the most mature deliberation. 
His long, gray hair, large, projecting eyebrows and heavy set jaws 
gave him very much the air of Chief Justice Shaw, of Massachusetts, 
of whom Choate compared to the native's view of their Indian Godr 
"He feels that he is ugly, but he knows that he is great," while in 
his manner, gait, dress and address there was a quiet dignity, a calm, 
deliberate action, which bespoke the judge always and everywhere. No 
man would have slapped him on the shoulder any more than he would 
Washington, and while he was not exacting or arbitrary, any. lawyer 
who had to address him would involuntarily take his feet from the 
table, his hand from his pocket, eject his quid of tobacco, and address 
him as "Your Honor." 

Born in Sutton, Massachusetts, October 7, 1769, he studied law, 
removed to Ohio in 1795, and to Detroit in 1797, just eighty years ago, 
and having been elected to the first territorial legislature of the North- 
western territory in 1799 and to Congress in 1820, was in 1824 appointed 
judge by John Quincy Adams, which office he held until 1836, when 
he resigned it, and died here in 1846, universally respected for his 
manifold virtues and talents, and a long life in the service of his country, 
without spot or blemish thereon. Had he lived till this day he would 
have been 108 years old; and perhaps no man ever passed his life in 
Michigan who went to his grave with a clearer record or his case more 
perfectly prepared than Solomon Sibley, chief justice of the supreme 
court of the territory of Michigan, forty-four years ago; and the 
present chief justice, whose upward march on the judicial ladder has 
been so steady, so brilliant, so wonderful; whose untiring industry,. 


intense application and persistent study have made him already in early 
life the Storey of the west, and has placed in his hands for revision 
and republication the works of Joseph Storey himself, may well follow 
through all his future career the good example and sterling virtues of 
Chief Justice Sibley. 

Of George Morell, associate justice and right supporter on that bench, 
it may be said that he was a giant in size, being over six feet in 
height, of massive frame, a Websterian brow, large features, whose step 
and bearing always reminded one of the magnificent, dignified, old- 
fashioned gentlemen of by -gone times. Such men are now extinct on 
the bench, in the senate, everywhere. Turn to the United States senate 
of forty- five years ago. Contrast those men with the senators of today 
Hyperion to a Satyr, Benton, Clay, Wright, Berrien, Mangum, Phelps, 
Webster, giants in frame and muscle as well as mind and learning. 
Where do we find their peers now? On the bench, too, there were men 
large in stature, large in mind, great in learning, big of heart, as 
Marshall, McLean, Thompson, Tansy, Baldwin and Catton. 

So it was with Judge Morell, from the State of New York. Of New 
England parentage, he was bred to the bar, and settled at a very early 
day at Cooperstown. There, his geniality, his judicial mind and thorough 
legal training commended him to the executive of New York, who at an 
early day appointed him a judge of the court of common pleas, a 
tribunal which in that time had enlarged jurisdiction and a mass of 
civil business, and sitting at times on an oyer and terminer court, it dis- 
posed of the highest criminal cases. For many years George Morell 
held a most distinguished position among 'the bench and bar of the 
Empire State. With a heart as big as the body that enveloped it, a 
sturdy common sense that always told him what the law ought to be, 
with a sense of justice and right so acute that he could always decide 
what the law was; trained in all the tactics of practice as laid down by 
Archold and Tidd in England and Graham, of New York, his rulings and 
decisions were given almost by intuition, and were scarcely ever revised. 
Fond of society and amusement, off the bench, he was hail-fellow-well- 
met with all people everywhere, but on the bench, he was every inch a 
judge, and as I saw him on that morning, May 13, 1833, with blue dress 
coat, top boots and tassels, a buff vest with gold buttons, high shirt 
collar, completely and neatly shaven, with his gray hair swept clean 
back from his lofty brow, large gray eye, and on his very large nose 
the golden spectacles, while he took notes of the pleadings in this 
interesting case of Dousman vs. Stewart, it seemed to me then, and so 


it seems now after nearly half a century has gone, that George Morell 
was a natural-born judge and a good man. 

In Elmwood there sleeps no more honest man, no purer judge than 
he was; and his decisions today may be found in the first volume of 
the Michigan Reports, for on the admission of our State into the Union, 
in 1837, he with Wm. A. Fletcher and Epaphroditus Ransom, were 
elected judges of the supreme court, and he continued on the bench 
as chief justice down to the January term, 1844 

On the left of Chief Justice Sibley sat Ross Wilkins, then about 
thirty-eight years of age, in the very strength and beauty of manhood, 
whose whole physical, mental, moral and intellectual organization was so 
striking and unique as to attract attention instantly as a most remark- 
able man. Born in western Pennsylvania, Butler county, I think, 
about the year 1797, of the bluest and best blood in that region, sired 
by a father who took an active part in the Revolution, nephew to 
William Wilkins, for many years an eminent United States senator,, 
from the Keystone state, brother to a distinguished officer of the 
United States army, his surroundings were well calculated to assure 
his ambition and give him a good start in life. Educated, and thoroughly 
educated for the bar, he very early acquired local distinction and fame,, 
by his earnest eloquence, his magnetic oratory, and in criminal cases, 
especially, he soon took a front rank among the eminent gentlemen 
which at that early day composed the bar of Pittsburg and its sur- 
roundings the Biddies, the McCandlasses, the Rosses, the Forwards, 
and all those then well-known counselors-at-law. 

In his person, manners, address and action, at that early day, Judge 
Wilkins was a most striking man. About five feet ten inches high, he 
was full and round, well knit, lithe and graceful, and clad as he was 
on the bench in a velveteen suit, close fitting, tightly buttoned, he 
might have elsewhere been taken for a well-to-do farmer or a dashing 
Kentucky hunter. With very handsome features, large and melt- 
ing eyes, hair long and curling gracefully, like Charles Sumner's in his 
handsome day, with a mouth full of pure white teeth, his necktie a 
mere black wisp or rope and a large flowing Byronic collar; he looked 
the man he was genial, gentle, generous, impulsive and good. Many 
years since in his old home at Tecumseh, hung a fine oil portrait of 
the judge, taken in his youth, and those who ever studied its outlines 
and features will remember its resemblance to those of the English 
bard, only it was more manly, more robust; indeed, in his early man- 
hood Ross Wilkins' features, face and tout ensemble would remind one 
of the combined peculiarities of the pictures of Poe and Byron. Like 


all such men, he was quick in his perceptions, instant in his judgment, 
clear and lucid in his reasoning, concise and precise in the statement 
of facts, and whether right or wrong in his conclusions he swept away 
business, as a chieftain does an opposing army. What especially fastened 
my attention was that while reading the papers and evidence in the 
case at bar, he moved constantly and restlessly in his chair, seemed to 
take the whole matter by intuition, and finally getting up and going 
back of the court he lighted an immense long pipe of tobacco, and 
circling round and round he smoked away, very much as Sitting Bull 
did when listening to the platitudes of Gen. Terry. But the moment 
the final reading was over, and the argument of counsel began, taking 
his seat and fixing his eye on the speaker, he never moved; indeed, 
seemed lost to everything but the cause. But no sooner was the argu- 
ment ended than the pipe was relighted and the smoking resumed until 
the final business was disposed of. 

While in all essentials, Boss Wilkins was a most punctilious judge, 
yet in non-essentials and when not actually engaged in judicial busi- 
ness on the bench, he exhibited an utter disregard for all the forms, 
shows, and modes of judicial dignity, and as a boon companion, a wit 
and " a fellow of infinite jest of most excellent fancy." And of 
course everybody loved and respected Judge Wilkins. As he advanced 
in life he became more calm, and less nervous and excitable; and for 
over a quarter of a century as district judge of the United States for 
the district of Michigan, he administered the law with eminent success 
and honor. In admiralty cases he entered upon them with zest and 
zeal, having a sort of passion for sailors and all the excitements 
appertaining to their wild and reckless life; but it was in great crim- 
inal cases that he was most at home. With the grand inquest of the 
State before him; drawn from every county of the peninsula, and a 
foreman selected by himself generally some old crony from Lenawee 
like Stillman Blanchard, Sheriff Packard, or Henry Hewitt Judge 
Wilkins would take up the whole scope and drift of the criminal law, and 
with such force of language, and such earnest appeals, would he give 
to them the law in charge, that no mail robber, timber thief, embezzler 
of postoffices, or government defaulters, could hope to escape indictment, 
trial, and certain conviction. Yet no judge ever sat upon the bench 
who was more careful and cautious in giving the prisoner at the bar 
every possible protection and insuring him a fair and just trial. -New- 
berry's, McLean's, and Bissel's United States circuit court reports are 
full of his most important decisions, and bear testimony to the industry 
and patience which he put into a case of much consequence. Some of 


his published charges to grand and petit juries will compare favorably 
with those given by the more eminent judges of our own and the 
English bench. Indeed, Judge Wilkins had a passion for the study 
and practice of the criminal law, and to him in such cases the bench 
was like "All the world's a stage, where men and women are but 
players. They have their exits and their entrances, and each man in 
his time plays many parts." 

But he is gone, after an earnest and hard working life in the public 

"After life's fitful fever he sleeps well." 

Such is a brief photograph of the territorial supreme court of 1833 
and the first cause I ever heard argued there. Of the counsel in that 
great cause, Wm. Woodbridge and Alexander D. Fraser for plaintiff, 
and Harry S. Cole and Gen. Charles Larned for defendant, all that can 
be said here is that if they could burst the cerements of the tomb, 
take their green bags in hand and enter the supreme court at Lansing, 
they would be the peers of any and all there, as lawyers, advocates, 
jurists, and logicians; while as thorough scholars, courtly, hospitable, 
genial and true gentlemen, they could give us lessons in good breeding, 
and teach that fraternity and esprii de corps which then characterized 
all the brethren of our bar, lessons which seem now to have gone with 
all the other by-gones of Detroit. But all that court, those judges and 
the counsel and officers, save Col. Goodwin, all are gone. 

"They sleep their last sleep, 
They have fought their last battle. 
No sound can awake them to glory again." 

Pardon one word more. There is one more, Col. John Winder, the 
clerk of that court, whom Providence seemed to have created in 
Uniontown, Pennsylvania, and sent, so far back as 1824, to keep the 
records of the supreme court of the territory and those of the circuit 
court of the United States for the State of Michigan. Wielding a 
facile pen, he was the most accurate, careful, and industrious of officers 
that acted as clerk in the west, and so posted did he become in all 
matters of practice, that when lawyers were befogged and the court 
puzzled, Judge Wilkins would turn to Col. Winder, and in an instant 
the point of practice was settled. But he was wise, and over thirty 
years since he bought for $1,200 some ten acres then way out of town 
in the mud, built him a cozy home, then in the suburbs. Detroit 
woke up, started after Winder's ten acres, covered it all over with 


costly palaces, made the old clerk rich, and there today, a retired 
gentleman, John Winder, with his records complete, without blot or 
erasure thereon, awaits the summons to come at last before that other 
tribunal above, " Where the wicked cease from troubling and the weary 
are at rest." 

No. VI. 


"And when the stream 

Which overflowed the soul, had passed away 
A consciousness remained that it had left, 
Deposited on the silent shore 
Of memory, images and precious thoughts 
That shall not die and cannot be destroyed." 


"Bon jour! Bon jour, Monsieur Bates. Comment se va, inon ami. 
II fait beau temps, monsieur." 

"Ah, good morning, Monsieur Campau, oui, oui. II fait tres beau 
temps, mon ami." 

Such was the salutation given and returned about the 5th of Janu- 
ary, 1842, on Jefferson avenue at the corner of Griswold street, where 
the First National Bank now stands, then the United States court 
house, as Mr. Joseph Campau met and saluted the writer in his warm 
and courtly style. The old gentleman, as was his wont, was clad in a 
black full dress suit, white cravat, rolling shirt collar, clean and white 
as snow, and moving along with his long white hair, large gray eyes 
and steady, sturdy step, he was a man to arrest the attention and 
arouse the curiosity of all travelers on the streets of Detroit. The 
conversation continued as follows: 

" Ah, Monsieur George, mon ami, de damn fool he come again, heh." 

Not comprehending the object of the remark, or its purpose, the old 
gentleman raised his left thumb and over his shoulder directed my 
attention to the then old capitol, now the high school building, where 
the flag was floating over the senate and house of representatives, then 
just in the first days of its annual session of 1843, and as I caught 
the idea he repeated with humorous emphasis, as if talking to himself. 


"Oui, oui, mon ami, de damn fool lie come again; lie make de law 
de tax. Sacre, mon dieu." 

Which led to a long discussion, pure French on his part and con- 
glomerate French and English on the other side, touching the constant 
increase of taxation, the enormous burden which our new State 
government had engendered, the actual poverty of men rich in real 
estate, in which the old gentleman in pure and perfect French 
lamented that law makers and legislatures, with emphasis on the 
ultimate, "seemed only to exist to make de tax, and on everything 
worn by man from the swaddling clothes that enwrap the new born 
child, to the coffin and the shroud of mature old age, were burdened 
and enhanced in cost by every kind of state, city, county, school and 
union taxation;" and the old man eloquent waxed warm, and hia 
French grew more and more beautiful as he called my attention to the 
fact that, while in England only about seventeen articles of luxury, 
such as wines, tobacco, spirits, silks, jewelry, carriages, paid all their 
taxes, here in Michigan the bread we ate, the water we drank, the gas 
we used, the clothes we wore, the houses we live in, the very graves 
when we died, all, everything, were loaded down by legislative taxes, 
and what was more, said old Jose Campau, with the energy of truth, 
"At least one-third of all these taxes are stolen by public officers ere 
they reach the exchequer of the State," and had he lived until now he 
would have added: " Oui, oui, mon ami. As it was then, so it is now 
only more so." 

Time that changes all things and man more than all other things 
has left us the taxes and tax gathering, and like the frogs and lice of 
Egypt, they can be found at all times, and all places everywhere, 
always at our births and at our funerals, with extended hands asking 
and exacting the tax, and it is possible that Monsieur Campau, who was 
then seventy-four years old, and who lived until he was ninety-four, 
would have survived even to this day if he had not been chased 
through the world and into the grave by the tax gatherer. 

So long ago as 1833 Mr. Campau owned some nineteen large farms 
in Wayne county, and you could not turn to the right or the left in 
the city of Detroit, without running over Campau lots, seeing Campau 
houses, encountering Campau tenants, and if you entered the tax office 
to look at the assessment roll, you would find the name of Joseph 
Campau on every alternate line, while at all hours of the day one 
might meet the old gentleman all over the city, always walking, 
though rich as Croesus in his same old style of dress; always courtly 
and chivalric in his address as if he were in la belle France; always 


plodding and studying and not unfrequently talking to himself, as if 
still discoursing on the tax. 

Joseph Campau was a marvelous French gentleman "all of the olden 
time," and with such friends as Monsieur Pierre Desnoyer, Major 
Antoine Dequindre, John Baptiste Beaubien, Capt. Frank Cicott, 
Charles Moran and the Bartletts, and the old French people of Detroit 
forty years ago, constituted a society of true, accomplished, real gentle- 
men and ladies, from whom in manners, conversation, sociality, true 
politeness in business affairs, the newcomers of Detroit may well take 
lessons today. In those days no man would think of lighting his pipe 
or cigar in the presence of ladies, or in a neighbor's house, any more 
than he would of taking off his shoes and stockings there; no man 
would pass a lady or a friend on the street without lifting his hat and 
giving the cordial, joyous salutation: "Bon jour, mon ami, bon jour,'* 
and no matter how hurried in business these Frenchmen, whenever 
they met on the street would inquire for the family and children of 
each other, and in those days to be seen riding or walking with a 
lady and smoking a cigar at the same time, would have sent the 
offender to the calaboose. 

In true hospitality, genuine fraternity, they were a model people,, 
fond of all social amusements, the latch string of every house in 
Detroit was always on the outside, and in their little unpretending 
dancing parties, old and young, grandfather and grandmother, joined 
with children and grandchildren made one grand round of mirth and 
jollity; while at the regular suppers and stately evening parties no 
persons on earth ever entertained more heartily, with more true chiv- 
alry and gallantry. To see Joseph Campau, "Papa" Desnoyer, Major 
Dequindre, majestic Barney Campau, waltzing and frolicing with such 
beautiful girls as Josephine Desnoyer, Anna Dequindre, Mary Williams, 
and all that set, was enough to make a young man's head swim, for it 
told of innocent mirth, refined and genteel social amusements among a 
whole people where the aged never forget the joys and pleasures of 
youth, and where youth always respected, revered and loved old age. 
Alas, that those days and those people are "byrgones!" 

In -that day no public meeting was ever called, no public measure 
ever debated, no political movement ever undertaken, without the aid 
and support of the French people of Detroit, and at the head of every 
party ticket or on it for State, county and municipal offices, you would 
read the names of some Campau, Beaubicm, Cicott, Moran, or Bartlett. 

Joseph Campau was born in Detroit on the 20th of February, 1769, 
lived there until 1863, when he died at the age of ninety -four years. 


During the last sixty-three years of that long and interesting life he 
resided in the old house on Jefferson avenue between Griswold and 
Shelby streets, which is as notorious today as the falls of Niagara, 
and which all the young and bustling, driving business men of Detroit 
might visit with pleasure and profit. There they may learn prudence 
and care by examining an umbrella manufactured in Philadelphia in 
1802; an anvil hammered on in his blacksmith shop in 1805; furniture 
manufactured in his own cabinet shop in 1797; unpaid accounts beau- 
tifully prepared and endorsed against men who died in the last century, 
every paper and record filed in the neatest possible manner and briefed 
by Capt. McKniff, his old clerk, who, upwards of half a century 
faithfully did work as clerk; an old working desk deeply scalloped out 
by Campau's left knee, which year in and year out rubbed against it, 
a large curvature in the windowsill produced by the same attrition, 
photographs taken years since of his children everything there just 
as he placed it long ere nine-tenths of the people of Detroit of today 
were born. 

And that quiet, quaint old yellow house half trading store, half 
dwelling house standing on the very spot occupied nearly two hundred 
years ago by Cadillac, filled with documents, writings and mementoes 
of seasons and circumstances and times, existing when no single being 
now in Detroit was living, a house where the very ghosts and shades 
and spirits of " by-gones " now meet and gossip by moonlight of an 
October eve. 

There in peace as in war, in the beautiful bright days of an early 
spring, in the lazy sultry weather of summer, in our gorgeous, golden 
old-fashioned autumn, in the short, dry, crisp cold of those winters, 
did Joseph Campau watch the rise, growth and progress of Detroit, 
and from his dormer windows he saw the old Walk-in-the- water of 1819 
supersede the Indian canoe, the pirogue, the scow, the coasting schooner, 
and then again the Henry Clay, the Niagara, the Sheldon Thompson, 
the New York, and finally the Illinois, the Empire, the Mayflower, 
and all those floating palaces of hundreds of tons burthen and speed 
like the wind, take the place of the old steamers. There in that old 
house he watched Jefferson avenue advancing upwards until it reached 
Hamtramck, downward along the river until it ended at Fort Wayne, and 
there he saw the old Presbyterian, Episcopalian, and Methodist churches 
on the corner of Woodward avenue and Larned street, take up their 
line of march and reappear in St. Paul's, Christ Church, Dr. Duffield's 
on State street, that magnificent temple of Dr. Pierson on Fort street, 
and the Jefferson avenue Presbyterian edifice; Woodward avenue, 


shaking the dust out of its eyes and off its feet, and through the 
heaviest clay and mud running miles away from the river a splendid 
boulevard, a street which in architectural beauty, in lawns, shrubbery, 
flowers, cottages, palaces, and temples, contrasts favorably with the 
Broadway of New York, Beacon street of Boston, or Chestnut of 
Philadelphia, and where more capital, more people and more trade 
exist in a single business hour now than was in all the northwestern 
states in his early youth, the City of the Straits, beautiful Detroit, 
whose river, like the turquoise necklace of a splendid woman, intensifies 
the beauty of that neck that it entwines and that bosom on which it 

When Campau first saw Detroit it was a mere military and Indian 
trading post. When he died it was the center of a grand civilization, 
where learning, art, science, wealth, culture, refinement, taste, and 
religion dwelt and 100,000 strangers surrounded him. Where God had 
his shrines, learning her palaces, art her schools, charity her asylums, 
and wealth its treasure houses and lordly mansions. 

As a business man in early life Mr. Campau was enterprising, buying 
and selling real estate on a large scale, importing and improving stock, 
founding machine shops, cabinet shops, distilleries, and carrying on, 
on a very large scale, the fur trade with the Indians; and as a member 
of the board of British trade in 1798, and of the American fur 
company with John Jacob Astor in 1812, and as a public officer, 
trustee of Detroit, major of the militia, and a good citizen, he always 
was a leading man for nearly a century here. He was one of the 
founders of the ancient city Conditor Latium, and in all the parts he 
played upon the stage for almost one hundred years he lived in, for, 
and with Detroit; and an Indian trader, manufacturer, neighbor, citizen, 
merchant and millionaire he lived and died an honest man. Requiescat 
in pace! 

Three or four or even more of his old confreres, his countrymen, his 
" con citoyens des etats unis" spring from the cabinet of memory and 
materialize themselves before our audience. Monsieur Pierre Desnoyers, 
that fine-looking, smiling, sweet voiced old gentleman, whose "bon jour! 
bon jour!" would arrest you as the voice of a lute, whose rosy cheeks, fine 
mouth, pure teeth and large blue eye, with that drooping lid, present the 
portrait of a fine old Frenchman, was born in Paris in the days of the 
revolution, about 1783, and educated as a silversmith. He left there 
when the cry of "a la lanterne," was heard in the streets, came to this 
country and settled first in Ohio, ere Cincinnati was born, then followed 
the army to Detroit, and here for a long period worked for Joseph 


Campau. in the manufacture of silver goods for the Indian trade. He 
lived to be a very old man, accumulated a large fortune for those days, 
and finally left a family large and respected to mourn his departure. 
He was a genial, elegant, delightful old gentleman, and his sons and 
daughters and grandsons and grandaughters are among the very "creme 
de la creme" of the old French people of Detroit, Pierre Desnoyers, the 
late Mrs. Harry Cole and family, Mrs. Jas. A. Van Dyke, Mrs. Henry 
Barnard, Mrs. Anna Dequindre Lansing, and a multitude of grand- 
children and kinsmen some in the church, some at the bar, some in 
banks, in manufactories, in mercantile houses, all bear in their veins- 
the blood and refinement, the courtesy and grace of the Desnoyers. 

It was amusing, almost half a century since, to meet the old gentle- 
man on the street, to salute him in return for his pleasant "good morn- 
ing" and slyly to ask him "why he left Paris?" when, in perfect good 
faith, he would cock up his blue eye and laughingly say: 

"Because, monsieur, I did not wish to ornament the lanterne." 

Then, too, there was Col. Antoine Dequindre, whose sister married 
Joseph Campau. He was a Frenchman of the Napoleonic order, tall, 
straight, with the step of a drill sergeant and the outward and visible 
sign of a military man. Even in his old age he was perfectly upright, 
very square to the front, shoulders well thrown back, chest well drawn 
in and like an old French guardsman, he moved and walked like a man 
born for the camp. Having distinguished himself in the battle of Mon- 
guagon in 1812, before Hull's surrender, he all his life commanded the 
special admiration of his fellow Frenchmen as a brave old fellow. 

For many a long year he was a merchant on Jefferson avenue, 
owned half a block just west of Woodward avenue, where the Hon. 
George E. Hand now has and has had his office for years and was a 
man of considerable wealth; but in the uncertainties and an unsafe 
partner in 1831 he met with disaster, and as early as 1841 he had lost 
nearly all he had, but died as he had always lived respected and 
revered by all. 

But time and space fail us, and the Cicotts, Beaubiens, Bartletts, 
Gen. Williams and all those courtly old French gentlemen must await 
the future publication, by the Western Biographical Publishing 
Oompany, where they will appear. 

But not only were they social and polite, good citizens, honest men, 
hospitable, genial and gentlemanly, but they were all Catholics, and 
lived all their lives and died in the beautiful faith of that holy church. 
No matter how gay, how joyful, how social, they never forgot "the 
awful circle of their holy church," and surrounded themselves with her 


power and strong arm, they obeyed her mandates and sought her pro- 
tection in life and in death. Of course all candid and intelligent men 
will bear in mind that during the last forty years in our country, as 
in all the rest of the civilized world, the developments and discoveries 
of science, the explorations of the interior of the earth, the teaching 
of Tyndall and Spencer, and Mill and Darwin have weakened if not 
sapped the foundations of all sects and denominations, and that to 
those who demand evidence and proof to convince the mind and to 
satisfy the judgment, in religious, as in all other matters, it is idle to 
say "ita lex scripta estf that the teachings and preachings of men 
who can give no reason, furnish no evidence for the faith that is in 
them, have lost their power; that the dogma "the church suggests or 
commands it" has with intelligent men or women no more force or 
weight than a linnet singing; and so it is that while all the Protestant 
churches of the world have waged a bitter warfare against what they 
denounce as the Scarlet Woman of Rome, they themselves have from 
this fire in the rear from savants and scientists weakened and have 
lost much of the vigor of their attack, and are compelled to turn their 
weapon from the supposed enemy in front, to their real powerful foes 
in the rear. 

Yet, whatever may be the general weakening of the churches of the 
world from this great onslaught, the Catholic church today, as then, 
maintains its power, extends its forces, conquers new fields, subdues 
new forces, and now Pope Pius IX counts on his muster roll as many 
nations, people and tongues as ever, Nor is it strange for a church 
which teaches by object lessons, as she does, the suffering and agony of 
Christ's crucifixion, that holds up to the heathen Chinese and Japanese, 
to the North and South American Indian, the beautiful symbols and 
pictures of Christ's birth in the manger, his holy life and agonizing 
death, carries therein a power to enlighten the minds and awaken the 
sympathies of the untutored and unlearned, which no other church 
does possess. 

Call it ignorance, call it fanaticism, call it folly as you may, the 
Catholics are and always have been the only successful missionaries to 
the poor Indian, the benighted South . Sea Islander, or the untutored 
savages of the world. 

So it was in the "by-gones" of Detroit. The old Catholics were 
devoted to their church, could always be found in sunshine and in 
storm, in heat and in cold, constantly attentive to the forms, cere- 
monies and teachings of their bishops, priests and deacons; and no 
matter how gay and careless at other times, when holy mother church 


called, instantly they responded, "I am here, Lord." So when in 
August, 1834, the cholera burst upon Detroit with a ferocity and 
slaughter that it had never exhibited elsewhere, when in sixty days it 
swept away ten per cent of our people instead of seven as Judge 
Campbell puts it; when it crept up and down the river, along our 
docks, cutting down all ages, sexes and conditions; when it mounted 
the decks and shrouds of our vessels and men fell as if struck by 
lightning; when at early dawn the old French carts could be seen in 
line, like the commissariat of the Grand Army, marshaled by Sexton 
Noble, stretching away to the old cemetery, a fearful line of festering 
corpses, when all men, no matter how brave, seemed appalled; when we 
had no hospitals, no asylums, no place of refuge or safety for the sick 
and the dying, Father Kundig, God bless him, improvised a hospital on 
Michigan Grand avenue and summoned to his aid the fair daughters, sweet 
young girls, of the Desnoyers, the Dequindres, the Campaus, the 
Morans and Beaubiens, and organized them into a splendid corps of 
Sisters of Mercy, angels he might well have called them, and there 
by night and day, amidst death, disease, filth, and misery in its most 
frightful form, that true, Christian priest and his fair daughters fought 
death and drove him back, and to Protestants and Catholics administered 
all specifics and antidotes while life lasted, and when death came they 
gave to the poor, the hungry soul, the last beautiful rites of their 
church. Then and there alone, among those Catholic French, in all 
Detroit, was found an asylum for the sick and decent care and atten- 
tion to the dying and the dead, and when the final record shall be 
made up in heaven of old times and " by-gones " of Detroit, high upon 
that scroll will be inscribed by God himself, in letters of living light, 
the names of Kundig and his brave and beautiful army of Catholic 
girls of our city, daughters of the Bed Cross, " For verily they did 
unto others as they would have others do unto them." They loved 
their neighbors even as themselves; "They visited the sick, clothed the 
naked, gave drink to the thirsty, and food to the hungry." God , bless 
them all, they shall have their reward. 

No. VII. 

That was May 14, 1833, when the steamer New York on her very 
first voyage from Buffalo to Detroit after a three days' trip from 


Cleveland, had just turned the bend of the river at Fort Wayne, as 
Capt. Sheldon Thompson, of Buffalo, rapped loudly at the door of my 
stateroom, and squirting the tobacco juice all over his fine linen bosom, 
exclaimed: "Turn out, turn out, young gentleman; we are just now at 
Detroit, the place you have been so impatient to see these last three 
days. Turn up, sir, turn up." 

No sooner said than done. When bouncing on to the upper deck of 
that once famous steamer from my stateroom I looked over into Sand- 
wich, then across the beautiful strait, and following the bend of the 
river, where it broadened, on the Cass front, like the Tappan Zee, on 
the Hudson, I first saw my future home. 

The sun had risen in all the gorgeous beauty of a May morning, and 
glinted and gilded the river, the shore, the old French farm houses on 
both sides. The soft, south wind permeated everything on the land 
and the water; the peach and pear trees, some then one hundred and 
fifty years old, were covered with blossoms and the air was laden with 
a rich perfume, for May then meant real spring. 

As that scene of quiet beauty; the old wind-mills fluttering in the 
wind, the French carts along the shore, the old La Fontaine and other 
log houses, all newly whitewashed, neat, tidy, and surrounded by cackling 
geese, chattering ducks, squealing pigs and lowing cattle, all of which 
could be heard on our deck, presented a scene of exquisite beauty, and 
a land so quaint, so unique, so beautiful, that at once I was in love, 
with it all, and oh, how glad was I to leave that splendid new steamer 
New York, and her warm-hearted, enterprising and funny owner, Sheldon 
Thompson, -even then a very wealthy man of Buffalo, who came as 
supercargo to direct her on her trial trip. One word of her ere we 
land at Dorr & Jones' dock, at the foot of Shelby street. The changes in 
the forms, models and propelling powers of the various craft on these 
great lakes mark step by step the rise, progress and growth of its 
commerce, and the models of the various vessels from 1820 down to the 
present time are each pages in a great history of the Northwest. Our 
steamer New York was the very first on these lake? to lay aside the spars 
and rigging of steam brigs or vessels as the old steamers Clay, Niagara, 
Pennsylvania and Sheldon Thompson were called and to place an 
upper cabin, which had hitherto been consider ed unsafe, and, to give her 
great speed, she was cut up sharp as a razor at her bow and stern, so 
sharp that she would roll like a man half seas over; and below her 
main deck were two engines, fore and aft, with high pressure at that; 
with two sets of boilers, pointing toward bow and stern, which made 


her like the fiery furnace wherein Shadrach, Meschach and Abednego 
were tried. The Hebrews called such steamers Gehenna; the Greeks, 
Hades, but in pure anglo-saxon one would denominate it a floating hell, 
where you would roll and pitch in a seaway, and swelter and sweat like 
the miners in the lower level of the Comstock Bonanza. 

As she had been three long days on the voyage from Cleveland to 
Detroit, of course we were all glad to get ashore. About half -past 
seven of that heavenly morning she swung alongside the dock, and 
amidst the rattling of chains, the hoarse bawling of seamen and mates, 
she finally swung against the dock, and her first voyage of life was 

Jumping on to the land, ours was just begun. Instantly, even at 
that early hour, a sturdy, quick moving, earnest and robust gentleman 
stepped alongside, and, with old-fashioned cordiality, greeted Captain 
Thompson as a friend. As they stood there they were a pair to attract 

The new comer was De Garmo Jones, a man about five feet ten 
inches, very quick in his movements, very stout, weighing perhaps over 
two hundred pounds; very muscular, with a large, round head; very 
quiet in manner; of few words, but evidently a man born' to command, 
to succeed, to accomplish, and although in early life deprived of much 
education, he had worked his way, even then, at about forty-seven, up 
from a drummer boy of 1812, to become a man of extended business, 
large wealth, great power and influence, and who, after being mayor of 
Detroit, senator from Wayne county, alderman, etc., died prematurely 
in early middle life, leaving a vast estate, very large business affairs, 
and the respect and esteem of all who knew him. Sudden and quick 
in quarrel, with a temper always requiring a curb bit, Mr. Jones was 
a sort of western Vanderbilt, with a great big head, enlarged views, 
untiring industry, who saw far ahead into the future, and had he lived 
longer, would have cut deeper and deeper into the tablet of time his 
career, for he was a most public spirited, enterprising, go ahead man. 
Born at Erie, Pennsylvania, or coming there young, a mere boy, he 
was trained by old Mr. Reed, the father of the late Hon. Charles M. 
Reed, and what teaching he had came from him, who died years ago, 
a millionaire, a great ship builder, ship owner, and commission 
merchant of western Pennsylvania. Coming to Detroit so early as 1819, 
and bringing with him as his wife one of the most dignified, beautiful, 
stately and lady-like women of the olden time, he bought a farm 
just below the Cass farm, and there in an old French log cabin, 
beautifully modernized and most richly furnished, they always enter- 


tained in a style of true western hospitality; and under those low 
ceilings and burnished beams, just above one's head, on the richest 
carpets, surrounded by fine paintings and engravings on real old 
fashioned solid mahogany, from pure silver goblets and trays, they 
dispensed viands and liquids that would have graced the homes of the 
magnates of our land. 

In those "by-gones" it was the fashion for all the rich of Detroit, 
and even the poor, to hospitably entertain their neighbors, and to 
make all strangers at home here a fashion that seems to have gone 
with many other of the good things of those days. Such was De 
Garmo Jones, as he met and saluted his confrere, friend and kinsman, 
a man very like him, Sheldon Thompson, who, at Black Eock, so early 
as 1826, built the Clay, the Niagara, and afterwards the Sheldon 
Thompson, and after a long and successful life there as commission 
merchant, ship owner, mayor, I think, died at an advanced age, leaving 
a very large estate, a most respected and beloved family, and whose 
name today in Buffalo is respected and revered. 

The two partners of Mr. Jones at that day were Josiah E. Dorr and 
Benj. L. Webb, both young men from Vermont, who came here, and 
under the patronage and by the aid of their strong-shouldered friend, 
accumulated very early in life handsome estates, but which in the great 
financial whirlwind of 1841-5 were swept away, and they both died a 
long time ago, childless and penniless, substantially. 

But at last Uncle Benjamin's, the dear old Steamboat Hotel, at the 
corner of Woodbridge and Eandolph streets, furnishes a nice breakfast, 
of which more anon; and at once the work of doing Detroit along the 
docks begins under the chape ronage of a friend who had lived here 
since 1821, and so we countermarch and go at once to the most 
southerly warehouse and ship yard of Oliver Newberry, where we 
found the steamer Michigan on the stocks in the yard, where hundreds 
of calkers and shipwrights are hammering at her sides, while Capt. 
Chesley Blake is going here and there, a giant in size, a hero in 
battle, with a voice like the speaking trumpet of old Boreas himself, 
guiding and directing the work. 

Here we met that most extraordinary of all Detroit's early business 
men, Oliver Newberry, looking on; now listening to this crew, now 
that; now pulling that long hair over that strange brow, deep creased 
in thought; anon taking off his hat, full of papers, accounts, drafts, 
money and everything else, then replacing it, and taking all Capt. 
Blake's suggestions and directions as if he were the owner and builder, 
and Newberry, the subaltern. New then to life and the world, no such 


duet of men had ever yet been met; and now after an experience of 
almost half a century in all the parts and places, the mountains and 
valleys of our great west, time and again, and all along its grand lines 
of transit by sea and land, no two such men are remembered. Siamese 
twin giants, Arcades Ambo, nautical Damon and Pythias have ever 
been seen. Old Blake was almost six feet three inches in height a 
very giant in all his being, hands like Old Bluebeard, arms like a 
gorilla, jaws like a boa constrictor, chest like a volcano just about to 
beave, and such a voice! Why, in the midst of a storm on the lakes 
when his vessel was heaving and surging, he would give his commands 
with such power, accompanied by such oaths and expletives, that the 
very shrouds and rigging would tremble, that the lightning would 
cease and the thunders would only mutter and murmur; and in a life 
of forty years on the lakes he never scratched the paint from his 
ship or touched bottom or shore. 

Born in Maine, he was in boyhood a sailor before the mast. When 
the war of 1812 broke out he entered a Maine regular regiment, the 
bloody Ninth, so called, was made sergeant and, at the fearful battle of 
Lundy's Lane, in 1813, where Scott charged up the hill time and 
again, and then retreated down before the British fire, and where, 
finally placing himself at the head of that Maine regiment and mount- 
ing his white horse with a long white plume, he said: "Boys, follow 
me. I have faith that this bloody Ninth will carry and hold those 
heights. Wherever you see this white horse and this long white 
plume, you will know where I am." 

And they did follow him until they saw white horse and plume and 
Scott all tumbled to the earth; whence he was carried off with Worth, 
and Wool and Brady. But on kept the bloody Ninth and old Blake, 
one of its ordinary sized men, until the heights were taken and held, 
and until that regiment, going into battle nearly 500 strong, had a 
mere handful left and were marched off the field by Blake as their 
sergeant, all its commissioned officers having been killed or wounded, 
and for which Chesley Blake was made then and there first lieutenant 
for gallantry on the field. 

No sooner had that war ended than Blake came to the lakes, entered 
the service of Oliver Newberry, and, as master of the schooner 
Jackson in 1816, and so on down to the steamer Michigan of 1833, the 
Nile of 1841, the Illinois of 1845-9, always with Newberry, always 
swearing to leave, yet always standing by his ship, and Uncle Oliver. 
He finally died of fear. Blake could face all the storms and tempests 
that ever swept the sea; he could rush in blood knee deep unto the 


cannon's mouth, as at Niagara; he could wade in blood before a British, 
regiment; but when he encountered the cholera he quailed he caved 
and finally fleeing to Lake Superior he spent a month or more in the 
very bowels of the earth there, then ventured back to Milwaukee, where 
he took the cholera, convalesced and seemed about to recover. But 
that night his old ship, the Nile, went ashore. News was carried to 
his bedside, he arose, and with a Blake adjective, said " he would go 
to her rescue," put on his pants, drew one of his cyclopian boots half 
on, and with uplifted foot he died. His last words were: " Save my 
ship." Thus demonstrating in his case the truth of Eugene Sue's 
horrid picture of cholera before Paris, when this fearful fiend laughed 
and screeched out: " I kill only one-third, and fear ends the remain- 
ing two-thirds of all its victims." 

But to return to Oliver New berry. Born in Connecticut about the 
last decade of the last century, he migrated early to Buffalo say about 
1809-10 kept a small grocery there, dealing largely in salt and fish. 
But the moment war came, like a true patriot as he was, he shut up 
shop,, and in some capacity joined the army of the Union. After the 
burning of Buffalo, and peace, he came on foot to Cleveland, and finally 
worked his passage to Detroit, where, some time in 1816, he com- 
menced business here on the docks, dealing largely in salt brought 
from Syracuse, trading in apples and fruit, which, so early as that day, 
were grown here in great perfection. Having little or no education, 
but a huge brain, wonderful foresight, sagacity and wisdom, and being 
always the very soul of honor and honesty, he thrived and grew, 
and soon among lake men, from Buffalo to Green Bay, was known 
by the sobriquet of "Admiral of the lakes." Having begun his 
business with the old schooner Jackson he soon became a contractor to 
carry supplies to Fort Brady at the Sault, to Mackinaw, Fort Dearborn 
at Chicago. Fort Howard, Green Bay, Fort Gratiot, Port Huron; and 
then commenced his extraordinary career as a ship builder, and being 
a sort of Napoleon himself in his ideas, he formed a wonderful attach- 
ment to the grand emperor himself and proved it by naming his vessels 
the Napoleon, the Marshal Ney, the Marshal Sbult, the Austerlitz, the 
Marengo, the Jena, the Nile, and so on; and each one of these ships 
brought him fortune, business and fame, and his business prospered 
and grew, and he commanded the entire confidence and good will of 
all the old officers of our army on the lakes, and year in and out sup- 
plied all the military posts of the Northwest. He was a strange looking 
old bachelor. His face was wrinkled like an orang-outang, his brain 
very large, projecting forehead, deep sunk eyes, and his long hair was 


always straggling over his face like a Piute chief, and when in study 
of mind he had the trait of pulling and twisting his forelocks; when 
he sat in a chair it was thrown clear back against the wall, and his 
feet dangled in the, air like Quilp in his hammock. He was a man of 
few words, but how they did tell! 

Like Napoleon, he was a fatalist and traded on his "luck," and his 
vessels, bearing the charmed names of Napoleon's early career, were 
always in luck. In early December, 1835, news came " that the Post of 
Mackinaw was out of supplies, and that the Indian agency and troops 
there would starve ere spring came unless some vessel could reach them." 
Old Oliver at once ordered the Austerlitz, which had then been laid 
up, to be put in commission, put a double set of officers, Capt. Augustus 
McKinstry and Bob Wagstaff aboard of her, with John Stuart and 
another first mates, and a double crew, loaded her to the gunwales, with 
all kinds of supplies, ordered her to proceed to Mackinaw, relieve the 
people there and return that fall, a voyage then deemed madness at 
that late season, but the old gentleman went to work making bets he 
was a grand sportsman and actually he did bet several thousands of 
dollars "that she would return by Christmas," and sure enough, down 
the Detroit river, on Christmas, 1835, she came with every rag of 
canvas spread, and rounded to at her dock; making by the trip a very 
large sum of money. 

Betting on his luck, he went on x building the steamer Michigan, then 
the Nile, then the Illinois, then the Michigan again, and finally the 
most beautiful brig that had ever been launched and he grew richer 
and richer, and all was gold that came to the old warehouse of O. 

But the brig went to Buffalo full laden, and after departure a consignor 
came to get insurance on his part of the cargo, when Newberry, having 
faith in his own luck, took a verbal policy on her freight. The brig 
stranded, lost her cargo, and the very moment the news came he settled 
and paid up the verbal policy for thousands. There were no Pembrokes 
in the insurance business in those days, and with that loss his luck 
seemed to turn, and from that time until his death he struggled with 
fortune and fate, and instead of leaving millions to his nephews and 
nieces, like his brother Walter, he left a small estate, part of which,. 
Oliver Newberry like, he gave with Nancy Martin to the Detroit 
Hospital. His brother Walter by the bounty of Oliver died worth four 
millions, tied it up like a miser and just now a court has cut up the 
will and given the property half to the Public Library of Chicago, and 
the other half to the large number of heirs of his brother's. But while 


the name of the one will live so long as the water of Erie, St. Glair, 
Huron and Michigan shall wave, as an enterprising, benevolent, active 
Western merchant, that of the other will be lisped gratefully by those 
who regard wealth as the grand aim and object in life. Oliver New- 
berry from 1836 down to about 1849 was deemed worth millions, but 
he died comparatively poor. 

In his early business career his accounts were kept in a salt barrel, 
his correspondence was scattered through the warehouse like the sybiline 
leaves, and disorder reigned seemingly all through his business, It was 
his wont to carry money and papers in his old straw hat, and in a trip 
around the lakes in 1836, in that splendid old steamer Michigan, when 
playing brag, as he did high and deep, he would take the old straw 
hat off and bring forth hundreds and bet it as indifferently as most men 
would dimes. But in 1832 there came to him from the Hudson, James 
A. Armstrong, one of the most correct, thorough, skillful and industrious 
clerks that ever opened a ledger. Like the brothers Cheeryble, he was 
always at his post, always at his work, always doing good to all around 
him, while the entries in his daybook, journals, ledger and letter books, 
as if engraved in copper, are today marvels of exactness, correctness, 
and without blot, erasure or interlineation. 

From 1832 for many years he was to Oliver Newberry his official 
right hand, his phonographer, letter- writer, his man of all work, and 
the two seemed to be needful each to the other. After many years 
Mr. Armstrong entered the arena of business for himself, and as com- 
mission merchant, cashier of banks, secretary of insurance companies, 
had the varied successes and losses of commercial life in Detroit 
during those disastrous times from 1839 down to about 1862, but in 
commercial success and disaster, in sunshine and storm, he always 
pursued "the noiseless tenor of his way," always bore himself with 
kindness toward all, and malice toward none, and with a conscience as 
clear and life unspotted as his ledger, he went to sleep in 1874, and, 
"leaving on earth no blot on his name," rests now with his old com- 
mander, Oliver Newberry in yon beautiful Elmwood. There let them lie. 
Other men have died richer other men have gone to the grave with the 
full tide of fortune sweeping on; but none ever slept more respected by 
those who knew them best and loved them most. But we must hurry 
along the docks up the river, as our long weary day of 1833 is nearly 

There are the Messrs. Gilletts, Keynolds and Shadrach in the old 
red warehouse devoted to business, honest, hospitable, successful, there 
also Jim and Madison Abbott, in the warehouse of James Abbott, and 


at the dock lies the steamer Uncle Sam, commanded by Capt. James 
McKinstry, of the United States navy, but on leave and doing civil 
duty, and old horseshoer Robinson as mate, with his long hair and 
squeaking voice, who used to order the wheelsman to "port there 
port a leetle, I say." A sort of Yankee fresh water sailor. 

Passing on at the foot of Bates street, I saw standing in the full 
flush of youth, and hope beside, Elliott Gray, and as his then young 
partner, Samuel Lewis, now a silver gray, straight, active, polite, a true 
gentleman of the old school, who is rich, but not spoiled nor penurious, 
who enjoys the goods that God provides him, but never forgets his old 
friends, and whose then young brother Alex., a mere boy about the 
docks, has nearly ended his most brilliant and successful administration 
of Mayor of this dear old city. 

Such was my first day along the docks of Detroit and such the style 
of commission men who then managed the lake commerce of a city 
containing about 8,000 inhabitants now the commercial metropolis of 
Michigan, the abode of 125,000 people, and the spot where millions 
upon millions of the products of this - beautiful peninsula are 

No. VIII. v 

A year has rolled away since our visit along the docks of Detroit, 
and now this morning is May 12, 1834. Still, bright, beautiful and 
soft; for in those times after a brief, dry, crisp winter of about sixty 
days, the ice would go out of Detroit river about March 20; gardens 
were made early in April, and lettuce and radishes shipped hence to 
Buffalo six weeks before gardening began there. Those were* good old 
times when the Indian summer lasted clear up to Christmas, and as in 
1838, plows were going in our prairies and oak lands all winter long, 
and steamboats came and went every month in the year save February. 

It is now nine o'clock in the morning, and directly in front of the 
old Mansion House, then kept by Mr. Boyer, a handsome barouche is 
standing, somewhat overladen with Indian blankets, lunch baskets, 
champagne baskets, trunks and other travelers' baggage, to which 


carriage are harnessed two fine horses, while two extra ones are fastened 
in the rear; and the driver a regular Kentucky darkey, acting as 
purveyor and postilion both, gets ready for the long, long journey to 
Chicago. As an assistant to the driver an Indian boy about twenty 
years old, named Tomma, makes himself busy while the two young 
gentlemen about to depart go into the Mansion House to take a fare- 
well drink and shake hands with all their friends ere they commence 
the perilous journey of six long days across the "Amoenam Peninsulam" 
of Michigan. The one of these two travelers was a very stout, robust, red- 
faced, blue-eyed man, then just twenty-seven, built like a bull buffalo; 
strong, thick-necked, alert, quick as lightning in all his movements, 
dressed in complete semi-Indian traveling costume, as Gen. Schwartz 
called it, with moccasins on his feet, the old Canadian capote on his 
arm, all marking clearly the Indian trader of that day; while his com. 
panion was a pale, slender curly haired young man, just of age, not weigh- 
ing over one hundred and twenty pounds, neatly, rather fashionably clad 
for those days, who, just admitted to the bar in Michigan after a six-hour 
examination in Gen. WitherelFs office on Jefferson avenue, by Judge 
Goodwin, Alexander D. Fraser and Judge Witherell, was now going to 
Chicago to settle and commence the practice of law there. The elder 
one of the two was Major Robert A. Kinzie, who died about three 
years since as paymaster in the United States army; who in 1836 was 
worth millions by his entry on the north side of the Chicago river, of 
the " North fractional section 10, town 4 north, of 3 west," a property 
today worth fifteen millions of dollars, while Major Bob, his brother, 
Major John A. Kinzie, and the entire family, all died poor, save 
Mrs. David Hunter, now living in wealth and ease in Washington; 
and not one foot of the Kinzie addition of 110 acres now remains to 
the family, save an insignificant lot or two to Gen. Hunter. The 
younger gentleman, whose curly auburn hair, light build and flashy 
manner betokened youth and hope, and whose dress and address told 
of one green in the ways of the west, may now be frequently seen, 
with hair white as snow, robust body, weighing one hundred and 
seventy, driving up and down the Union Pacific railway, making him- 
self at home at Grand Jsland, Cheyenne, Laramie, Evanston, in all the 
saloons, visiting all the printing offices, and writing articles for the 
*' mountain press," traveling by stage to the Black Hills, and giving back 
to the road agents fees taken from them in Utah, waiting on the 
courts of Zion for the trial of the great case of Bafes vs. the Church 
of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints, or attending the funeral of 


Brigham Young, and soothing the sorrows of the seventeen widows all 
in deep mourning; or you may find him like Old Mortality, in beautiful 
Elmwood, at mornlight, studying the names and bending over the 
graves of the Bradys, the Larneds, the Coles, the Forsyths, the Kerch- 
evals, of these long gone days, thus finding enjoyment in his memory 
of " by-gones " and companionship with the dead who lie in this 
beautiful abode; and whatever fortune or misfortune may have overtaken 
him he still pushes on full of health, strength, happiness and hope, 
and with energies unflagged and eyes undimmed still sees in the near 
future, now as then, wealth lying in his pathway, and plenty of hard 
work man's greatest blessing until he shall fall asleep with his old 
comrades, and find his resting place among the mountains of Wyoming, 
or Colorado, or, perchance, alongside James Duane Doty, in the cemetery 
of Camp Douglass, at Salt Lake, the most beautiful spot on earth. 

The two travelers enter the carriage, the colored driver and Indian 
Tomma mount the box; and around the departing stylish coach are 
grouped Lieuts. Heintzleman, Center and Berrien in the beautiful 
undress of the United States infantry, Lieuts. Poole, Brush and Sibley 
in that of the* artillery, while Maj. Bob Forsyth of the staff, and Mr. 
Kercheval, all bade us adieu. On the balcony stands Judge Morell, 
large as Washington, Eoss Wilkins, Thomas Sheldon, John Norvell, 
John A. Wells, George B. Martin, John Chester and a great crowd of 
Detroiters to say farewell, and as we start to the west, away from 
Newberry's dock swings the steamer Michigan with her splendid cabin, 
two beam engines low pressure Old Blake, like Neptune on the 
pilot house, and on she plunges like a fiery horse to the eastward. 
We go for Chicago via Ypsilanti, over the old territorial road. "Night 
had long closed in, had let her curtain down and pinned it with a 
star," planets were shining over the deep woods that lay along our 
road for the first thirty miles, when with a broken tongue, a twisted 
axle tree, we reached Ypsilanti. Kinzie and his companion on the 
extra x horses, and the negro and Indian Tomma dragging in what 
remained of Dr. Abbott's $600 barouche. The next day with great 
industry and labor, carried us to Knickerbocker's, where Jones- 
ville now is. The next to Marsh, an old Indian trapper's about where 
Coldwater now thrives. The next at White Pigeon where there was 
quite a settlement; the next at Egbert's, near Door Prairie. The last 
night to a log tavern on the lake shore, where some forty of us slept 
in one room, near where Michigan City now stands, and where, looking 
through the crevices between the logs, we saw a magnificent thunder 
storm, with vivid lightning, on the lake. And finally, on Saturday, 


our sixth day, about 11 a. m., we arrived at Chicago, and on the roll- 
ing ground near Twenty-second street we were met with Indian whoop 
and loud huzzas in Indian-French, by Mark Beaubien, Medor Beaubien, 
Bill Forsyth and other Indian traders, and welcomed to Chicago, then 
having a population of about 600 white people and 6,000 Indians. Our 
ride was delightful, for the woods were all alive with the encampments 
of the Pottowattomies of the lakes and the prairies, and as Kinzie, the 
adopted son of old Billy Cauldwell, their chief, could speak Indian as 
correctly and fluently as English, as we met the beautiful Indian 
maidens, decorated with wild flowers and draped in their most bewitching 
costumes, who with true pioneer hospitality invited ,us to visit their 
encampment, we had one continuous round of feasting and merriment, 
and a new page in the book of life was then opened by the simplicity, 
the generous hospitality and the cordial entertainment by these 
beautiful daughters of the prairies. Last Friday the younger of these 
travelers being called on business to visit the great metropolis of today, 
Chicago, went on board a palace car of the Michigan Central, took his 
seat in a great arm chair, upholstered richly enough for the Queen of 
England surrounded there by many young fashionable lady travelers, 
dressed in modern style, hair frizzed and frowsy over the eyes, like a 
skye-terrier, train long like the ladies of Queen Anne's bed chamber, 
eyelids dyed deep like the femmes of the can-can in Paris, gloves 
buttoned up to the very elbow joints and a dress fitted tight to the 
form like a straight- jacket very becoming in a voluptuous, large, round 
and elegantly moulded woman, but death and destruction to a meagre, 
thin, spare, skeleton like girl with new books every few minutes, 
newspapers and periodicals from all parts of the country, pears from 
California, figs from Florida, oranges from Louisiana, grapes from 
everywhere, in a coach as beautiful as any room in Buckminster Palace, 
servants, conductors, porters, etc., in handsome livery, everything in 
royal splendor, he whirled on to Chicago in nine hours, went to bed 
in the Palmer Hotel, a palace equal in size, splendor, equipments and 
furniture to the Palais Eoyal of France, Balmoral Castle in Scotland, 
or Osborne House on the Isle of Wight; and there, surrounded by 
marble pillars, gilded capitals, frescoes as beautiful as in the Vatican, 
he went to sleep in a city of half a million of people; but all his old 
comrades and companions were gone. The contrast between those two 
trips to Chicago in 1834 and 1877 suggest to our memories the begin- 
ning, the growth and the present condition of the Michigan Central 
railway, one of the grandest, most perfect and best managed routes of 
travel between the Atlantic and the tranquil sea, one bright link in 


the brilliant chain which binds New York to San Francisco, which 
ensures us forever "one country, one constitution, one destiny." 

Everybody, old and young, who has ever studied the topography of 
Michigan, knows that for forty miles in every direction around Detroit 
lies one heavy timbered, level, muddy plain, where the soil is alluvial 
on the surface and a cold, squeasy, heavy clay beneath, through and 
over which, even now, transit is almost impossible. But no one save 
the early pioneers of this region can tell the horrors of travel over the 
same region forty years ago. Through a forest where elm, beech, 
walnut, maple, fir, and basswood sprang to the very skies, shutting out 
the rays of a midday sun, a black, sticky road was cut, and when the 
rush of emigration commenced in 1830, all those highways were cut up 
with slough holes, dug- ways and morasses, through which it seemed 
impossible to drag a stage coach or a heavy laden wagon. Yet all the 
roads leading from Detroit were crowded with them, and it was no 
unusual sight in those days to see in early morning half a dozen 
superb covered coaches starting away, while a whole long day would be 
used up in making Mount Clemens, Pontiac, Monroe, or Ypsilanti, and 
members of the bar, elegantly mounted in going the circuit, would 
spend twelve hours on horseback in reaching the Huron bridge at 
Ypsilanti. Except the road through the Black swamp, from Toledo to 
Lower Sandusky, there were no more fearful and horrid roads to be 
found than all those leading out from Detroit in 1833 to 1837. Not 
unfrequently emigrants were three days reaching Ypsilanti, and a 
loaded team from Ann Arbor to Detroit via Plymouth Four Corners 
and return would occupy nearly a week. Hence, so early as 1830, a 
railroad became the subject of public attention, and in 1832, January 
29, the legislative council passed an " Act to incorporate the Detroit 
and St. Joseph Kailroad Company," and authorized John Biddle, John 
R. Williams, Charles Lamed, E. P. Hastings, De Garmo Jones, James 
Abbott, of Detroit, and sixteen others in the interior, to open books, 
get subscriptions to its capital stock (one and a half millions), and 
build a road from Detroit to St. Joseph, Berrien county, at the mouth 
of the St. Jo river; and now in reading over all that list of twenty-one 
corporators we find that only two are living today, viz.: Hon. Cyrus 
Lovell of Ionia, and Talman Wheeler now of Chicago. "Dead, your 
majesties; dead, my lords and gentlemen; dead, right reverends and 
wrong reverends of every order; dead, oh, men and women born with 
heavenly compassion in your hearts, and dying thus around us every 
day " twenty out of twenty-two. Nothing, however, was done under 
the charter, and in 1835, by an act of the legislature, the time was 


extended two years to open the books and organize under the charter, 
and in July, 1836, in the office of Bates & Talbott, under the old 
Bank of Michigan, three doors east of King's corner, the books were 
opened by a committee composed of Major John Biddle, General John 
R. Williams, Eurotas P. Hastings, De Garmo Jones, Jame.s Abbott 
and Oliver Newberry (General Larned had died of cholera in August, 
1834), and Geo. C. Bates was made secretary pro tern., and John L. 
Talbott treasurer, and the first four subscribers for the stock of that 
road were: 

Lewis Cass, by E. A. Brush $25,000 

John Biddle 25,000 

Robert Smart '. 25,000 

Dr.* Brown.. 25,000 

Total $100,000 

The last two being Siamese Detroit old bachelors, living side by side, 
and so united in heart and soul that whenever one took a drink of 
Scotch whisky the other smacked his lips and took one also, and when 
Brown snuffed, as he did frequently (they were both Scotchmen), old 
Robert Smart always sneezed, and in every business matter when you 
secured the aid of one you had both; indeed, they were a beautiful 
duet in unity, and lived and died almost simultaneously, both glorious, 
penurious, jolly old Scotchmen "all of the olden time," and if you pass 
near their resting place in Elmwood of these beautiful autumn even- 
ings, and stop and listen you can hear their old spirits laughing and 
chatting over the wonderful progress of that great railway begun by 
them, and realize on the night air the odors of that glorious old 
Usquebaugh which mellowed their hearts and made them love each 
other as"natwa" other old crusty bachelors ever did. Well, the stock 
of the Detroit & St. Joseph railroad was taken after much delay, great 
and earnest solicitation by some men who subscribed nothing, and 
liberal subscriptions of Trowbridge, Newberry, Jones, Conant, Major 
Whiting, and that class. Major John Biddle was made president, 
Charles C. Trowbridge, Oliver Newberry, E. A. Brush, Shubael Conant, 
Henry Whiting, J. Burdick, Mark Norris, and C. N. Ormsby, directors; 
John M. Berrien, chief engineer; Alex. I. Center, assistant engineer; 
and Alex. H. Adams, secretary and treasurer, out of which list there 
are just three survivors: Charles C. Trowbridge, Alex. I. Center, of 
New York, and A. H. Adams, the highly respected cashier of the old 
Detroit Savings Bank. Under the auspices of the Detroit & St. Joseph 
railroad company patches of grading and tieing were made between 


Detroit and Dearborn in the summer of 1837, and a large body of 
Irish democrats were employed, whom Jerry Moore, James F. Joy and 
Geo. C. Bates undertook to persuade to vote the whig ticket for 
Trowbridge, Bacon, and reform, but who utterly failed, although large 
meetings were held at Wayne, and Joy and Bates spoke eloquently for 
the ticket, and the two former spent Saturday night and all day Sun- 
day in their railroad camp, parting with them Monday night before 
the election in the full confidence that at least three hundred good and 
true Irish whig votes would be given in the township of Nankin, 
Wayne county, a confidence that was entirely lost, with the votes, in 
the mud of that beautiful township. 

The entire expenditures of this company were, in round numbers, 
$140,000, but no part of the road was finished. 

In 1837 the State of Michigan organized a board of internal improve- 
ment commissioners, and David C. McKinstry, Justin Burdick, Shubael 
Conant and two others three democrats and two whigs were appointed, 
bought out the road and all its franchises, and finished it to Dearborn 
in February, 1837, to Ypsilanti in 1838, to Ann Arbor in 1839, to 
Jackson in 1842, and to Kalamazoo in 1843. Of course the construc- 
tion was in the cheapest, easiest style. Wooden road bed surmounted 
by flat, thin rails, which not unfrequently rolled over the wheels, 
rushed in the form of " snakes heads " through the cars, and as in one 
case witnessed by the writer, impaled a woman to the top of the car, 
as boys do flies with a pin. But the State became embarrassed, as it 
always will in the management of private enterprises, party feeling 
controlled the commissioners, and everything went to the bad, with the 
internal improvement schemes and plans of Michigan. But there was 
here in Detroit at that time, a far-seeing, big headed, sagacious lawyer, 
a man of untiring labor, plucky as a Nemean lion, whose New England 
education and constant daily toil had already placed him in the very 
front rank of his profession, who looking clear away to the great west 
through the shadows of half a century, saw that that rickety, ill 
managed railroad would become the thoroughfare of a million and a 
half of Wolverines, and a burnished link in a steel chain from the 
Atlantic to the Golden Gate of California, and filled with spirit and 
energy and zeal he enthused Boston and New England with his own 
horoscopic views of " the star of empire taking its western way," and 
they being captivated with his thoughts bought out from the State of 
Michigan "the Michigan Central railway, paid $2,000,000 and sent 
John W. Brooks as president, and James F. Joy as solicitor, counselor, 
aid-de-camp, to push on the column, build the road, not to St. Joseph, 


but to Chicago; and to construct it in the most perfect, substantial 
manner, to equip it with engines that should outstrip the winds, and like 
the discovery of Archimedes, having a " place whereon to stand, should 
move the world;" to place on its road bed rails, to give it the most 
airy, comfortable and splendid cars; to furnish weary travelers with 
night palaces as gorgeous and comfortable as the bridal rooms of 
Monte Christo, to put its servants in a superb livery and to make 
them attentive, respectful and kind to all passengers, and behold! you 
newcomers to Michigan, you have them all in absolute perfection. 
" Si quceris monumenium ingenii" circumspice " the Michigan Central 
Railway," and " render unto its master builders the things that are 
theirs." But not only did this young Yankee lawyer press on with fiery 
energy the Michigan Central railway to its natural terminus, Chicago; 
but being there he looked away across the Mississippi, saw the plains of 
Illinois burdened with corn at five cents per bushel. Saw as in a vision 
the beautiful valley of the Platte, 800 miles of garden; and soon he 
organized, equipped, and continued the Michigan Central by and through 
the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Roads to Burlington in Iowa and 
Quincy, in Illinois; paused to take breath, crossed these rivers with 
two beautiful iron bridges, linked up the Hannibal and St. Joseph Eoad, 
and finally brought up at Baxter Springs, in the Indian country, on the 
one hand; then ferried over the Missouri at Plattsmouth, and ended 
substantially "the Michigan Central Railroad" at Fort Kearney, in 
Nebraska, a distance of seven hundred miles west of Chicago. 

The last day of October it chanced that the train crossed the splen- 
did iron bridge from Burlington coming east just at sunrise, and 
breakfast was served in the hotel car. Jo. Miller, the son of old Morris 
Miller the colored gentleman who for years served in the "By-Gones of 
Detroit" as caterer and cook, was head waiter, and his assistants all 
colored boys of Detroit; and there as the sun shot up and down the 
Father of Waters; and a breakfast was served on that beautiful iron 
bridge, whose tracery like a spider's web swung high above the waters, 
giving to all the viands and fruits and coffees and teas of all climes, 
in a breakfast room as ornate and beautiful as those of the caf6s of 
Paris, my memory went back to the by-gones in the beginning of that 
railroad in the office of Bates & Talbott in 1836; and my heart swelled 
with gratitude to the head that had conceived, the energy and ability, 
the untiring pluck, which has eventuated in that superb Michigan 
-Central Railroad from Detroit to Baxter Springs on the one hand, and 
Fort Kearney, in Nebraska, on the other. 

These same Boston Yankees, inspired and goaded on by that driving 


Detroit lawyer now a grey-haired but energetic man have brought 
here and spent over $100,000,000 in the west since his connection with 
this road, and a population of half a million of hard-handed, brave- 
hearted, industrious laboring men engineers, firemen, stokers, track- 
layers, etc. now live along this mighty line, in neat, cosy houses built 
with the money expended through that one instrumentality; and their 
wives and families are fed and clad and educated with the streams of 
money that have flowed through that one single channel from 1846 
down to the completion of this grand work in 1876. 

True it is that we have had short crops; true a great financial panic 
has swept over the land; true, that these roads like all others, New York 
and Erie, New York Central and Pennsylvania Central, have not made 
dividends these last three years; true, they were compelled to cut down 
wages to their employes, and curtail expenses, as all other persons do, 
but what of that? Fifteen millions of people are worth more than they 
would have been without them. Fifteen millions of people ride over 
them; market on them; live on them and through them, and even now 
the increased traffic is filling their treasuries, and increased wages and 
work are making the grand army of employe's happy. 

Your Railroad Commissioner reports that in 1876 the Michigan Cen- 
tral Eailroad (old line) had expended $35,000,000; that its cash receipts 
last year was $5,500,000, and its expenses were $3,500,000, of which the 
taxes paid to Michigan were, in round numbers, $176,000; and the 
muster roll of workmen, independent of the palace car servants, must 
amount to 15,000 people; while in 1846 the gross earnings were only 
$209,300, and total expenses $86,167. "Look on this picture, then on 
that," and see if the mind of man can measure the blessings to the 
Northwest of the Michigan Central Railroad, and the debt of gratitude 
due to its herculean architect, builder and founder. 

But one thing in connection with this great railroad is so novel, so 
extraordinary, so unprecedented as to challenge astonishment to this 
whole nation. Until within the last decade the aphorism has been 
undoubted that in our boasted land of liberty the "sons of rich and lead- 
ing men were rarely worth the powder required to kill them," and facts 
justify the conclusion. In all this land, save in the Adams and Everett 
and Winthrop and Astor families, few are the rich, educated and exalted 
fathers that have ever left sons to succeed them, and the Clays, 
Websters, the Curtis', the Berriens, the Wrights, the Douglass' have, with 
their own lives ended their family pride and history, and fame forever. 

Even among the u by-gones" of Detroit we find scant records of the 
sons of our richest, best educated and most aristocratic friends who 


have ever succeeded to the stations occupied by their fathers. All our 
institutions seem to lead our young gentlemen, sons of rich and exalted 
parents, right straight down to the gutter and the grave. The moment 
a young man realizes here that his father is rich, he too often makes 
up his mind that he is to live a life of pleasure, ease and idleness. 
So he learns to dress well, part his hair in the middle, as donkeys 
always do, to play billiards, ten-pins, keno, cribbage, and to chatter like 
a monkey to silly girls, who, after finishing their education, cannot 
tell the location of a planet in the Heavens or even the latitude and 
longitude of their homes. He drives fast horses, he makes the trip to 
Europe, sees the can-can, drinks Hockheimer and Eudesheimer returns 
and can tell you nothing of art, science, learning, history or business; 
and then he becomes an offensive sot, or falls into the toils of some 
extravagant woman, whose expenditures outgo her husband's income, 
and he supplies the place of the one and pays the bills of the other. 
Such is an ordinary, rich young gentleman. But thanks be to Heaven! 
the Michigan Central Railway has developed an exception so notable 
that it must not be overlooked. We must secure and pin this one 
specimen lest we never find another. 

Nearly thirty -five years ago the late charge to France an elegant and 
accomplished gentlemen " with a wife lovely beyond her sex and 
graced with every charm," returned to Detroit, bringing as infants a 
twin brother and sister the former of whom was so fragile, that nothing 
but Dr. Pitchers heroic treatment ever saved him. He was the grand- 
son of Michigan's most wealthy and exalted statesman the pet of all 
the family. He grew up, was thoroughly educated, traveled and came 
to manhood, marrying in Cincinnati the daughter of a railway magnate. 
But he had sense, he had brains, and today, instead of seeing him 
flaunting along the highway smoking cigars in the presence of ladies, 
driving fast horses, you will, if you go to the Michigan Central Rail- 
way depot find him at work like a giant as its general manager, fixing 
rates of wages for thousands of men, dispatching trains here, there and 
everywhere, now dictating to a phonographer, anon consulting with the 
solicitor, up early, going home at 2 or 3 o'clock in the morning, at 
Chicago today, tomorrow in New York, always at work, plainly clad, 
polite to everybody, but in his whole life and conduct and business 
furnishing the model of a true American gentleman, an educated 
American business man, a man born to wealth and station, who is worth 
preserving, and whose statue ought to be erected of Scotch granite on 
the Central depot, cyclbpeari size, in order that all the young men who 


pass through it should see what a man the grandson of Lewis Cass has 
made himself. 

No. IX. 

Time hath moved its finger along the dial-plate, and now, today, it is 
midsummer of 1835, and the streets of Detroit are all alive with covered 
wagons by the hundred, laden with women and children, articles of 
household furniture packed all around; cows and sheep following and 
led in the rear, and away to the interior they make a long line to 
Oakland, Washtenaw, St. Clair and Monroe, while each morning the 
stage coaches are packed full below, and piled high with passengers 
removing into the Territory. Each day a new steamer arrives, sunk 
clear to its gunwales with freight, its decks literally black with human 
beings men, women and children between decks, on decks, on the 
wheel-houses, all over them and every article of furniture that human 
ingenuity can contrive, or human want demand, may be seen all around 
them. The new counties, Lenawee, Hillsdale, Ionia, Kalamazoo and 
Berrien are filling up day by day with new log houses, saw-mills, grist- 
mills, stores, shops and machine shops. And Michigan is now the 
grand objective point; the " Ultima Thule" of all New England, New 
York, Ohio and Pennsylvania, and from the docks of Detroit clear over 
to Lake Michigan, crowds of people, transported in every possible form, 
"move on." 

But today is a gala day in Detroit, and we shall soon learn why the 
old adage, "Tell me where you live and I will 'tell you who you are'" 
"a man is known by the company he keeps," has, with a slight change, 
a direct application to cities "as well as men," and paraphrased thus: 
"Show me your hotels and I will tell you what your city is," is 
philosophically true. Casting your eye then to the photograpic view of 
the Hotel Woodworth, then kept by Uncle Ben Woodworth, the brother 

of him who wrote: 

" The old oaken bucket, 
The iron-bound bucket, 
The moss-covered bucket, 
That hangs in the well." 

We shall see a specimen of the hotels, the inns, the taverns of Detroit, 
at this early day, where hundreds of new comers, strange faces, were 


seen every night, disappearing in the morning, and succeeded by new 
arrivals during the coming day and night; one living tide, swaying and 
rising higher and higher with each successive day, month and year. 

On the northwest corner of Woodbridge and Randolph streets, just 
below and on the other side from where the old American, now the 
Biddle House, stands, was its site; and there we stand today to recall 
that dear old Stranger's home; and all the hallowed and sacred memories 
that still linger and play around it, and that rise up like ghosts at the 
photographic view, which goes away back to half a century ago. 

When and how early that old mansion was erected there is no record 
of; but that it was the home of comfort and hospitalities, the head- 
quarters of the early pioneers, so far back as 1821, when all the young 
gentlemen who were even at that early day "going West," we do know. 

Built in patches it had grown in size until its veranda facing the 
east was over 100 feet long, and the main building and its additions 
reached clear back on Woodbridge street, nearly twice that depth, and 
.every part and parcel was not only utilized but always full. Dashing 
up Randolph street you will observe a new Concord coach and four 
beautiful grays just now starting for Ypsilanti, loaded up as an over- 
loaded ship, below decks, on decks, on the boot, on the driver's seat, 
with passengers, young, bright, fresh looking men. While just swinging 
around into Randolph from Woodbridge street is another bright red 
coach with superb bay horses, equally laden, on the doors of which you 
read ' Woodworth & Co.," bound for Pontiac, each of which will have 
a hard pull to make their journey, even now in this beautiful weather 
of July, 1835. 

Come a little closer to the front and there you see that same old 
omnibus, having on its white panels and over its door in great gilt 
letters, "Woodworth's Steamboat Hotel," and standing, aiding passen- 
gers to alight, is a stout, red-haired, blue-eyed, very polite young man, 
about twenty- eight years of age, whose green frock coat is buttoned 
very tightly around his person, his dazzling striped pantaloons fitting 
very closely, while a black string and broad rolling shirt-collar gave 
the Byronic appearance to Sam Woodworth, the san of its proprietor the 
major dorno, the man of all work, who accompanied the omnibus to all 
the steamers, whose politeness, affability and knowledge of all men and 
things, made him a very different hotel clerk from the diamond-studded, 
impudent upstarts so common of modern days. Every one, man or 
woman, who ever entered "Uncle Ben's," as the Woodworth House was 
called for short, will remember Sam's suavity of manner, his graceful, 
smiling politeness, smacking a little of Sam Weller's, but still a kind- 


hearted, truly polite and quite well-educated son of a brave old father, 
who, after serving in the capacity of general manager of Woodworth's 
Hotel for years, became possessed of the vaulting ambition to step up 
the ladder and become the master of a steamboat, to stand like old 
Commodore Blake on the pilot-house, pull this bell, then that, and 
shout in loud tones, "Avast there!" "Port, sir!" "Port, sir!" and who 
having purchased a very small steamer, called the Spy, or some such 
non-nautical name, commenced his regular trips to Truax's and New- 
port, down the river and back, all in a single day, touching at Windsor, 
Sandwich, Springwells, Ecorse and all the intermediate points, " wind 
and weather permitting," until one day when lying at the Windsor 
dock, the tea-kettle engine of poor Sam exploded, and the last ever 
seen of him was when he was observed with outstretched arms and 
wide-spread limbs going up higher than a kite, where many of the old 
sailors on the steamers of those days followed him. 

The steamer was split up into matches and what was left of poor 
Sam was followed to the old cemetery Sexton Noble and his pipe 
managing the hearse by all the old habitues of that inn, and no man 
ever deserved more justly the tears that were shed over his remains 
than he did. 

But come, let us enter this hospitable old home and first pay our 
respects to Uncle Ben, a broad shouldered, gray-eyed man, then nearly 
sixty years of age, with very firm lips, mild in his outward seemings, 
but when enraged a perfect old volcano, whose increasing pallor and 
deepening of the wrinkles on his face told of the higher barometer of 
passion within; a great handed, strong, old-fashioned Yankee, whose 
heart was open as the day, and whose industry and cordiality made his 
home the headquarters of all the steamboat men; the pioneers of the 
Straits, and who may be still living today, a fading, weakening old 
by-gone. Having shaken hands with Uncle Ben we pass into the 
barber shop, and behold, here is Wm. Clay, the learned tonsorial artist; 
the cultivated, educated barber from England, a man sui generis, who 
would cut your hair in the very latest fashion, and chop logic with you 
ad interim; who would give you a superb shave, and simultaneously 
discourse on the Greek roots; who would furnish an elegant "shampoo," 
and all the while interest you by quotations , from Socrates, Longinus, 
Thomas Aquinas; who would give you the catalogue of his private 
library where the very finest edition of the Greek, Latin and English 
classics could be found; a man who would make you a wig, and at the 
same time weave you a web of philosophy, of metaphysics and religion, 
that you would carry to your grave; a learned, scholarly, thoroughly 


educated barber, who only went to rest these last few months, and who 
was indeed a marvel of the by-gones of Detroit. 

"When shall we look upon his like again" a scholarly barber; a 
logical wig-maker; a classical hair-dresser; a most learned sharnpooer, 
a tonsorial artist, and an expounder of Greek philosophy, all combined; 
a marvelous conjunction of the vulgar art of living, with the aesthetics 
of the academy, the homely drudgery of every day life, united with the 
beautiful teachings of Plato, Socrates arid Cicero, on the banks of the 

But let us look the Woodworth Hotel over, it will take but a moment. 
'Observe that it is only two stories over the basement; it is plain in its 
construction and model. On entering from the street you find the stage 
office, the bar where in those days one could get a glass of pure Monon- 
gahela whisky, old Jamaica rum, brandy imported from Quebec, that 
had no adulteration in it by-gones now giving place only to liquid 
hell fire, adulterated stuff composed of vitriol, red pepper, fusil oil and 
corn whisky, fit only to make murderers, suicides and maniacs. Then 
came a large sitting-room, accidentally inscribed as setting-room; then a 
large dining-room, all neatly, simply furnished, but all most comfort- 
able; where in the next flight of stairs was the ladies' parlor, a very 
large room which we used to occupy for whig meetings, several large 
double rooms, where you would find not infrequently at least eight 
members of the legislative council, all living and sleeping there. 

The carpets were not velvet nor Royal Wilton, but three ply, softened 
by heavy linings of hay which gave rather frowsy odors to the room. 
The furniture was very substantial, not mahogany; the forks were of 
steel, not silver, and the knives had bone instead of ivory handles; but 
every room and bed in that hotel was year in and year out full. 

In February of each year, after the session of the supreme court 
of the territory, around that table were wont to congregate the members 
of the bar; and the annual bar dinner was given when Judge 
Woodbridge, that witty old gentleman, at the head of the table, was 
flanked by Chief Justice Sibley and Justice Morell, and at the foot sat 
Harry 8. Cole, with Boss Wilkins on his right, and midway between 
the two was Gen. Charles Lamed, one of the most elegant, dashing and 
princely of all that bar, having on either hand George McDougall, the 
father of the bar, and Charles Cleland, its poet, editor, toastmaster, 
while on the other side sat Augustus S. Porter, pulling his nose in 
nervous enjoyment of the wine and wit, when every member was con- 
demned to give a toast, tell a story, make a speech, sing a song or drink 
a glass of salt and water, and when Cleland's last toast was always to 


old McDougall, a legal Jack Falstaff, redivivus, the quandam father of 
the bar, then light-house keeper at Fort Gratiot, and which was always 
drunk standing, somewhat in these words: 

BRETHEBN OP THE BAR "We drink now to the Nestor of our Bar, George McDou- 
gall, who in early life shed the light and brilliancy of his genius over our profession 
in beautiful Michigan, but who now in his old age illuminates the dark waters of 
Lake Huron with his magic lantern, and so guides the tempest tossed mariners 
safely through storms and dangers of the lake down to the silvery streams of St. 

At which three cheers and a tiger were given, heel taps all around, 
and then after a valedictory from Judge Hand, the bar went back into 

But let us hurry on to the new Grand Hotel, the then Palmer 
House of Detroit, the old Mansion House, where all the elite of 
Detroit, the military, naval and civil officers of our government did 
then most congregate. In these "by-gones" the Detroit river in turning 
around so as to swing Sandwich Point, made a huge detour just at the 
foot of Cass street, and sweeping away inland made a second Tappan 
Zee. Its banks at that curve were the Cass farm, the Jones, Wood- 
bridge, Baker and Thompson farms, very high and bold, and Gen. 
Cass' orchard came almost to the edge of the bluff. High up on the 
bank just below Cass street stood this dashing old home, the Mansion 
House, built many years before our visit of today, July, 1885. It wa& 
made of stone some three stories high, with a veranda along its entire 
front and huge pillars reaching clear away to the roof, and then 
extended back some two hundred feet deep. From that veranda you 
could look right down over old Uncle Oliver Newberry's warehouse,, 
across the Detroit iron works, and have an exquisite view of the river, 
the dwellings and gardens at Windsor and Sandwich, down around the 
point, Springwells, and the smoke of the coming up steamer could 
always be seen far away round Sandwich Point. That old porch wa& 
very cool and delightful; and there today you see grouped on the ver- 
anda, young Gov. Tom Mason, so handsome and genial, prim John 
Norvell, Lieutenants Alex. Centre, John M. Berrien, Heintselman, all 
drawn up with rheumatism, Lieut. Poole, Capt. Russell, Major Forsyth, 
of the army, Judge Morell, Judge Wilkins, Thomas Sheldon, Justin 
Burdick and numerous other long-time habitues of this old inn, for 
today was a gala day in Detroit. 

They all adjourn to the bar to drink a mint julep. This is hot 
weather, and we enter and look through the office into the high and 
spacious parlor and the dining room, and where all looks lofty com- 


pared with the Woodworth Hotel, which we have just left. Mr. Boyer, 
the proprietor, whose wife died here of cholera last summer 1834 is 
a heavy, ponderous, sluggy Pennsylvanian, brought here by Gov. Geo. 
B. Porter, who also died of cholera last summer, and the house feels 
sensibly the loss of Mrs. Boyer, the landlady, who was the more active, 
energetic and useful one of the proprietors, while Churchill, then its 
clerk, bar-keeper and > man of all work combined, had none of poor Sam 
Woodworth's cheeriness or courtliness. The records of that old Mansion 
House, if they could be exhumed and read now, would furnish a sketch 
of Detroit, its old citizens and guests that would astonish, interest and 
amuse. Perhaps old mortality will still grub them up, chip away the 
moss and clear off the dust that time has scattered over them. 

On that veranda at midnight, after the wedding of G. Mott Williams 
and the beautiful Miss Mary Strong, stood all our crowd, and saw with 
amazement and fear the first meteoric shower ever witnessed, which old 
George McDougall, Charley Cleland and Eb Canning all declared was 
the feu de joie from Heaven, at the wedding of Detroit's most beautiful 
belle. Poor Mott a good fellow, an honest man, long since gone upward 
where the heavenly shower originated; and his widow still remains, beauti- 
ful in her white hair a cheery, genial "by-gone" lady, a mother, grand- 
mother and noble woman. On that veranda in 1837 Daniel Webster 
was welcomed to Detroit, and in Gen. Cass' orchard afterwards 
graded down by Abraham Smolk, dumped into the river, making some 
seventeen acres of new river front made one of those godlike speeches 
which no other man ever had, ever can or ever will make. 

In the kitchen, directly under the long dining-room in those " by- 
gones," dancing or waltzing parties were sometimes improvised, as 
after the meteoric shower in which the blue pants and white stripes of 
the United States infantry, the scarlet and gold of the artillery, the 
learned lawyers and dashing M. D's. might all be seen mingled in the 
giddy mazes of the waltz with the German and French girls, who at 
other times waited on the tables, performed the duties of femme de 
chambre; and where, at rare times, even judges of the supreme court, 
attorney general and United States court officers were very joyous 
when the partners of the rosy cheeked, blue eyed and beautiful Ger- 
man waltzer of the kitchen department. 

At that dining table during a whole season sat Silas Wright, New 
York's greatest Senator, vis a vis to Judge Morell, wife and daughter; 
Capt. J. B. F. Russell, of the United States artillery, with his gorge- 
ous wife, a blue blooded Peyton, of Virginia; a splendid beauty they, 
too, are " by-gones " who had in her train always, everywhere, repre- 


sentatives of all classes of gay Lotharios; who turned the head even of 
poor old George McDougall, and afterwards George Smith, the Scotch 
banker of Chicago, and who today frightens all her old admirers by 
demanding widow's dower of their homesteads of Chicago. At that 
same table Stephen A. Douglas was not an infrequent guest, then in 
the very beginning of that career not less brilliant than the meteoric 
showers; and there have I seen in brilliant army ct>stume, side by side, 
Gens. Scott, Worth, Wool, McComb, Whiting, Larned, and an army of 
subalterns. And now and then when' Jack Smith and Bill Abbott had 
taken too many juleps would they ride their Canadian ponies up the 
steps, directly into the bar room, and then "en cheval," drink yet another 
mint julep, made of fresh mint and pure Monongahela whisky, just 
touched on its brim with peach brandy and honey . But now " here 
today the glory of this dear old Mansion House departeth, 

"Oh now, forever, farewell; 
Farewell the tranquil mind farewell content." 

Now the Michigan Exchange is opened and all the crowd are now 
about to go there and aid in its christening. So, in fall all the gentry, 
and in double files, led by Gov. Stevens T. Mason and John Norvell 
we march to the corner of Shelby street and Jefferson avenue, where, 
at the door, the entire party are welcomed by Shubael Conant, the 
owner and builder of that then magnificent palace, and by Austin Wales 
and his brother, E. B. Wales, then its proud and youthful landlords. 
Prodigious indeed, is this new grand hotel, one hundred feet front on 
the avenue, the same in depth on Shelby street, four stories in height, 
of pressed brick front with stone trimmings. It begins a new era in 
Detroit. Old times are passing away, and commerce and fashion are 
westward bound today. 

Of the building itself I need not speak. Like the monument of 
Bunker Hill " there it stands, and the first rays of the morning sun 
greet it, and the last hours of the expiring day linger and play around 
its base." 

The dining room in that day was up stairs over the corner store, at 
the conjunction of Shelby street and Jefferson avenue, where Webb, 
Douglass & Company, of Albany, the junior partner of whom was John 
Chester, for many a long year had the first wholesale and retail crock- 
ery establishment. Directly from the street you entered the office, and 
on the right was a large, well lighted, airy, elegant bar, with a mahog- 
any rail, rested on plated silver arms or braces in front, and where on 
this opening day, everybody, young and old, grand and humble, drank 


pure liquors to their heart's content, for then we had no Red Rib- 
bons, " 'tis true, 'tis pity, and pity 'tis 'tis true." 

Everybody shakes hands with Shubael Conant, then a teetotaler of the 
strictest kind, like old Solomon, who 'had found "wine and strong drink 
to be a mocker." Everybody congratulated Wales & Co., and everybody 
drank with everybody, and "all went merrie as a marriage bell." 

Late dinner was served, arBd around that first table were gathered 
John A. "Wells, Geo. B. Martin, Walter Newberry, Rufus Brown, John 
Chester, George E. Hand, Col. Daniel Goodwin, Ambrose Townsend, 
John L. Talbott, Bill Alvord, Morgan L. Martin, while at its head sat 
Judge Conant, a Vermont giant who occupied that same seat until he 
was upwards of eighty years of age and a great number of invited 
guests, including all who came over from the Mansion House. 

The register of that first day of the Michigan Exchange, as Irish 
John used to shriek it out, will furnish over one hundred and fifty 
names of the Detroit guests, and out of all that number not a dozen 
remain to this day to read these "By-Gones," or to recall the pleasures 
of youth and hope there gathered round the first table ever spread in 
that now universally known hostelry. Underneath that old roof lived 
Fletcher Webster, the favorite son of Daniel Webster, and wife, 
Anthony Ten Eyck and lady, Marshal 'I. Bacon and wife,- John A. 
Welles and wife, Robert McClelland and wife and nearly all the quan- 
dam guests of the Mansion House, while Judge Conant, Uncle Gurdon 
Williams, Salt William, Stammering Alph, Young Gurdon, Poor Bill 
Alvord, John L. Talbott, and multitudes of others, either actually lived 
in the house or left it only to die somewhere else. 

Forty-two years have come and gone since that opening day of the 
Michigan Exchange an epoch in Detroit, July, 1835, and of the 
multitudes then in our streets only here and there can you see a gray 
haired man, plodding wearily on, waiting for the carriage that will be 
be his escort to Elmwood but even to this day with its old-fashioned 
front, its simplicity and plainness of outward seeming, whosoever shall 
enter there will find every comfort and care that heart can desire or 
money command. Like the old homes of Detroit its latch string is 
always on the outside, and the weary and dust stained traveler will 
ever find a cordial and hearty welcome. 



No. X. 

"Not faster yonder rowers' might 

Flings round their oars the^spray; 
Not faster yonder rippling bright 
That tracks the shallop's course in light 

Melts in the straits away, 
Than men from memory erase 
The benefits of former days; 
Then strangers go good speed the while, 
Nor think again of the lonely isle." 

"Lady of the Lake" 

Time with his old scythe cutting a wide swathe like poor Joe of 
"Tom-all Alone's" "moves on" and now it is February 18, 1839, and 
Detroit has put on since our last many city airs; is becoming every 
day more and more a mart of commerce, of trade, of manufactures, and 
business. The National hotel has been built by Chase & Ballard, and 
outshines in its lofty front, pretentious style and dazzling new paint 
the Michigan Exchange, and opened under the auspices of Harring of 
New York, is quite the swell house of the city; and it has continued 
to grow and improve, until today it has become the fashionable 
Eussell House, with its multitudinous windows and their variegated 
shades and lofty outlook on the corner of Woodward avenue and 
Michigan Grand Biver avenue. The old Governor Hull house, owned 
by that very prince of gentlemen, John Biddle, has been opened as the 
American hotel by old Mr. Griswold and sons, one of whom, George 
B. Griswold, was a leading democrat, who afterward became a purser in 
the navy, where he died; and after that house had been twice burned, 
it finally arose Phoenix-like, in the present Biddle House, which, under 
the caprices and whims of its lessee, is shut and closed, a great injury 
to business in that quarter, and a strange freak it would seem of a 
long headed business man. 

And with all these rapid changes in business in commerce along the 
wharf, in that little strip of railroad finished to Ypsilanti, whose 
terminus here was just opposite the National, where Lafayette avenue 
joins and terminates in Michigan avenue, on the site of the north 
wing of your noble city hall came the fancies, the whims and amuse- 
ments of a metropolitan western town, and so this day, February 19, 
1839, the Detroit river looking more blue and beautiful than ever in 


contrast with the white SDOW upon its banks, suggests to the young 
men of the city a boat club; and E. A. Brush, James A. Armstrong, 
John Chester, J. H. Farnsworth, Andrew T. McReynolds, Alfred Brush, 
Alpheus S. Williams and Alex. H. Sibley meet and organize the 
Detroit Boat Club, and of course E. A. Brush was elected president 
(he always was on such occasions), and James A. Armstrong was made 
secretary, and this added to his other duties as secretary of the old 
Brady Guards, secretary of the Detroit Dramatic Club of which more 
anon secretary of the Detroit Young Men's Society, gave him employ- 
ment in all his leisure time, and all his books and records were kept 
as if engraved on copper plate and there a formal carefully prepared 
constitution was adopted, and the members then present signed the 
same; but of those first ten subscribers five are gone on their last long 
voyage, while the remaining five as they move on, remind one of the 
old men-of-war's men, in Trinity Hospital or in the dock yards of 
London, who are anxious to put on all the airs and assume the vigor 
and outward and visible signs of Teal young Jack tars. 

But at the next meeting of the boat club, a new and even more 
dashing element appeared in the signatures of John Winder, Isaac 8. 
Rowland, Anthony Ten Eyck, Asher S. Kellogg, Rufus Brown, Wesley 
Truesdail, J. Nicholson Elbert, Alexander Jauden, Col. Deacon, Samuel 
Lewis, D. C. Holbrook, Geo. C. Bates, and Capt. Wm. T. Pease, whose 
character and position at that time gave new features to this young 
bantling. Col. Isaac S. Rowland was soon to be the brother-in-law of 
Governor Thompson Mason, and was now a man of grand station as 
Captain of the Brady Guards. Anthony Ten Eyck was a distinguished 
democrat and lawyer, and was made United States Commissioner and 
counsel at the Sandwich Islands by President Polk. Poor Saxe Kellogg, 
with his hollow cough, his long hair and long, lanky limbs, was the 
partner in the great commission house of Mead, Kellogg & Co. Dr. 
Rufus Brown was a large, cultivated and successful merchant. Wesley 
Truesdail, in the full flush galore and high tide of success as cashier 
of the bank of St. Clair with its business office here, while Elbert and 
Jaudon, brother of the cashier of the United States bank of Philadelphia, 
and Deacon, son of old Commodore Deacon, of the United States navy, 
were young blue bloods, fancy business men from Philadelphia, who had 
just founded a city on the sands ten miles south of Grand Haven, Port 
Sheldon, built an enormous long wharf and hotel there, consumed 
$200,000 and champagne enough to make deep water over the bar of the 
Grand river, bought a superb brig and imported from Philadelphia an 
elegant sail- boat and eight-oared row-boat, for pleasure; but the winds 


came and beat upon the sands, and the waters of Lake Michigan and 
the wild waves of speculation washed away their city, and these young 
gentlemen came to Detroit, where Elbert, a most estimable gentleman, 
died. Years after Jaudon lived on his brother's reputation and his 
own wits and keenness, while Col. Deacon, after a visit to .Paris, 
became a pseudo count, married in Boston the wealthiest belle of the 
" Hub," Miss Parker, traveled in Europe, and finally died instantly by 
bursting a blood-vessel, and Capt. Wm. T. Pease, the handsomest, 
jolliest and the most elegant of all the captains on the lakes, trod in 
nautical pride and glory for many a long year the quarter decks of the 
steamers Michigan, Illinois and Niagara; and when the railways finally 
drove them from the lakes, for many a long season on propellers of 
vast size and capacity from Chicago to Buffalo, until about seven years 
since, he went into dry dock in the custom house at Buffalo, where 
sickening and pining on the land for the lakes, he died three years 
since. God bless him. No more genial, courtly and elegant sailor 
ever trimmed a yard, squared a sail or tripped an anchor than Capt. 
Bill Pease; and no matter whether plunging in Cimmerian darkness into 
a nor'easter with the old Michigan, plowing the waves of Lake Mich- 
igan in November gales on the propeller Fulton, or presiding at her 
cabin table with hundreds of guests, or acting as coxswain of the 
Detroit Boat Club, he was always everywhere, and at all times a 
superb careful sailor, and a true American tar and gentleman combined. 
Such were the men who thirty-eight years ago united as the Detroit 
Boat Club, and bought in New York for $225 an eight oared barge, 38 
feet long, which was originally intended to go to England as an American 
race boat, and which today, after her long maritime service, swings at her 
davits in the splendid club house at the foot of Joseph Campau avenue. 
But, of course, the first thing to give eclat and dash to this new sport- 
ing club, was a striking, stunning, sailor-like uniform, and on April 10, 
1839, the following was adopted: A chip sailor hat covered with white 
linen and broad black band, sailor pantaloons of white duck, with black 
belts around the waist, shoes with low, sewed heels, white socks, black 
silk neck handkerchief knot, shirts, a blue ground with white figure 
and broad square collar, coat of Kentucky jean; and if these new young 
aquatics could have seen in this natty and sailor like uniform, these 
by-gone boatmen Armstrong, Chester, Jaudon, Elbert, Count Deacon, 
with Capt. Pease as coxswain, E. A. Brush and Eufus Brown as bow 
oarsmen; and that heavy boat shooting up the Detroit river filled with 
beautiful lady guests on a moonlight night at the rate of ten miles 
per hour and observed the uniformity, steadiness and length of their 


stroke, they would have realized that in these latter day contests the 
old "Detroit Boat Club" may well repose upon it honors and laurels 
now in the long gone by-gones ere the new young oarsman of today 
were born. 

" Tall trees from little acorns grow, 
Large streams from little fountains flow." 

And no better illustration of this or the rising grandeur and glory of 
Detroit can be found than is furnished by this brief record of the 
beginning of the Detroit Boat Club, a generation ago. 

In May, 1843, Wesley Truesdail bought from Alexander Jaudon the 
club boat, so called, of the Port Sheldon Company. And this was the 
last and only of the assets of that grand western speculation that had 
spent $200,000, and exhausted 500 baskets of champagne in the vain 
effort to rear and build a city where a few Dutchmen have come long 
since, founded Holland and made a grand success. This new boat 
carried six oars and was a model of beauty and speed for those days. 
A perfect water nymph a sylph. And she, too, now after an existence 
of thirty-seven years, swings at her moorings in the club house, super- 
seded by the lighter, gayer, and more fashionable shallops and shells 
of modern clays, just as our beautiful belles of that period have given 
away to these dashy, smart, and fresh young girls, and have become 
mothers and grandmothers. 

In the by-gones on Hog Island now known by the more elegant 
and euphonious name of Belle Isle, in honor of the then Miss Isabella 
Cass, now the Baroness Yon Limburg, of Holland, for whom one hundred 
and twenty mail contractors at Baltimore in 1843 swore by the Eternal 
" they would vote for as President of the United States" the club univer- 
sally passed its Fourth of July, and then on the 3d a detachment was sent 
to clear away grounds, pitch marquees and tents borrowed from the army 
and there they entertained among their guests Misses Isabella Cass, 
Emma Schwartz, the Misses Griswold, sisters of Purser Geo. R. Griswold 
of the navy, and all the elite of Detroit society; and there Maj. Eobert A. 
Forsyth and Henry S. Ledyard were always assigned to the duty of 
brewing a big bowl of sailor punch, half-and-half, a duty that was per- 
formed to the satisfaction of everybody; and toasts were drunk to the 
memory of George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and so 
.on down to Gen. Harrison, in successive goblets, filled to the very 
brim, and just tipped and touched on the edge with pineapple, rum 
and arrack. 

There, on July 4, 1841, the guests of the day were Gen. George M. 
Brooke and his handsome adjutant, George Deas, who married Miss 


Garland; subsequently went with his brother-in-law, Gen. Longstreet, 
into the Confederate army, and, after the rebellion, broke down and 
died of a broken heart. Gen. Brooke, Colonel of the Fourth Infantry, 
was that gallant old Virginian hero who, in 1813, at the sortie of Fort 
Erie, opposite Buffalo, when the American batteries were shooting wild 
because they could not find the locality of the British troops, volun- 
teered and took a large glass lantern lighted under his military cloak, 
crept on his belly inside the British lines, quietly clambered up a beech 
tree, tied the lantern to a limb and instantly dropped to the ground 
and ran, while a hundred cannon blazed away at him ineffectually, and 
he came safe back to camp. He was brave as Ney, gallant as Murat, 
and a most elegant old Virginia gentlemen. Today Belle Isle is the 
abode where in summer the young men of society congregate, where 
good dinner, music and dancing, flirting, picnicking and sporting and all 
the refinements of society, all the elegancies of fashion, all the enjoy- 
ments of cultured life may be found; but of these club men only here 
and there remains an antiquated specimen. Its president and elegant 
secretary, the coxswain and bow oarsman and all the Philadelphia 
attaches have long since mingled with their mother earth "Dust to 
dust, ashes to ashes." But let us see now what has come from this 
small beginning and few grains of seed sown on the Detroit river in 
the by-gones of 1839. 


In early summer it happened that chance medley brought here one 
of the original members of that old club; and falling into the hospita- 
ble hands of one of its present members, a son of Virginia, born akin 
to the great Hunter stock of the mother of presidents, an invitation 
was hospitably given and cordially accepted to go to the new quarters, 
at the foot of Joseph Campau avenue, and had he found there the 
palace of Aladdin and the genii that inhabited it his surprise could not 
have been greater. A beautiful house in the Italian cottage style, is 
built clear in and over the waters of the Strait; and as the river mur- 
murs and gurgles and ripples along its base, one would imagine himself 
on the Grand Canal in Venice, and there in the basement sheltered 
from storms and winds, hung the two old boats, and some half dozen 
new ones of all sizes, models, shapes and names; while in the inner 
dock swung at anchor a beautiful yacht, reposing on the river like a 
swan, a perfect nautical water witch, whose tapering masts, sharp bow, 
rounded stern and huge canvas, reminded one of the pirates of the 
West Indies, and whose furniture and entire rig bespoke nautical skill, 


aquatic taste and wealth to maintain it. Ascending to the reception 
rooms on the second floor a scene was presented that again carried one 
to Venice or the Golden Gate, for looking in every direction save one, 
you saw the deep, deep blue of the Straits, whose surface was dotted 
all over with shallops, shells, barges, tugs, sloops, brigs, propellers, 
wherries, ferries, and old-fashioned steamers, and on going still higher, 
away across was Sandwich, and running your eye up and down the 
Straits, you saw that Detroit since 1839, the birthday of this club, had 
spread like a matron growing old and broad, until from Hamtramck 
clear down to Fort Wayne, more than five miles, was one continuous 
dock where propellers, steamers and vessels of all descriptions lay along- 
side them discharging -and receiving their cargo and in this amateur 
sailor's home were carpets, elegant furniture, engravings, pictures, prizes, 
models, fancy oars, and a superbly furnished ladies reception room, 
where fairy fingers had draped and arranged the flags and curtains and 
signals of all the boat clubs of the land, and where doubtless many a 
brave, young sailor boy has told his love, sailor like, to every successive 
pretty girl whom he met there, for land sailors are like water sailors 
who fiud a new sweetheart in every port or place they go to. 

Since the organization of that first club its muster roll has grown 
by hundreds, embracing many business men and men of wealth, and 
its property has increased by many thousands of dollars. While 
inspired by its example and stimulated by its success, no less than 
ten different boat clubs are in the directory of Detroit today. And all 
over Michigan other young men have followed their example and have 
organized clubs of their own, until a small navy could be improvised 
in a week on these lakes, of brave, dashing, gallant young sailor boys. 
Nor is this all, on the 5th of August last, Detroit was the scene of 
the grandest regatta, the largest congregation of boat clubs ever seen 
on this continent. Young athletes, splendid fellows in their stylish 
club costumes, with shells and barges, gathered here from every part 
of our country from the Saskatchewan in Pembina, the Big Muddy, 
the lakes of Minnesota, the rivers of Kansas, the Atlantic cities; from 
Cleveland, Toledo, Erie, from Saginaw Bay, from La Pleasance Bay at 
Monroe, from the Hudson, the Susquehanna, the Delaware, the Kenne- 
bec, the Penobscot and the Connecticut, from Baltimore and Norfolk, 
all in one grand struggle for the splendid prizes of Detroit manufacture. 
The skies were dark, the clouds hung, heavy nearly all the regatta 
week. Kain fell daily, but what cared they, young bloods, full of life, 
strength, pluck, vigor and hope, for rain? Sailor boys expect it live 
on the water struggle on the water battle on the water as brave 


soldiers do on the land and win or lose those beautiful classic prizes by 
the water. So day by day when the call sounded, rain or shine, these 
young naval heroes bared their bodies to the fight, and as in the 
Olympian and Isthmian games, where Alexander told his father he too 
" Would contend if kings were to be his competitors," they pulled and 
rowed, they struggled and strove, in the presence of thousands of 
witnesses as if their lives, their country, their liberties, their honors, 
were at stake, and the conquerors received the cheers, the plaudits and 
the huzzas of myriads of men, and the smiles, and braves and bouquets 
from a grand amphitheatre of beautiful young women, that would have 
rewarded Napoleon at Austerlitz, Grant at Richmond, Sheridan at 
Shenandoah, Sherman at Chattanooga, Hooker at Lookout Mountain, 
and would, with their witcheries and beauty, their youth and 
sweetness, have stayed and tamed even Sitting Bull and his Sioux 
warriors in their terrific strife on the Tongue river with the heroic 
Ouster and his gallant " six hundred." 

This pencil, which brings back the "by-gones of Detroit" forty 
years ago, remembers no such scene- in the past, and it trembles even 
now with the wild excitement of that spirited struggle and those 
shouts and cheers, that joyous, heaven- ringing applause. How the 
Detroit river, as blue as the straits at the Golden Horn; as gorgeous 
and beautiful as the Golden Gate in the tranquil sea did respond and 
laugh in hearty conjunction with those bright, beaming, rosy-cheeked 
girls; and how these old gray hairs did curl and tremble, with the futile 
wish that they were young again, now, as in the by-gones and the vain 
thought that our antiquated Detroit Boat Club might once more pull 
an oar before such a congregation, and win a prize; to be petted and 
rewarded by the cheers and smiles, the plaudits and praises of such a 
vast crowd of brave men and sweet women. 

The only reward that these young conquerors obtained was a prize 
to be kept as the crown of olive was after the Olympian games, and 
the return home of those aquatic heroes was like unto that of the 
Boys in Blue on their return from the battle fields of the Republic, 
and in painting, in poetry, in The Daily Free Press, of Detroit, and 
the press of our nation, their deeds and conquests, their achievements 
'and victories are embalmed in the hearts and memories of our whole 
people. "True it is, and pity 'tis 'tis true," that our old Detroit Boat 
Club carried off no prize in that grand regatta, received no cheers and 
won no crown of olive; had no smiles from youth and beauty, but like 
a dear venerable mother and grandmother of the "by-gones," it was 
proud to remember that but for its early efforts no club would have 


been organized, no regatta have come off; no prizes have been won; no 
applause hate been heard, and that it now pledges with renewed zeal, 
new coaching and training to beat the whole sporting world at the 
next grand regatta in Detroit. 

No. XI of the "By-Gones" will embrace life photographs of the 
by-gone merchants of Detroit and their young successors, men of 1832 
to 1836. 

No. XI. 


Old time moves its hand backward on the dial plate to 1833; the 
morning of the 14th of May, when youth sat at the helm, hope spread 
her sails and passion steered the way of the young adventurer to the 
then "Far West" from Canandaigua, "Old Ontario," to Michigan; 
and up and down the broad avenues Jefferson and Woodward and 
along Larned, Woodbridge, Congress and Griswold streets, the young 
emigrant with eager eye, studies the shops, the stores, the trading 
houses, the saloons, the eating houses, the market places and the 
markets of Detroit, and peers in here and stops there to study the 
faces and manners, the stocks in trade, the articles of barter and 
exchange which the merchant princes of that day the old traders and 
manufacturers offered in the market. 

And memory, today, will renew and restore some of these most 
interesting and intelligent merchant princes, who before this May, 
1833, have by daily toil, by strict honesty, and the utmost economy, 
accumulated what, even in these fast days, would be considered large 
fortunes, and which, seeking investment in the. old French farms of 
Detroit, left such large estates as the Campaus, Morans, Desnoyers, 
Beaubiens, Williamses, Conants, Coopers, Cooks, Jones, and all that 


Bear in mind, please, you young merchants, that in those "by-gones" 
a trip to Montreal or New York, to purchase a stock of goods, con- 


sumed, from the hour of setting out to the arrival of the stores, from 
three to six months; that the purchaser must leave here ill February, 
cross Canada in the old French "carryall," and after some two or three 
weeks reach the marts of commerce, either in Montreal or New York, 
whence all the supplies came; that then in- the spring, after the ice had 
gone from the Hudson river, these goods must travel on the Erie 
canal (after 1826) and reach Black Rock some time in June, when 
they would be shipped on the old steamers like the Ontario, the Clay, 
Sheldon, Niagara, Thompson, and Pioneer, and would not, even with 
their speed, reach Detroit before midsummer; while anterior to 1826, 
when the Erie canal was first opened, they were wagoned from Albany 
to Buffalo by ten or twelve horse teams attached to huge covered 
wagons with tires as broad as the brim of a Quaker hat, traveling in 
grand caravans of a hundred in line, and which consumed from one 
month to six weeks in their transit to Buffalo. Of course stocks of 
goods in those early days were laid in for a whole year, and were 
bought so late as in 1836 from Pearl street merchants, at three, six, 
nine, twelve, eighteen and twenty-four months' credit, which was very 
rarely even abused or betrayed by these old merchants, whose shades 
are here gathered around this pencil, chatting, smiling, and laughing over 
a memory that mirrors them, all their persons, characters, habits, 
dress, and address as if today were that same bright, beautiful May 
day forty-four years ago. 

In those by-gones respect to age and veneration thereof, was taught 
to all the young and it was beautiful to see youth and beauty cluster- 
ing around the grandfathers and grandmothers of those old Detroiters, 
and joining in all the hilarity, the frolics and the dances, where beaux 
of eighty and ninety years danced the minuets and contra-dances and 
Virginia reel with blooming, beautiful young girls of sixteen to eighteen. 
So we begin with our visit today, as in duty bound, in the order of 
age, and pay our respects as we pass along, not in order of success 
and wealth, but in that of time, who furnished us his calendar. On 
the corner of Bates street and Jefferson avenue we call and find 


the same of whom we have hitherto spoken, with cheeks like the 
moss rose of summer, eyes sea blue, and that genial, sunny smile, and 
here he is. Coming in you can find all kinds of French and Indian 
goods, Mackinaw blankets in grand perfection, rifles, guns and pistols of 
all sorts; calicoes, beautiful, dashing, but all decidedly Frenchy; beads 
of all kinds for young girls, matrons, grandmothers, and Indians; 


rosaries of every kind, price and shade; moccasins beautifully orna- 
mented, boots, shoes, sugar from Mackinaw; hardware of every shape, 
and a general stock, such as in those " by-gone " days were always 
here. But "Grandpapa" Desnoyers is now very gray, stoops a little 
and laughs a great deal, is rich, and so this shop demands little of his 
time, and was soon swept away by the grand rush of young business 
men from the east to the west. 

Crossing the avenue to where now stands the Williams block we find 


the partner being Gen. John R. Williams, both straight as arrows, 
both very tall, and very talkative; both perfect gentlemen of the 
olden time, who always saluted their friends with an earnest, bon jour, 
bon jour, mon ami, all ladies by lifting the hat from the head, and 
paying the same honors to the bishop, priests, judges, and officers of 
the army; both capital business men, who for half a century bought 
their business supplies from Montreal and Quebec, and sold them here 
to les habitans, the bons ciioyens of France, and the pioneers from the 
States. Barney Campau was a hard working old Frenchman, while, 


was a most precise, dashing, elegant old gentleman, who, in perfect 
dress, an elegant gold headed cane or in the full dress of a brigadier 
general of the militia, attracted the attention of all the boys and the 
raptures of all the young ladies fifty years ago. That he was held in 
high esteem by all the citizens is evidenced by the fact that he was six 
times elected mayor of Detroit. He also commanded the contingent of 
troops from eastern Michigan in the Black Hawk War. They both 
worked very hard, lived very well and hospitably to a period of life past 
eighty and then died, leaving unto their families rich legacies, and 
their undivided estates today would compare well with the young 
millionaires of 1832-36, of whom by and by. 
But here comes along the street 


of the firm of Mack & Conant, a Vermonter, now well on to forty- 
eight, fully six feet high, a massive, well-built old gentleman. His 
hair is very white, his cheeks, too, very red. 

His large, gray eye tells of energy and courage, while his mouth, full 
of superb teeth, expresses firmness, persistence and success. His arms 


are long, hands very large. His feet are large, and whenever he puts 
down his foot there it stays. A long time ago he came from Windsor, 
Vermont, and backed up by Thomas Emerson, a veritable curiosity, a 
banker, a fur dealer, merchant and everything else. 

Conant & Mack have dealt largely and successfully in furs, have made 
money, and Mack has gone to Pontiao, Oakland county, while Conant 
is nursing his vast real estate, preparing to build the Michigan 
Exchange; going out to the ten thousand acre tract to shoot deer and 
wild turkeys; attending all the prayer meetings in Parson Well's old 
Presbyterian Church, for like Solomon of old, he has, after a long life 
full of the good things of life, now found in old age, that all is "vanity 
and vexation of spirit." Conant sat at the head of the table of the 
Michigan Exchange until he was nearly ninety years of age, and not 
unfrequently, at eighty years of age, striding his old gray mare, rifle 
in hand, and, on very cold winter days, beating up the whole ten thousand 
acre tract for deer and wild turkey. But finally the trumpet sounded 
and dividing his large estate among the children of his brother, for 
he was a sturdy old bachelor, and left no children, he answered roll 
call, and leaving on earth no blot on his name, he went to join his old 
Detroit comrades in their happy hunting ground, where all is peace 
and rest. 

Some years before him, his old patron, 


the unique, of Windsor, Vermont, preceded him. His personal 
appearance and address was the duplicate of old Mr. Pickwick, blue coat, 
brass buttons and gold headed cane, while he himself, was the most 
testy, phthisicky, nervous, excitable old gentleman,' that ever lived, and 
when his "red ribbon" was off, as was very often the case, the wealthy 
old banker would dance and rave like a madman at any losses or 
delays in business. He had a customer here, 


of the firm of J. & T. Palmer, the exact opposite, " Uncle Tom," as 
everybody called Mr. Palmer, was a huge Vermonter quite six feet 
in height, weighing over two hundred pounds, with a very red face, watery 
eye, over which hung a pair of steel mounted spectacles, through which 
he scarcely ever looked. His movements were slow and sluggish; his 
conversation was pleasant, but very quiet, and he took everything very 
easy and quiet; especially business, trade and payment of debts. He 


was a most honest and upright man, dealing in everything but money, 
which he seemed really to contemn. Furs, rat skins, coon skins, skunk 
skins, beaver, otter, fox and wolf skins, shingles, lumber lands, lots and 
mortgages; whitefish, salt, apples, and peaches, everything that walks 
on the earth or swims in the lakes, "Uncle Tom" Palmer would buy 
or sell, provided the boot, as he called it, was paid in dicker, and he 
waxed and grew fat and old, and when he died, left a large estate to 
his heirs. But while the inventory of his estate showed property of 
all and every kind, there was but a small amount of cash. He 
dickered on to the very last, and, if he left a last will and testament, 
he disposed of everything which man can use, save only money. 


Well, among the estates of Thomas Emerson, banker, etc., in Wind- 
sor, Vermont, in 1834, which was dated way back to the oldest 
by-gones, on which there were many indorsements of payments made 
as below: 

Eeceived on this bond January, 1820, in coon skins $100 00 

Received on this bond January, 1821, in shingles 50 00 

Eeceived of Thomas Palmer May, 1831, in fish 100 00 

Eeceived of Thomas Palmer May, 1832, in lath and boards 75 00 
And so on, but the last two years there were no payments. 

Now in July, 1834, there swept over Vermont, Windsor especially, a 
wave of religion, and Thomas Emerson was one of the "brands snatched 
from the burning." Immediately he became one of the most earnest 
of all in that town, and turning his back on the gold and the silver of 
his bank, he prayed earnestly, most zealously and most sincerely. 

It will be remembered that, that same year cholera broke out with 
absolute malignity here, cut up our people root and branch, and thirty 
days decimated the population. On the 16th of August, 1834, thirty- 
seven persons died from this dreaded disease and everybody was horror 
struck. That evening it happened that Harry Cole and another by-gone 
met in Dr. Rice's office just in the rear of" the now First National 
Bank, to inquire what the news was; when Dr. Rice very emphatically 
responded that everybody was dying and would die, that in 1832 he 
had bled all his patients and cured them all "but this year" said he, 
" every patient I have bled has died, and all my patients are dead." 
Everything was very blue and silence prevailed until Cole drew from 
his pocket the following extraordinary letter addressed to him by the 
now pious and good Thomas Emerson: 


WINDSOR, VERMONT, August 12, 1834. 
Henry E. Cole, Esq., Attorney at Law. 

MY DEAR HAL I am rejoiced to say to you, that the Lord hath been among 
us here in Windsor; that a day of Pentecost is here, and that there has been 
an outpouring of the Holy Ghost, and that I have been snatched as a brand 
from the burning. " I am now laying up all my treasures in Heaven where neither 
moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through and steal." 
Oh, Hal! how I wish you and our old friend, Tom Palmer, might see the 
error of your ways. By the by, Mr. Palmer has not paid his interest on that bond 
for nearly two years; now I learn that " the pestilence is stalking at noon-day " 
among you, and we know not how soon you may go. Mr. Palmer ought to set- 
tle that bond. You, and he too, ought to prepare for death, and he ought 
certainly to settle that bond at once. Oh, Hal, if God would open your eyes; 
and Mr. Palmer, surely he will pay the interest on that bond now. I pray 
nightly and daily for you and Mr. Palmer; and trust he will pay the interest 
on this bond. 

That the Lord will guard and keep you, dear Hal, and my friend Palmer, is 
our constant prayer; but do make him pay the interest on the bond. I will 
take furs, shingles, lumber, apples, fish, or anything he has. God bless and pre- 
serve you both, but please do not let Mr. Palmer forget to pay the interest on 
the bond. 

Your devoted friend, 


With twenty-five cents postage prepaid, this unique missive came r 
after a week's voyage to Detroit. Harry Cole and Thomas Palmer both 
survived the cholera, and Emerson's bond was all paid and canceled 
long before Mr. Palmer took his ticket of leave. 

But we are still on Jefferson avenue and at the corner of Griswold 
street, where Ives' bank now stands, Dean & Hurlbut, Jerry Dean and 


are in the saddle and harness business, the latter of whom, a sturdy, 
strong old by-gone, who, having become rich and a director in the 
Second National Bank with all its young and wealthy managers, tramps 
on as forty-five years since, with a steady, quiet, old-fashioned pace, 
with a kind word, a cordial shake of the hand and a warm greeting to 
all his friends. 

Although one of Detroit's oldest merchants, he is the youngest 
Eoman of them all and is even now the active man as president 
of the Water Commissioners, in completing Detroit's last and 
greatest works. Chauncey was once a great fireman, wielded the 
trumpet and manned the brake with vigor; but the new machines have 
ended that long ago; and now a man of reputation, of wealth, of clean 
hands and pure heart, he bides his time and works while he waits for 


the wagon. His partner Jerry Dean, slipped his cable long ago, and 
is now floating o'er unknown seas and fathomless oceans. 
On the avenue, diagonally opposite that corner, is 


that nice, precious old gentleman, whom accident brought across the 
writer's path in April, 1876, about two months before his death. Those 
same spectacles, which were there in 1833, were there on his nose, that 
same wiry form; neat, prim, precise; dress, always black, always very neat; 
the same earnest manner, the same quiet dignity, the same strong 
Puritanic religionism marked him in that last day as forty-three years 
before. He had grown very rich and accumulated bonds and riches up 
to the millions; still that same plain old brick house on Michigan 
Grand avenue was still his home, as it had been for half a century ; its 
modest furniture, orderly arrangement, and perfect neatness telling the 
peculiarities of its master. The quiet lady-like wife; the only son a 
clergyman, well educated, studious, hard working, close, and economical, 
like his father; the other brother, George Cooper, gone by an accident, 
just after he came to manhood; all was like a change of scene at a 
theater, as David Cooper stood in front of the beautiful monument to 
the valor and blood of our boys in blue, directly opposite that splendid 
city hall, and discoursed on Detroit as it was that spring morning 1838. 

He was ripe and ready, for during all his life, while he was close, 
careful, economical some would call him penurious justice and truth 
were his handmaidens, integrity and honesty were his jewels, For seventy 
years David Cooper was a Detroit merchant, yet he never failed in 
business, oppressed a debtor, or defrauded a mortal of one single penny. 
A devoted religionist, he shaped his whole life in accordance with his 
views and teachings, and exacted of others, so far as he could a con- 
formity therewith. While he was not a gentle, yet he was a truly good 
man, and if there is a heaven above us "and that there is all nature 
cries aloud," then David Cooper is registered there in mercantile prac- 
tice as " A No. 1." 

But we cross Jefferson avenue again and here we salute and shake 
hands with 


an old Knickerbocker from Albany, very pale of face, looking 
always wearied and sickly, a most careful, correct business man; but 
timid, always scolding at fate, always afraid of banks, yet always specu- 
lating in their assets and bills, a man of weak constitution, very 


devoted to his business, but somehow, like " poor Joe " he could not 
move on, and so, although a man of means, owning his own brick 
house opposite the Exchange, and occupying, as his store, a brick build- 
ing where the First National Bank now stands, he died after loosing 
almost everything he had in the crash of the " Wildcat banks" of 1841, 
and 1842, and of 1848. One of his sons went away from here and has 
been lost sight of for many years; the other Capt. Charles E. Wendell, 
one of Michigan's bravest sons, died gallantly on the field of battle 
" Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori" 

But we have swung around the circle and are now at 

j. L. KING'S 

clothing store, corner of Woodward and Jefferson avenues, where on the 
first day of life in our new home, in the basement, we took nice 
coffee and pickled sheep's tongues with Capt. Charles M. Bull and 
Frank Desnoyers; and today, in looking up a business man, we saw 
apparently the same wild turkeys, quails, partridges, and saddles of 
venison which hung there forty-three years ago. But Mr. King, after 
having clothed all the sailors, white and black, on the docks, all the 
French from Ecorse, River Rouge, Sandwich Point and Monguagon, 
all the frogsters of Hamtramck and Springwells; after having encoun- 
tered all the financial panics and bank failures from 1837 to 1877, 
changed his place of business some time since, and still lives on earth 
to sell clothing as of yore. 

Half a block up the avenue was 


then a successful hardware merchant, then president of the Michigan 
State Bank, who built the first very elegant brick dwelling on Jefferson 
avenue, where Mrs. James A. Van Dye now lives, furnished it with 
princely splendor, gave a grand house-warming in 1837; but afterwards 
was swept away by the financial flood of 1844-5, and died in compara- 
tively straitened circumstances. Next to him in the same block was 


a strong, square, very hard-working, prudent, and very economical dry 
goods merchant, who beginning there in 1818, kept on in the "noiseless 
tenor of his way," always hard at work all the week, always in the 
Presbyterian church on Sunday; whose unpretending home on the avenue 
was always the seat of real hospitality without any of the flame and flash 


of modern entertainment, but that hospitality that always had a plate 
for a friend, an honest shake of the hand for a neighbor, and a 
cordial "God bless you" for those who met under his roof. He, too, 
left a handsome estate for his heirs, some of whom with their children 
make up a number of the families of Detroit today. 


One more call and our day's visits are over. In a small wooden, 
one story building, where Masonic hall now stands on Jefferson avenue, 
between Griswold and Shelby streets, was the store of Levi Cook, a 
perfect, childless old giant, some six feet three inches high, with a 
bald head and with a wig always awry. He was three times mayor of 
Detroit; the Grand Master of the Masonic lodge; the Grand High Priest 
of the chapter, a man who believed and practiced Masonry as it then 
was, as a bond of fraternity, unity, and brotherhood of man; a roaring 
whig, a good story teller, a very careful, prudent trader, who made money, 
kept his money and his lots, and left a handsome estate to nephews, 
nieces, cousins and kin, and then went to the Masonic heaven, " That 
house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens." 

And just at this moment plods slowly along, with trembling steps, 
sunken eyes and shriveled face, 


long before 1833, engaged in hard work in Detroit, in the soap and 
candle business. The sun shines bright this morning, and he looks 
around dazed and amazed like old Rip Van Winkle, after his return 
from the mountains, at the large banking houses, this new city hall, 
and he seems lost in all this bustle and noise of today. He coughs 
heavily, his eyes weep, and his voice trembles as he says: " I am now 
eighty years old, 1 am almost the sole survivor of those old, old mer- 
chants who were here long before your time. The others are all gone 
and I must soon follow." A true Christian and an honest man, he is 
ready and willing. " Let the drum beat, his knapsack is swung." 

We must pause here and reserve the generation of 1832-6, the 
McGraws, Buhls, Baldwins, Batons, Sheleys, Farrands, Carpenters, a ad 
all the other youngsters for our next, when like Othello, we " shall 
speak of them as they are and nothing extenuate or* set down aught 
in malice." 

But in taking leave of our old by-gone friends, let us not forget to 


remark that not one of these men ever made a fraudulent failure, or 
ever went into bankruptcy. They were humble men; but, thanks to- 
God, they were all gentlemen. 

No. XII. 

Once more time advances, and this is now May, 1836, and since our 
last three of the most important and interesting years in the history 
of Detroit and Michigan have intervened; and both have advanced 
nearly a century in that seemingly short space of time. First and 
foremost, the convention of 1835, to form a constitution for the State, 
has sat and the constitution been adopted. The election of State 
officers, members of the legislature, and county officers, under the new 
State government, has been accomplished, and the entire machinery of 
the State has been put in motion, although not yet admitted into the 
Union, and all these newly elected officers are only waiting for the 
event to become possessed of all the honors and emoluments of their 
varied positions, while Senators Norvell and Lucius Lyon, and Bepre- 
sentative Isaac E. Crary are dancing attendance on congress, asking 
in vain that Michigan shall be permitted to take her seat as the 
youngest, fairest and brightest of all the daughters of the Union. 

Another important event is just now being felt all over the great 
west, and in Detroit especially, for the removal of the deposits from 
the United States Bank in 1833, and their division and distribution 
among the state banks by the order of President Andrew Jackson, 
and according to the creed and views of the great whig party, contrary 
to the constitution and' laws of the United States, but Gen. Jackson , 
"by the Eternal!" has resolved to do it, and as he was the soul and 
heart and head of the democratic party, they, to a man, not only 
defended and justified it, but rejoiced over it. 

The vast accumulation of deposits hitherto in one conservative 
national bank, was distributed by Eoger B. Taney, then secretary of 
the treasury, among the pet state banks, all of which were owned and 
managed by democratic bankers, and they were encouraged and advised 
to furnish facilities to their customers and clients; and the result was 
that paper money became almost as cheap as wild flowers on the 


prairies, and speculation of all kinds grew rife, especially in lands, 
city lots, town plats, as since then in 1870-73, and prices of all kinds 
advanced, even in wild lands, until prices that spring were as high in 
Detroit as they are today, and property on Jefferson avenue and the 
Cass farm was bought and sold by the foot front as high as now. 
The property opposite the Michigan Exchange was built by Messrs. 
Trowbridge, Farnsworth and Col. Whiting, and rents there and under 
the Michigan Exchange itself, were much higher than on this very 
day. Myriads of capitalists rushed from the East, bringing money 
which they put into wild lands all over the State, in fabulous sums, 
and Horace H. Comstock, Justin Burdick, and even Arthur Bronson, 
the closest, most penurious rich man in New York, bought lands by 
the thousands of acres; and even in old-fashioned, quiet Detroit, all the 
light headed and enthusiastic young men became crazed by the fortunes 
made by the purchase and sale of unimproved real estate here in one 
twenty-four hours. The walls of the Michigan Exchange, the National 
hotel, the American hotel, Uncle Ben's, and all the other hotels of 
Detroit, were papered over with plats, maps and diagrams of new 
cities, from Lewis Goddard's city of Brest, clear over to Port Sheldon 
on the shores of Lake Michigan; and Col. Edward Brooks as auctioneer, 
and Major Stillson his great rival, sold each day towns, cities and lands 
in which, like the "eye- water" of Col. Sellers, there were "millions 
in it." And Stillson himself laid out a town on Lake Huron, called 
White Bock, mapped it beautifully, and sold at auction a whole 
village where a seventy-four gun ship could ride at anchor over the 
chimneys of the hypothetical houses. 

Men bought real estate and did go it blind as the sporting men 
play poker. This real estate mania is exhibited in this most extraordinary 
statement of the value of land sold at the land offices in Detroit alone: 
In 1833, $214,389.77; amount sold in 1836, $1,845,207.16; making only 
in three years this difference, $1,630,817.39. While the other land 
offices at Monroe and Kalamazoo were equal in their increase, and 
Thomas C. Sheldon, receiver of public lands at the latter place, and 
Dan Waters at Monroe, used to bring their money to Detroit to 
deposit in the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Michigan in great 
bags, as they do wool now, sometimes counting up to nearly half a 
million of dollars. Everything seemingly was on the mountain wave 
of success, as in 1870-3, and one had only to obtain the refusal of a 
piece of land on Jefferson avenue and tu find a purchaser, who was 
always at hand, to become rich in a single summer. 

So wild and wayward did these purchasers become that between May, 


1834 and May, 1836, even the writer, a young, curly haired enthusiast, 
had made and had in the bank $17,000 on the purchase and sale of 
lots in Detroit, when in no single case had the deeds been made to 
him. But he had secured the refusal at a certain price, then sold it 
at an advance and pocketed the difference. Of course all silly fellows' 
heads were turned and the old "by-gone" felt that he was a second 
Nicholas Biddle, and that in a short time his estates in Detroit would 
equal the Astors of New York. So he used to fancy that he would 
build and endow a university, found a hospital, or perform some other 
equally benevolent feat. 

Nearly everybody became wild and extravagant on the strength of 
fancied wealth; at the hotels champagne took the place of water, and 
bottles popped and cracked like pistols in California. Horace H. 
Comstock and other real estate millionaires drove $10,000 spans of 
horses, and small brick buildings on Fort street were sold at higher 
prices than the same property would bring today. While the sale by 
Gen. Cass in July of this year, 1836, of his farm lots on ten years' 
credit, brought prices as high as they would have done on the last fourth 
of July. As an evidence of the prevailing madness, let it be stated 
that in July, 1836, a company composed .of Walter L. Newberry, 
Morgan L. Martin, George B. Martin, John A. Wells, Wm. H. 
Townsend and George 0. Bates, was formed to buy the Beeder farm 
at Springwells, for $150,000, to lay out a city there, as a rival of Detroit, 
make a grand shipyard there, and to make fortunes for all these young 
nobs, but that same old Eeeder title, still in the courts, prevented a 
consummation of that grand financial scheme. 

But while the streets were full, and the hotels full, and the land 
offices were full of such financial sellers, the young merchants of 
Detroit of that day, with here and there an exception, were level-headed 
and being possessed of sterling principles, sound judgments, discrimi- 
nating minds, they foresaw the future bankruptcy and explosion, of all 
this speculative folly, and so they avoided it, as a tidy man would pitch 
his tent and quietly settle down to their legitimate business; working 
hard, living economically, eschewing all extravagance and prodigality, 
turning neither to the right or the left, always paying as they moved 
on, until Detroit today presents to the world a band of successful mer- 
chants and wealthy business men which has no equal either in Buffalo, 
Cleveland, Toledo, Chicago, Milwaukee or any other city in the United 
States. Is this exaggeration or is it reality? Is it fancy or is it fact? 
Mark you now we confine ourselves to the young business men of 1832-6, 
now gray haired, staid old millionaires of sixty-two to seventy years, 


men who have, one and all achieved success, not merely in the acqui- 
sition of wealth, but also in everything else that they have ever under- 
taken to accomplish. We need not stop, today, to demonstrate the 
practical philosophy of the remark that " nothing succeeds so well as 
success," and that in this boasted land of liberty, where all are on a foot, 
of equality in the beginning, while estates are not entailed and cannot be 
tied up beyond three lives, "the only standard of man's capacity is what 
he finally accomplishes here during his life." We all stand equal in 
the race, and none but the wisest, the most industrious, the most hon- 
est and temperate win in the end. In casting your eyes today over the 
wealthy, successful and really great men of this nation, you will find 
ninety-nine out of every hundred of them " self made men " like your 
Detroit merchants, while here and there the son of some wealthy or 
exalted family, like the Adams, the Winthrops, the Cushings of New 
England, the Astors and Vanderbilts of New York, may take up the 
lines and business of their fathers and carry them on successfully. 

Emerging now from the basement of the old Bank of Michigan, four 
doors east of King's corner, where the office of Cole & Porter was, and 
had been for years, and turning toward the Michigan Exchange, the 
first mercantile house of importance in 1834 was that of 


Mr. Chandler was then just of age, was very tall, as now, and had come 
from New Hampshire to begin the journey of life. Of course he 
brought with him energy, life, industry, and a thorough training in 
the New England school of business and morals, and also a small pat- 
rimony, which was subsequently increased by the death of his brother, 
who died young of consumption. No man e